Free Essay

Events

In: Business and Management

Submitted By amymilnerxx
Words 6804
Pages 28
Impacts 08 Team Dr Beatriz García, Director Tamsin Cox, Interim Programme Manager Sonia McEwan, Programme Assistant Document Reference: Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia (May 2009) Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events

Measuring the Impacts of Large Scale Cultural Events: A Literature Review

May 2009
Report by Floris Langen (University of Glasgow) and Beatriz Garcia (Impacts 08)

Impacts 08 is a joint programme of the University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University Commissioned by Liverpool City Council

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

Table of Contents
1. Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Introduction: measuring the impacts of large scale cultural events ................................................................ 3 3. Major cultural festivals and events ................................................................................................................. 3 4. Cultural mega events ..................................................................................................................................... 5 5. European Capitals of Culture ......................................................................................................................... 7 6. Discussion ...................................................................................................................................................... 9 7. Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................10

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

1. Summary
This paper offers an overview of studies measuring the various impacts of large scale cultural events. Fifty studies from both academic and consultancy backgrounds are assessed, with a focus on the methodologies used and the types of impact assessed. The study concludes with a discussion of key trends and research gaps.1

2. Introduction: measuring the impacts of large scale cultural events
As the range of cultural festivals and major cultural events has grown over the years, their impacts have increasingly come under the scrutiny of funders, policy-makers and planners. Various evaluations and more indepth studies have found that large scale events have a variety of potential impacts, including economic, social, cultural, political, physical and environmental ones. What is more, these impacts are not always necessarily positive, but can be negative as well, or have a positive effect on one dimension (e.g. economic) while having a negative effect on another (e.g. environmental or cultural). Much of the literature studying event and festival impacts builds on the early work in the area of event tourism, in which Getz (1997), Ritchie (1984) and Hall (1992) are the most often cited authors. However, these studies are not specifically designed to measure the impacts of cultural events, and their methods have mostly been applied to sporting events. This review therefore specifically assesses the available literature dedicated to measuring the impacts of large scale cultural events and festivals. It is not so much concerned with the outcomes of these studies as with a discussion of the types of impact studied and the methods used. For this reason, conceptual studies or commentaries have not been taken into account, unless they included a discussion or example about how to measure impacts. The review does not claim to be exhaustive but aims to give a general overview of the scope of studies and the preferences in research topics and methodological approaches. The main focus is on research undertaken in the UK over the last 15 years (1993-2008), but relevant studies from the EU and the rest of the English speaking world have been included as well. A total of 50 publications were identified, which were consequently grouped according to size of event type. 2 Of these, 16 studies looked at major cultural festivals, defined as multi-annual events with an international reputation, built over a period of time. A total of 14 studies were dedicated to cultural mega events, typically large scale, short-term events with a one-off nature, which attract the largest range of participants and media coverage. A further 20 studies were dedicated to the impact of the European Capital of Culture event, which arguably takes up a position in between the first two.

3. Major cultural festivals and events
Studies of the impacts of major cultural festivals mostly take the form of event evaluations carried out for organisers or funding bodies, which seem to function primarily as evidence of the positive economic value of
Acknowledgement: An earlier version of this paper was published in Arts Research Digest 45, Spring 2009. Keywords: impact measurement; mega events; major events; cultural festivals; European Capital of Culture. Suggested reference: Langen, Floris and Garcia, Beatriz (2009) Measuring the Impacts of Large Scale Cultural Events: A Literature Review, Impacts 08 Background report [online: http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Dissemination/I08reports.htm] 2 The initial search included a wider focus on all festivals and events, ranging from small community festivals to recognised 'mega' events. Excluding sporting events (except for those specific cases where the focus of the study was on the cultural component of the programme), studies of single small-scale events such as concerts or performances, and the impacts of (parts of) the cultural sector as a whole, a total of 117 publications were identified. By far the largest number of this focused on small scale, local and regional festivals and events (50 studies), while 17 studies were found to have no clear focus on one type of event. Of the latter, half were studies dedicated to the impact of specific sectors or regions; the rest were concerned primarily with discussing methodological issues, but did not connect this to any specific typology of event.
1

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

3

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

the events. The most common approach in these studies is the analysis of visitor expenditure data in order to determine the direct, indirect and induced contribution of the event to the local or regional economy. Data is typically collected from a variety of sources, including visitor surveys, box office data, and stakeholder interviews. Baker and Associates (2007), in an assessment of the economic impacts of the Glastonbury Festival, expand on this 'general' approach by pointing out the less quantifiable economic impacts, such as trading opportunities for not-for-profit organisations and the contribution of the festival to local entrepreneurial culture. Data for this was gathered mainly through stakeholders interviews. Snowball and Willis (2006) take a significantly different approach. In their (academic) study of the South African National Arts Festival, they use Choice Experiments (CE) to value the utility visitors derive from various sections of the festival. They argue that this methodology is particularly useful for estimating benefits of the various aspects of the festival and how these are differently valued by the audience. A detailed comparison of four existing economic impact studies of major festivals in the UK and Spain by Vrettos (2006) found that all studies used different methodologies and justifications, especially in relation to the multipliers used. While all studies reported positive impacts, none questioned whether these impacts occurred because of the artistic or rather the social nature of the festival. Only one study noted that the net effect of the festival could be negative as well; however, no attempts were made to calculate the monetary value of any of the possible negative impacts (e.g. litter, noise, criminality). A case study of the impact of various types of sports, culture and business events on Korean undergraduates' attitudes toward Germany, by Woo Jun and Lee (2008), seems to show an interesting contrast between the impact of sports and cultural events. Both sports and general art events were found to positively influence attitudes towards the brand Germany, but no effect was found for business events and cultural festivals. However, the value of this study is limited as the events chosen to represent the two latter types turned out to be relatively unknown to respondents. As a result, the study offers no hard evidence of specific impacts associated with specific types of events, and concludes that only internationally renowned events impact country brands. Some of economic impact studies identified the need for additional research on social impacts. For instance, a report on Manchester's Pillar Events by Jura Consultants (2006) notes a major research gap in understanding the indirect impacts of major events upon host communities, and point out that the intangible or less easily measured outcomes or outputs are „often ignored or poorly dealt with‟. The authors argue for the use of focus groups „to develop understanding of cultural networks and impacts on industry and the effect on audiences, etc‟, and furthermore suggest that such impacts are probably best studied through a longitudinal, multi-year approach. However, it has to be noted that some studies that claim to go beyond the assessment of local economic impacts in fact offer little more than some general observations based on a limited methodology. For instance, the evaluation of the Ghent Festivities by the Centre for Tourism Policy Studies (2003) claims to assess the economic, physical, functional, social and cultural effects of the event, but in reality is mainly concerned with quantifiable economic benefits. Examples of impact assessments that do pay significant attention to non-economic impacts are found in studies by Morris Hargreaves McIntyre and Arts About Manchester (2008), who evaluated the achievements of the Manchester International Festival against its set aims, objectives and targets (which included certain social impacts), and Hamilton et al. (2007), who carried out an evaluation of the Highland Year of Culture, focusing on economic, social and cultural impacts before, during and after the festival year, using a range of qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, surveys, focus and discussion groups and press impact analysis. One of the focal points of this latter study was the impact of the variety of 'Highland 2007' events on Gaelic speakers and on school children in the Highlands and Islands region of Scotland, as well as the legacy of the year's programme.
Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

4

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

Mason and Beaumont-Kerridge (2004) have examined visitor and residents' attitudes towards the economic, socio-cultural, environmental and political (community) impacts of the Sidmouth International Festival, using visitor surveys and focus groups with local residents during and after the festival. This study contains an extensive discussion of earlier publications and concludes that 'the majority of festival research has tended to ignore or at least play down the other impacts that can be classified under the headings of environmental, sociocultural or political‟. Similar criticism can be found in the work of Carlsen et al. (2007), who explicitly call upon other festival researchers to 'move beyond economic impacts in order to understand the complex and comprehensive set of benefits and disbenefits associated with festivals'. Writing on the Edinburgh Festivals, they argue that the cultural, community and social benefits of major festivals have not been systematically studied, while they point at the limitations of focusing on more narrow economic outcomes, such as comparability, reliability, and utility of estimates. As an alternative, they propose an „inclusive research agenda', focused on 'the benefits of the festivals for the arts, culture, community, economy, society, and stakeholders'. Only two studies were found that did not include any reference to economic impacts. Snowball and Webb (2008) examine the value of the National Arts Festival of South African in the country's transition to democracy, presenting the festival as an arena for the expression of political resistance. They have carried out a historical, qualitative study, which considers not only how the festival served as an outlet for the expression of political and social resistance, but also its role in maintaining and producing national cultural capital. As such, this study is primarily concerned with social and cultural impacts. The same can be said for Pattison (2006), who discusses how the city of Edinburgh has profited both socially and culturally from its festivals. This publication is based primarily on semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, and presented in the context of a discussion on urban regeneration.

4. Cultural mega events
By far the majority of studies on the impacts of mega events are related to the economic impacts of mega sporting events. While sporting events have been left out of the scope of this study for reasons of scale, some of these have included specific cultural strands in their programme, which in themselves are relevant here. In the context of the more general impact studies on the wider events, these programmes have received very little attention. For instance, the evaluation of the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games (FaberMaunsel et al. 2004) contains only a brief reference to Cultureshock, the cultural programme developed in conjunction with the Games. Similarly, the cultural component of the Olympic Games is noticeably absent from most Olympic impact studies. However, a small number of studies was found to focus on the cultural components specifically. In the context of the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games, two studies evaluate the impact of the Cultureshock programme. Andrews (2003) assesses the programme's performance and evaluates its shortterm impact on cultural organisations, audiences, city and region, addressing in particular the programme's impact on social changes at the personal and organisational level. The findings are based on a series of qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, questionnaires completed by attendees and non-attendees, and a review of monitoring forms. In a second evaluation of the programme (García 2003) the focus is on assessing the cultural programme's structure of management and design rationale, and its ability to respond to defined aims in terms of community (and diversity of) engagement. This evaluation also assesses the programme's impact on audience development, levels of investment and art-form development within the region, by contrast to the sporting programme. The methodologies are mainly qualitative, focusing on stakeholder interviews, focus groups and participatory mapping techniques with young event participants. In an earlier study, García (2001) assesses the marketing impact of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Arts Festivals. This paper, which reports on a four-year study of media clippings, concludes that the activities were marginal
Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

5

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

to the mainstream promotion of the Olympic Games and that the event was thus perceived as a separate programme, which limited its impact amongst Olympic audiences. Other studies by García on the Olympic cultural programmes focus on policy and management issues but do not discuss methodologies for impact assessment other than noting the need for further evaluation (see García 2008). Popma (2004), the only other publication on the impacts of the Cultural Olympiad, assesses the potential impact of the 2010 Cultural Olympiad and the Olympic Arts Festival on the host community of Vancouver, as well as the potential benefits for the local cultural sector. This assessment is based on a „lessons learned' approach, building on a review of existing documentation and literature on previous Olympic arts events and other Hallmark events on local arts and culture, as well as interviews. While the number of studies on the impact of cultural events taking place in the context of mega sporting events is small, the portion of studies looking at cultural mega events on their own is not significantly greater. One event that has attracted a (relatively) fair amount of attention has been the World‟s Fair or Expo, with five studies taking a number of different approaches to measuring different kinds of impact. A study by Dimanche (1996) on the long-term legacy of the Louisiana Expo of 1984 is probably the most-often cited studies on the subject. Although primarily concerned with economic impacts, Dimanche also attempts to measure impacts in other areas, including tourism, the community and the physical infrastructure. Crucial to this study is that it is one of the first to employ a longitudinal approach. While most economic impact studies examined measure short-term economic benefits, Dimanche argues that a long-term approach is better suited to measure the benefits of mega events like the Expo, since events of this type often require very large initial investments which are likely to negatively influence the economic impacts in the shorter term but can reap benefits after five to ten years. Holmes and Shamsuddin (1997) also take a longitudinal approach in their evaluation of the effects of the 1986 Expo on demand for tourism in British Columbia. Their methodology is based on multivariate statistical models, time series analysis and consumer demand theory, and uses records of US visitors as indicators of the long-term tourism impacts of the event. Two publications have measured residents‟ perception of the impacts of major cultural events in Korea. Jeong and Faulkner (1996) measured the positive and negative perceptions of the 1993 Taejon Expo one year after the event, in order to examine the extent to which the benefits and costs associated with the event impinge upon the immediate community. They argue for the importance of measuring residents‟ perception studies, stating that the question is not so much whether or not benefits outweigh the costs, but who benefits and who bears the costs. According to them this is especially important in the case of mega events, which due to their scale can have a profound impact on the lives of the resident population. Lim and Lee (2006) compare the same event with the Gyeongju Biennale, assessing the community‟s perceptions (both positive and negative) of the socio-economic impacts of both events after the lapse of some time. Their long-term approach builds on social exchange theory and the concept of 'willingness to cooperate'. The starting assumption of the study was that community members will evaluate events as either positive or negative in terms of expected benefits/costs deriving from the services they supply. A study on Expo ‟98, by Edwards et al. (2004), makes use of in-depth semi-structured interviews, supplemented by a review of general and academic literature, to establish the event‟s tourism impacts as perceived by a number of key players in the host city of Lisbon‟s tourism industry. They find a number of positive impacts that are believed to be related to the hosting of the event, such as more efficiency in tourism promotion and an increase in self-confidence and belief in abilities, but stress that this is only a preliminary study, and that more (longitudinal) work is required. Another mega event that has been studied in a number of publications is the MTV Europe Awards ceremony held in Edinburgh in 2003. The local economic benefits of the event were calculated by SQW (2004), with a focus on measuring new or additional expenditure generated as a result of stimulated increase in demand. Data for this analysis was collected through desk research, face-to-face interviews, and a wider consultation programme including telephone interviews. Reid (2006) discusses how the possible use of the event as a
Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

6

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

vehicle to re-brand Edinburgh as a „young‟ tourist destination was an important element in the political rational to host the event. He points out that while the economic benefits of the event were apparent, the indirect benefits of being able to „showcase‟ Edinburgh and Scotland were the most appealing to public officials. However, this study does not include any measurement of the events‟ impact on image or tourism. In a second study, Reid (2007) addresses community involvement in the event. He concludes that although political rhetoric spoke of extensive local involvement, this in fact remained rather marginal. This study was based on semi-structured interviews with key public events organisers, telephone interviews with representatives of MTV, local press and the Scottish pop industry, as well as a content analysis of local and national newspaper reporting and national television coverage. One shortcoming, however, is that the thoughts of local young people are not examined, as Reid acknowledges. Finally, a specific economic impact study has been carried out by Martins and Serra (2007). In their working paper, they analyse the impact of a large number of international sporting and cultural events on the stock markets of their host countries, by analysing abnormal stock market returns around the dates on which announcements were made of the winners of bids to host these events. The events taken into account here included 11 world Expos, 10 specialised exhibitions and 30 European Capitals of Culture.

5. European Capitals of Culture
The European Capital of Culture (ECoC) takes up a space in between the two types of events discussed above. While it appears very similar to large scale international cultural festivals in terms of programmatic elements, in sheer terms of scale the ECoC certainly can be described as a „mega‟ event. Furthermore, although events can take place over the course of one full year it can be regarded as a one-off event, as each city holds the title only once. The ECoC is generally regarded to play a key role in enhancing image, attracting tourists, and generally stimulating urban regeneration (see e.g. Balsas 2004), but not many attempts have been made to measure the impact of the events themselves. A key publication on the subject, by Palmer/Rae Associates (2004), reviews the impact of 29 cities that held the title of ECoC's between 1995-2004, and aims to examine their long-term legacies through online questionnaires completed by organisers from each city, interviews with correspondents from each city, and an analysis of publicised materials. The study argues that the ECoC title is seen as powerful tool for cultural development, but that not enough attention has been paid to ensuring its role as catalyst for sustainable change, in terms of social and economic improvements. It emphasises that more attention should be paid to ensuring long-term gains, although it does not specifically discuss the measurement of such a legacy. Richards and Wilson (2004), noting that very little attention had been paid to the image-effects of cultural events, have evaluated the impact of the ECoC status on the image of the city of Rotterdam, employing a survey of resident and non-resident visitors to measure the short-term effects, combined with in-depth interviews with policy-makers and cultural managers to assess longer-term effects. An extended version of this study, by Richards, Hitters and Fernandes (2002), also includes findings on Porto, the second ECoC in 2001. Another example of a study that examines the effect of the ECoC designation on a city image is García (2005). This study of Glasgow's year as ECoC in 1990 specifically evaluates the success of the event as a model for culture-led regeneration and argues that the changes to local image and identity are its most important longterm legacy. This study specifically looks at often-dismissed „soft indicators‟, such as media and personal discourses, and uses a multi-method approach based on a longitudinal analysis of press content, face-to-face interviews, a small scale survey, and focus groups with representatives of cultural/political/business groups. The methodology employed to assess impacts on image and interrogating media narratives in the context of Glasgow 1990 is discussed in more detail in Reason and García (2007). A comparable study has been carried out by García (2006), which uses a longitudinal analysis of national press coverage to analyse the first 7

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

indications of the impact of winning the ECoC title on the external image (representations) of the city of Liverpool. Hughes, Allen and Wasik (2003) use semi-structured interviews with key players in the local tourism and culture sectors to assess the perceived effects of the ECoC designation on the city of Krakow on local tourism and cultural life. The study was not so much concerned with „the actual impact in terms of measurable or quantifiable outcomes', but the authors argue that even measuring distorted perceptions is relevant, as they influence attitudes and behaviour. In a similar fashion, Boyko (2008) has studied the impact of the ECoC programme on place meanings for the local community in the city of Bruges, using a mail survey and interviews. This study was concerned mainly with the social, physical and psychological effects of the event on the resident population. It found that many locals saw the impact of the event in negative terms, as they felt that local residents, ideas and culture were disregarded in favour of a focus on tourists. The study thus concludes that events such as the ECoC may reinforce negative meanings by not serving residents. As was the case with other large scale events, some studies focus directly on the economic impacts of ECoCs. Richards (2000), although not concerned with the assessment of any specific event, uses desk research on previous ECoCs to analyse the extent to which these events were successful in stimulating economic development. His study finds much evidence of short-term increases in visitor numbers and spending, but remains inconclusive on longer term benefits. One study that is particularly concerned with short-term economic impacts is Herrero et al. (2006). This uses a measurement of direct expenses, indirect expenses and induced effects to estimate the short-term economic impact of Salamanca 2002. ERM (2003) is the only publication found to make an assessment of potential economic impacts (i.e. prior to the event). This study also attempts to assess possible social and cultural impacts. Of all the cities to hold the title, Liverpool's reign as ECoC in 2008 has attracted by far the most attention in terms of research output. Most of this has been carried out in the context of the „Impacts 08‟ project, which is the most extensive programme of research to measure the various impacts of any ECoC to date. The programme takes a longitudinal approach to measuring various impacts of Liverpool‟s year as ECoC, with a starting point in 2000, well before the announcement of the event, and is set to continue until March 2010. Impacts 08 (2007a) describes the development of a longitudinal model for cultural impact assessment and provides the baseline against which the social, economic, cultural and environmental impacts of Liverpool's ECoC programme are to be measured. A wide range of aspects is taken into account, including economic impacts and processes; the city's cultural system; cultural access and participation; identity, image and place; physical infrastructure and sustainability; and the philosophy and management of the process. Annual updates are prepared on all benchmark indicators (e.g. Impacts 08 2007b, 2008a), as well as updates of 'core' messages summarising key economic, cultural, social and environmental impacts in the lead-up and during 2008 (Impacts 08 2007c). Economic outputs of the project build on work by Sapsford and Southern (2007), which sets the baseline on which to measure changes in the sub-regional economy, and include a number of follow-up studies on smaller sections of the local and regional economy, using a range of methodologies (postal surveys, in-depth interviews; semi- and unstructured one-to-one interviews). Other published Impacts 08 research to date considers social and cultural impacts on local narratives of the city (Melville, Selby and Cliff 2007), impacts on media representation (García 2006) and impacts on stakeholder engagement and relationships (O'Brien and García 2008). In parallel to the Impacts 08 research, an evaluation by West et al. (2007) has identified the year's potential positive and negative impacts on the mental well-being of those directly and indirectly affected by the programme, through a series of workshops with a wide range of stakeholders and key informants, community profiling and existing research evidence.

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

8

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

6. Discussion
Hall (1992) has argued that environmental, socio cultural and political effects are probably more important than economic ones, but have tended to be ignored because festival organisers and councils commission research to get economic data, socio-cultural impacts are less easily quantifiable, and research concerned with sociocultural effects may find results that are „less politically palatable […] particularly if what might be regarded as negative consequences, such as increases in crime or conflict between locals and visitors, are seen to outweigh the perceived economic gains‟.3 To a certain extent, this observation seems to hold true for studies of large scale cultural events as well, with economic impact studies clearly dominating the literature. Of the 50 studies included in the review, just under half focused almost exclusively on economic impacts, while another 16 studies offered assessments of economic and social impacts combined. Of the 16 studies on major events, nine were commissioned evaluations; all of these focused on economic or mixed socio-economic impacts. The vast majority of studies assessing non-economic impacts were published in an academic (i.e. noncommissioned) context, while only two commissioned studies were found that did not look at economic impacts – with the exception of studies carried out under the Impacts 08 project, which takes up a middle position between consultancy and academic research. Most strikingly, the environmental impacts of large scale events (as distinct from other physical impacts, such as infrastructure) remain a virtually untouched subject matter. Mason and Beaumont Kerridge (2004) suggest that negative unintended or unplanned environmental effects, such as litter and traffic congestion, are „likely to be downplayed by festival organizers, promoters and pro-event local politicians‟, which leads to them being under-studied in this context. In general, negative impacts were discussed by only a small number of studies, all of which were published in an academic context. This seems to indicate that most studies, whether carried out by commissioned consultants or independent academics, set out to show the positive value of events and festivals. A number of studies have noted the lack of clear methods to measure intangible socio-cultural impacts. As the overview shows, qualitative methods such as surveys and focus groups, stakeholder interviews, participatory mapping techniques and documentary reviews are most commonly used for this, However, some studies have attempted to bridge this gap by combining qualitative methods with more quantitative ones (e.g. García 2005, 2006 and 2007). This issue has come to the fore on a much wider scale within the area of small scale community festivals and events, where a growing number of studies can be found dedicated to developing tools to measure the economic, social and environmental impacts of festivals (see e.g. Fredline, Jago and Deery, 2003). In many of these studies, small scale events serve as case studies to test the validity of the methods developed, which might indicate that some of these methods can potentially be applied to large scale events as well. Finally, the main research gap noted in report recommendations is the lack of attention for long-term impacts. A number of studies, particularly those of an academic nature, have noted the inappropriateness of the traditional focus on short-term economic impact research. While the majority of studies, especially those carried out as commissioned work, still involve primarily ex-post assessments of impacts, some of the studies considered here do stretch over a number of years, typically starting some time before the event and ending some time after its ending, which suggests that this issue is progressively being addressed. Despite the frequent reference to gaps in the available literature, the heightened visibility and ever increasing interest in hosting cultural events, be it on a large, medium or small scale, is having an effect on the range and quality of research approaches. Since 2000, studies are diversifying and longitudinal research, as well as multi-dimensional methodologies – beyond the economic sphere – are becoming more common and expanding beyond the academic environment. This situation calls for a follow-up literature review on this still
3

Hall (1992), 315. Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

9

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

young but quickly expanding subject matter for impact research so that we can ascertain the improvement and diversity of available literature in this area.

7. Bibliography
Andrews, N. (2003). Cultureshock, XVII Commonwealth Games North West Cultural Programme. Evaluation report: impact on organisations, audiences and the city/region. Manchester: Arts Council England, North West. Baker Associates. (2007). Glastonbury Festival 2007 economic impact assessment. Shepton Mallet: Mendip District Council. Balsas, C.J.L. (2004). City centre regeneration in the context of the 2001 European Capital of Culture in Porto, Portugal. Local Economy, 19(4), 396-410. Base Line Research and Survey. (2008). Tourism and the business of culture: the views of small and medium sized tourism enterprises. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Boyko, C.T. (2008). Are you being served? The impacts of a tourist hallmark event on the place meanings of residents. Event Management, 11(4), 161-177. Brookes, F., & Landry, C. (2002). Good times. The economic impact of Cheltenham's festivals. Stroud: Comedia. Carlsen, J., Ali-Knight, J., & Robertson, M. (2007). ACCESS - a research agenda for Edinburgh Festivals. Event Management, 11(1/2), 3-11. Centre for Tourism Policy Study. (2003). Study of the Ghent festivities. Impact assessment as a policy tool. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Tourism Policy Study. Dimanche, F. (1996). Special events legacy: the 1984 Louisiana World‟s Fair in New Orleans. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 4(1/2), 49-54. Edwards, J., Moital, M., & Vaughan, R. (2004). The impacts of Mega-events: the case of EXPO‟98 – Lisbon. In P. Long & M. Robinson (Eds.), Festival Tourism: marketing, management and evaluation (196-215). Sunderland: Business Education Publishers. ERM Economics. (2003). European Capital of Culture 2008. Socio-economic impact assessment of Liverpool's bid. Liverpool: Liverpool City Council. FaberMaunsell, Vision Consulting, & Roger Tym and Partners. (2004). Commonwealth Games benefits study. Final report. Warrington: FaberMaunsell. Fredline, L., Jago, L., & Deery, M. (2003). The development of a generic scale to measure the social impact of events. Event Management, 8(1), 23-37. García, B. (2001). Enhancing sports marketing through cultural and arts programmes. Lessons from the Sydney 2000 Olympic Arts Festivals. Sports Management Review, 4(2), 193-220. García, B. (2003). Evaluation of Cultureshock, Commonwealth Games North West cultural programme. Manchester: Arts Council England, North West. García, B. (2005). De-constructing the City of Culture: the long term cultural legacies of Glasgow 1990. Urban Studies, 42(5-6), 1-28. García, B. (2006). Press Impact Analysis (1996, 2003, 2005). A retrospective study: UK national press coverage on Liverpool before, during and after bidding for European Capital of Culture status. Liverpool: Impacts 08. García, B. (2008). One hundred years of cultural programming within the Olympic Games. (1912-2012): Origins, evolution and projections. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 14(4), 361-376. Getz, D. (1997). Event management and event tourism. New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation. Hall, C.M. (1992). Hallmark tourist events: impacts, management and planning. London: Belhaven Press. 10

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

Hamilton, C., Galloway, S., Langen, F., Cran, A., MacPherson, C., Burns, M., & Snedden, E. (2008). Evaluation report: Scotland’s Year of Highland Culture 2007. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, Centre for Cultural Policy Research. Herrero, L.C., Sanz, J.A., Devesa, M., Bedate, A. & Del Barrio, M.J. (2006). The economic impact of cultural events: a case-study of Salamanca 2002, European capital of culture. European Urban and Regional Studies, 13(1), 41-57. Holmes, R.A. & Shamsuddin, A.F.M. (1997). Short and long-term effects of World Expostion 1986 on US demand for British Columbia tourism. Tourism Economics, 3(2), 137-160. Hughes, H., Allen, D., & Wasik, D. (2003). The significance of European “Capital of Culture” for tourism and culture: the case of Kraków 2000. International Journal of Arts Management, 5(3), 12-23. Impacts 08. (2007a). Impacts 08 – The Liverpool model. Baseline report 2006/07. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Impacts 08. (2007b). Benchmark indicators. Liverpool, Impacts 08. Impacts 08. (2007c). Baseline report – core messages. Liverpool, Impacts 08. Impacts 08. (2008a). Benchmark indicators report. Liverpool, Impacts 08. Impacts 08. (2008b). European Capital of Culture and Liverpool's developer market: impacts and interactions. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Jeong, G., & Faulkner, B. (1996). Resident perceptions of mega-event impacts: the Taejon International Exposition case. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 4(1/2), 3-11. Jura Consultants. (2006). Economic Impact Assessment. The pillar events. Final report. Edinburgh: Author. Lim, S.T., & Lee, J.S. (2006). Host population perceptions of the impact of mega-events. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(4), 407-421. Mann Weaver Drew, & De Montfort University. (2003). The economic impact of the Notting Hill Carnival. London: London Development Agency. Martins, A.M., & Serra, A.P. (2007). Market impact of international sporting and cultural events (FEP Working papers no. 240). Porto: Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia. Mason, P., & Beaumont-Kerridge, J. (2004). Attitudes of visitors and residents to the impacts of the 2001 Sidmouth International Festival. In I. Yeoman, M. Robertson, J. Ali-Knight, S. Drummond & U. McMahonBeattie (Eds.), Festival and events management: An international arts and culture perspective (311-328). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Morris Hargreaves McIntyre & Arts About Manchester. (2008). The Ascent of Manchester: An independent evaluation of the first Manchester International Festival: 28 June - 15 July 2007. Manchester: Authors. O'Brien, D., & García, B. (2008). Who pays the piper? Understanding the experience of organisations sponsoring the Liverpool European Capital of Culture. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Palmer/Rae Associates. (2004). Study on the European Cities and Capitals of Culture and the European Cultural Months (1995-2004). Brussels: Author. Pattison, H. (2006). Urban regeneration through the arts: a case study of the Edinburgh Festivals. In S. Fleming & F. Jordan (Eds.), Events and festivals: Education, impacts and experiences. Festivals and events: beyond economic impacts, Volume 3 (71-80). Eastbourne: Leisure Studies Association. Phythian-Adams, S.L., Sapsford, D., & Southern, A. (2008). Doing business in the European Capital of Culture. A profile and initial assessment of impact on the Merseyside and North West business base. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Popma, A. (2004). Potential impact of the 2010 Olympic Games on local arts and culture in the Sea-to-Sky Corridor: lessons learned from previous host communities. Whistler, BC: Whistler Arts Council. Reason, M., & García, B. (2007) „Approaches to the newspaper archive: Content analysis and press coverage of Glasgow‟s year of culture‟, Media, Culture and Society, 29(2), 305-332. Reid, G. (2006). The politics of city imaging: a case study of the MTV Europe Music Awards Edinburgh 03. Event Management, 10(1), 35-46. 11
Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

Impacts 08 – Langen & Garcia | Measuring Impacts of Cultural Events | May 2009

Reid, G. (2007). Showcasing Scotland? A case study of the MTV Europe Music Awards Edinburgh03. Leisure Studies, 26(4), 479-494. Richards, G. (2000). The European cultural capital event: strategic weapon in the cultural arms race? International Journal of Cultural Policy, 6(2), 159-81. Richards, G., Hitters, E., & Fernandes, C. (2002), Rotterdam and Porto: Cultural Capitals 2001: Visitor Research. Arnhem: Atlas. Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2004). The impact of cultural events on city image: Rotterdam, Cultural Capital of Europe 2001. Urban Studies, 41(10), 1931-1951. Ritchie, J.R.B. (1984). Assessing the impact of hallmark events: conceptual and research issues. Journal of Travel Research, 22(1), 2-11. Sussex Arts Marketing. (2004). Brighton festival 2004. Everyone benefits…A study of the economic and cultural impact of the festival upon Brighton and Hove. Brighton: Author. Sapsford, D., & Southern, A. (2007). Measuring the economic impacts of Liverpool European Capital of Culture. Baseline economic indicators and the Merseyside business base. Liverpool: Impacts 08. Snowball, J.D., & Willis, K.G. (2006). Estimating the marginal utility of different sections of an arts festival: the case of visitors to the South African National Arts Festival. Leisure Studies, 25(1), 43-56. Snowball, J.D., & Webb, A.C.M. (2008). Breaking into the conversation: cultural value and the role of the South African National Arts Festival from apartheid to democracy. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 14(2), 149-164. SQW Limited. (2004). MTV Europe Music Awards Edinburgh 03: economic impact study. A final report. Edinburgh: Author. SQW, & TNS Travel and Tourism. (2005). Edinburgh festivals 2004-2005 economic impact survey. Final report. Edinburgh: SQW Limited. Vrettos, A. (2006) The economic value of arts & culture festivals. A comparison of four European economic impact studies (MA Thesis, University of Maastricht, 2006). West, H., Hanna, J., Scot-Samuel, A., & Cooke, A. (2007). Liverpool 08 European Capital of Culture: Mental well-being impact assessment. Liverpool: University of Liverpool, Division of Public Health. Woo Jun, J., & Lee, H. (2008). Impacts of events on the brand Germany: perspectives from younger Korean consumers. Event Management, 11(3), 145-153.

Impacts 08 - The Liverpool Model, European Capital of Culture Research Programme www.impacts08.net

12

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Event

...Introduction 4 3.0 Event Background 5 4.0 Method 6 4.1 Primary Research 6 4.2 Secondary research 6 5.0 Event Conceptualizing 6 5.1 Event Objective 6 5.2 Target Audience 6 5.3 Date, Time and Venue 6 5.4 Event Design and Program 7 5.5 Event Experience 8 5.6 Service and Quality 8 6.0 Stakeholders 9 7.0 Planning and Decision making 9 7.1 Strategic Planning 9 7.2 Operational Planning 9 7.2.1 Organisational Chart/ Committees 10 7.3 Publicity and Advertising 11 7.5 Sponsorship 12 7.5.1 Exclusive Item (Sponsor) (dsaexibition 2014) 12 7.5.2 Events (Sponsor) (dsaexibition 2014) 12 7.5.3 Branding (Sponsor) (dsaexibition 2014) 13 7.5.4 Facilities (Sponsor) 13 7.6 Legal and Risk, Health and Safety Management 14 8.0 Logistic 14 9.0 Evaluation 15 10.0 Conclusion 15 11.0 References 16 11.0 Appendix 17 Executive Summary DSA 2014 was the biggest Defence Services Asia Exhibition and Conference staged in Kuala Lumpur so far. Attendance were record highs with 344 foreign delegations from over 45 nations, 33,544 trade visitors from 96 countries and 1057 companies occupying a floor area of 41000 sq. metres. The analysis carried out by our group discovered that the organising committee, led by the Secretary General of Defence Malaysia, did a fine job in event design and program. Participants could understand the layout of the venue and so navigate efficiently within the site of the event. The site......

Words: 3821 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Events Management

...FORESIGHT 1.1 EVENTS MANAGEMENT. Event management is the application of project management to the creation and development of festivals, events and conferences. As an event manager, one is responsible for managing an event from conception through to staging. Event management involves studying the complexities of the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event. Post-event analysis and ensuring a return on investment have become significant drivers for the event industry. The recent growth of festivals and events as an industry around the world means that the management can no longer be done or set up for a sole and particular purpose. Events management entails the overseeing of all sorts of events from the Olympics co-ordination and staging down to the planning of a breakfast meeting for ten business people. A BRIEF WRITE UP ON MY PROPOSED PROJECT. I Karika Oghenerugba Oghenefega, Matriculation number 09/Sci01/014, from the Computer Science department of Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti Ekiti state, intend to explore the discuss of Events Management and implement my foregained knowledge in my field of study, Computer Science, in the development of an application software which may be used in the planning and management of events. This application software would be able to ensure the supervision of planned out events be it of a......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Events Management

...HMT 340: Events and Meetings Professor Edwards May 2008 Sacramento Fitness and Wellbeing Expo, July 13-15, 2012 Sacramento is one of the most affordable and pleasant cities I which to live in the West Coast. It receives one of the highest amounts of sunlight in the United States and its home to 1.5 million people (SCC Brochure, 2011). Due to its exceptional climate, association with the outdoors and its close proximity to Lake Tahoe and the Sierras Nevada Mountains, Sacramento attracts many healthy minded people. These are some of the many reasons why Sacramento would be the ideal location for a health and fitness exposition. The Sacramenti Convention Centre is one of the countries best and it is perfect for such an event. The event would provide industry professionals, equipment manufacturers to advertise and demsotrate some of the latest trends and techniques to members of the public of all ages. The convention will provide lifestyle, wellbeing and fitness resources, training, apparell and classes to a range of ages, including young kids, adults and seniors looking to remain as healthy as posisble. 1. Mind Map: 2. Stages: a) Research This would involve gathering information about the fitness and wellbeing market. It would involve market research studies that use qualitative and quantitative methods of gathering information. The demographic details of those who would be interested would need to be obtained. The corporate interest would......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Events Management

...Events Management Introduction Recent times have seen events turn into popular vehicles for regeneration of the urban areas and for economic growth and development as well as playing a massive role in reflecting the extensive changes that have taken place in culture and the society (Raj, Walters and Rashid 2008). As a result, the events industry has emerged and grown so large leading to some suggestions that the events management field should become a discipline of its own (Smith 2012). Many countries around the globe have seen growth in their events industries with the industry contributing handsomely to the respective country’s Growth Domestic Product (GDP). An event is a short-term organizational phenomenon that is bounded both in space and time that features in a calendar on a regular basis (Smith 2012). Despite the fact that events are temporary, Hede (2007) asserts that they are overseen by professionals that are well trained and operate in business networks that are very complex. Event managers always take into account the impacts associated with holding an event all through the planning process of the event as well as after the event. The minds of the policy makers and funding organizations are also taxed so as to justify whichever negative externalities and public spending associated with the event (Hede 2007). This paper aims to provide the reader with a detailed evaluation of the current level of understanding of event management and its impacts on the economy,......

Words: 2824 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Events Managment

...Suzanne Badruk Events Management 5502FDTTEF Friday 23rd November 2012 343987 . Title: Events Management 1.0 This report will look at all aspects of events management it will also investigate the scale and scope of the events industry and the impact it has on economy. Events management has many different processes which are set out in the report. It will also analyse the risk with in an event and government legislations that all event organisers have to follow to ensure the safe running of the event. Managements have to obey by ethical issues when staging an event and must sympathies with the need of not just the employees but the customers they are serving. The report will outline ethical issues that affect not just the event industry but tourism in general 2.0 Procedure 3.1 Scale and Scope 3.2 Legal and Ethical 3.0 Finding 4.3 Scale and Scope 3.1.1 Event can refer to many things such as, an observable occurrence, phenomenon or an extraordinary occurrence. It can be described as a public assembly for the purpose of celebration, education, marketing or reunion. Events can be classified on the basis of their size, type and context. Events are needed socially to mark the local and national details of people's lives (Bowdin, 1999). In the events industry today the type of events can be classification of events can be done on the basis of size or type, as follows: * The largest events are called mega-events and these are......

Words: 2488 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Event Management

...PROJECT REPORT ON EVENT MANAGEMENT: GOING BEHIND THE SCENES SUBMITTED BY MEHUL DAK TYBMS (SEM V) – 2008-09 ROLL NO – 5419 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. RICHA JAIN DATE OF SUBMISSION: 14TH JANUARY, 2009 THAKUR COLLEGE OF SCIENCE & COMMERCE KANDIVALI (EAST), MUMBAI- 400 101 DECLARATION I, MEHUL DAK, of Thakur College of Science & Commerce, of TYBMS (SEM V) hereby declare that I have completed this project on Event Management in the academic year 2008-09. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. _________________ Signature of Student CERTIFICATE I, Prof. Richa Jain, hereby certify that MEHUL DAK, of Thakur College of Science & Commerce, of TYBMS (SEM V) has completed the project on Event Management in the academic year 2008-09. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. ________________________ ________________________ Signature of Project Co-ordinator Signature of the Principal of the college/ institution ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my project guide, Prof. Richa Jain, who not only motivated me to take up this distinctive topic for project study, but also provided timely help and information, despite her busy schedule and commitments. This project would not have been successful without her incredible help, genius guidance and cheerful encouragement. I would...

Words: 13760 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Event Marketing

...Event Marketing HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY PROMOTE EVENTS, FESTIVALS, CONVENTIONS, AND EXPOSITIONS Leonard H. Hoyle, CAE, CMP JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. Event Marketing The Wiley Event Management Series SERIES EDITOR: DR. JOE GOLDBLATT, CSEP Special Events: Twenty-first Century Global Event Management, Third Edition by Dr. Joe Goldblatt, CSEP Dictionary of Event Management, Second Edition by Dr. Joe Goldblatt, CSEP, and Kathleen S. Nelson, CSEP Corporate Event Project Management by William O’Toole and Phyllis Mikolaitis, CSEP Event Marketing: How to Successfully Promote Events, Festivals, Conventions, and Expositions by Leonard H. Hoyle, CAE, CMP Event Risk Management and Safety by Peter E. Tarlow, Ph.D. Event Sponsorship by Bruce E. Skinner and Vladimir Rukavina The Complete Guide to Destination Management by Pat Schauman, CMP, CSEP Event Marketing HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY PROMOTE EVENTS, FESTIVALS, CONVENTIONS, AND EXPOSITIONS Leonard H. Hoyle, CAE, CMP JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the......

Words: 72488 - Pages: 290

Free Essay

Event Planning

...Event Planning – Questions To Answer Before You Begini 1. Do you have clear goals for staging a special event? Is the purpose to raise money? Assuming one of your purposes is to raise funds, it is important to determine when the funds are needed and what your financial net goal is. The strategy to raise significant dollars will be considerably different than one to generate a few hundred dollars. As a basic rule of thumb, match the event to your financial needs and timeline. Is the purpose to generate new donor prospects or volunteers? In most successful fundraising events, one of the goals is to attract new volunteers and money to support the organization. Otherwise you may be redirecting money previously given to the organization through other avenues and overtaxing current volunteers. Is the purpose to increase public awareness of your organization? If you want to increase the visibility of the organization, the event should be held where many people are exposed to the name and mission of your organization and great efforts should be aimed at good media coverage. Is the purpose to bring attention to your cause or mission? Too often the population served by the organization is confused with the audience for an event. Although the two should be compatible with regards to the basic values of the organization, the audience of your event may be significantly different than the clients you serve. David Nelson, author of Getting the Payoff from Special Events, distinguishes......

Words: 2482 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Event Proposal

...Event Management Plan Template and Guidance Notes |Event Name |      | |Event Location |      | |Event Date |      | |Organisation |      | |Document last updated |      | If you have any questions about this template, please contact Ian Steed on isteed@cornwall.gov.uk Please submit your event management plan with your event application form. *Please note that this document is a guide only* Introduction This template provides guidance notes for event organisers and will help you develop a detailed event management plan. To use the template, save a new version and complete the sections in blue that apply to your event. Not all sections will apply to all events – you will need to decide which are relevant to your event. Once you have completed the template, you can delete the......

Words: 3684 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Event Planning

...Premier Events, The Event Planning Specialists, brings to the community of Warner Robins a new breath of air in the event planning market. By combining old fashioned values, going the extra mile, and using cutting edge event-planning software, Premier Events will lead the market, providing the same quality results, every time. Premier Events is an equal opportunity business making its expertise and its products available to help its customers plan their own events. Party Packs (complete kits for their event), make hosting a party a snap, right down to the refreshments. The event planning software brings interactive event planning as close as their personal computer. Through these and other affordable products and services, Premier Events aims to be the number one resource for any event. In an ever changing, fast-paced world, success is determined by good choices for lasting effects. Communication is essential. Premier Events strives to be the best choice of clients by helping to ease their event planning burden. Through consistent, predictable professionalism, Premier Events will ensure a worry and hassle-free event at a reasonable price. But, not all our clients will be external. Premier Events has internal clients to serve. Premier Events will strive to provide the same predictable and professional working environment to its employees and contracted vendors, justly compensating them for their services. It is also a priority to make a comfortable living wage for its......

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Event Planning

...Homework #1 Part 1 05/08/09 Part 1: From the text Professional Event Coordination, answer question #3 on page 25 in the Exercises in Professional Event Coordination section. The minimum required length for this part is two pages. Include all six components of the “six A’s” including Anticipation, Arrival, Atmosphere, Appetite, Activity, and Amenities in detail. Each section should be 1-2 paragraphs. Include an introduction and summary paragraph tying them together. A pharmaceutical company exhibiting at a medical convention trade show in your city wants to host an off-site evening hospitality reception for 200 of their best customers, featuring a theme that celebrates the local culture. The pharmaceutical company is proud to host a hospitality reception to thank their customers and their workers for their services. Not only is this for the people a part of this company but is intended for everyone as well. However, this specific event is mainly designed for everyone to share their experiences and motivate others to wanting to pursue the medical field. The best part of any event is the anticipation of it all. Thinking about who will be there, what the environment will feel like, the food that will be catered, the activities that will go on, and the souvenirs are all part of what gets an event planner excited when creating events. Lights, camera, action! The pharmaceutical company is excited to host an event providing to their customers. The anticipation will be......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Campus Events

...-301 Section 1 February 11, 2013 Campus Event Paper For my campus event of my choice I wanted to choose something that was appealing to me. I wanted to find something fun that I would enjoy instead of something that I didn’t care about and would have been bored with. When I heard of the Mardi Gras event that was going to be held on campus I knew I had to take advantage of that and check it out. The event was held this past Thursday in front of the university student union building and was quite a popular event to say the least. I attended it as soon as I had finished practice, and before I even got there I heard the music from a long ways away. I would say the main reason why I chose this event is because it sounded like something fun. Being an outgoing person looking to always have a fun time, this seemed right up my alley. Another reason also is because I’ve never attended a Marti gras event before. I had an idea what to expect but I didn’t know exactly what was going to be happening. It was definitely a very social event, when I first got there I had to wait in a line that probably had fifty people in front of me. This was definitely a lot bigger than I thought it was going to be. One thing that I liked right off the bat was the music they were playing. I was surprised that the school allowed them to play rap music that is recent that I have heard on the radio. So to me it wasn’t as much as a school event feel, as it felt more like a party.......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Event Mgmt

...t Introduction: Event management is basically an organization responsible for conducting events like conference, product launch, seminars, ceremony etc as per the requirement of the customer. Basic task: Prepare event design, finding a site/place, arranging a food décor, pickups and accommodation, coordinating activities etc The number of task that would be undertaken would depend upon the size and theme of the event. Purpose: Is to put customer at ease by providing management services to customers like accommodation, sending invites, certificate distribution, setting up platform etc. The main focus of the company is to come up with the successful events without any hiccups and without consuming much of the customer’s time. Customers often lack the expertise and time to plan the event and thus hire event management companies to manage the event on their behalf so that they could solely focus on their work. Type of market: cooperate market and social market Cooperate market includes seminars, conferences, charities collection, trade show, company picnic, meeting of board members and stockholders Accounting market of events Profit margin, expenses and deal with customers for gain,(rent of place, service charges, one person serving for catering services, transportation charges, décor expenses tent reception, entertainment and accessories, printing charges, accommodation charges, contingency fund (if something went wrong then in that case we could use that......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Event Planning

...Overall Event Planning Event Directors, Organizing Committee, Treasurer Define goals and objective Budget Documentation/record keeping Concept development Before the day of the event Publicity (see below) -- hugely important! It can make or break an event. Route Planning and Marking (see below) Check-in, Start / Finish Area Planning (see below) Participant Recruitment / Registration Morning of the day of the event Check-in Maps and cue sheets Goodie bags (T-shirts, pins and patches, etc.) Refreshments Entertainment Volunteer support Event/Course Plan the course(s) [this may take special skills] Permits, and permission Communications Emergency Service, first aid, rider assistances Check-points / rest stop Finish line Post-event program Entertainment Prizes/awards Fundraising Incentives (tiered price structure to encourage more fundraising.) Follow-up Reports and accountability Sponsorship Coordinator Develop sponsorship package Recruit major sponsors Recruit lesser sponsors Solicit in-kind donations Publicity Coordinator Develop news releases, articles and advertising Media partners Print media Major Neighborhood Organizational newsletters Broadcast media Electronic media (Internet) Printed materials Distribution Direct mail Past participants New prospects Organizational partners (clubs, civic, service, youth, etc.) Other events and venues for getting the word out Participant Recruitment Coordinator Developing......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Event Planning

...special event. 1. Ordering: linens, food, etc. 2. Set up - cleaning floors, set up tables, chairs, putting on linens, table settings, etc. 3. Payroll - It is necessary to have at least 2 chefs, wait staff, bartender, security, coordinator 4. Making sure your event goes smoothly is what we call "behind the scenes" and this consists of things you may never know go on. For instance, is the cake arriving on time, is the food order correct or perhaps something is missing, the DJ needs to have the list of songs and know the order of event, restrooms need to be supplied regularly, spills need to be cleaned up right away etc.  5. Clean up - Kitchen to be completely cleaned, All dishes/silverware/pots/pans to be cleaned, all linens removed & sent out to be cleaned, all tables and chairs moved to clean floors and polish, bar area to be cleaned etc. 6. Utilities - The A/C units have to be set at about 65 degrees with all the people in the room. Lights, ovens, ice machine, etc all adds us tremendously! 7. Overhead - Rent, advertisement costs, print costs etc. It is a misconception that the price per person is just the food. In fact, that can't be farther from the truth. Remember too that when you go to a restaurant to eat, you are there only 20-30 minutes and sharing the restaurant with others with no DJ. A restaurant is priced with the conception that they turn over guests in 20 minutes on average (if they didn't they would go out of business fast)! But with an event, you......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3