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Every Watt Is Precious!

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Submitted By vyavaharess11
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A Technical Paper titled

‘EVERY WATT IS PRECIOUS’

[pic]

BY

SANKET S. VYAVAHARE

&

JIVRAJ P. PAPDIWAL

B.TECH (MECHANICAL)

COEP

CONTACT:

E-mail:- 1.SANKET- vyavaharess11@yahoo.in

2. JIVRAJ – jivraj22@gmail.com

Mobile: - 1.SANKET -9028184677

2. JIVRAJ-9881838482

ABSTRACT:

“Every Watt is precious”

Energy lies at the core of all economic activity & controls a country’s rate of growth and development; the type and volume of our energy usage determines our environment. In the case of the developing countries, like ours, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in the view of the ever increasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them. If India is to achieve the targeted growth in GDP, it would need commensurate input of energy, mainly commercial energy in the form of coal, oil, gas and electricity. However, India’s fossil fuel reserves are limited. Among the various strategies for meeting energy demand, efficient use of energy and its conservation emerges out to be the least cost option in any given strategies, apart from being environmentally benign.

In our effort of writing this paper we hereby want to put forth the Scope for Energy Conservation both in Residential as well as in the Non Residential areas, ‘Energy Efficient Technologies’, their financial analysis & want to prove the fact that use of some of these new technologies and awareness of the current energy scenario can help us to save 10-30% of the energy which we use.

This way we can save ourselves a good amount of money and also electricity for our country.

CONTENTS:

1. IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT TO INDIAN SCENARIO

2. INITIATIVE BY GOVT. OF INDIA TOWARDS ‘ENERGY CONSERVATION’.

3. INTRODUCTION

4. SCOPE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION

1. ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES RESIDENTIAL

2. ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES NON- RESIDENTIAL

5. ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES

1. OCCUPANCY SENSORS & MOTION SENSORS

2. ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING

3. VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES

4. ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTORS

5. ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOWS

6. FIELD WORK

1. VISIT TO PLATINUM RATED KBL GREEN BUILDING ‘YAMUNA’

2. INSTALLATION OF OCCUPANCY SENSOR IN COLLEGE CLASSROOM

3. VISIT TO MODERN ENERGY PARK

7. SIMPLE EFFORTS GO A LONG WAY

8. CONCLUSION

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY

IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT TO INDIAN SCENARIO:

A McKinsey report released in August 2009 provides a projection of the Indian economy by 2030: real per capita GDP will climb to US$ 2700(Five times the 2005 level), demand for power will rise to 3870TWh (from 700 TWh in 2005). India’s gross energy demand will shoot up to 1.8 btoe per year (from 0.5 btoe in 2005), making it the third biggest global energy consumer after US & China.

In a scenario where India tries to accelerate its development process and cope with increasing energy demands, conservation and energy efficiency measures are to play a central role in our energy policy. A national movement for energy conservation can significantly reduce the need for fresh investment in energy supply systems in coming years. It is imperative that all our efforts are concentrated to realize this potential. Energy conservation is an objective to which all the citizen in the country can contribute. Whether a household or a factory, a small shop or a large commercial building, a farmer or an office worker, every user and producer of energy can and must make this effort for his own benefit, as well as that of the nation.

INITIATIVE BY GOVT. OF INDIA TOWARDS ‘ENERGY CONSERVATION’:

Govt. Of India enacted ‘Energy Conservation Act-2001’ which provides for institutionalizing and strengthening delivery mechanism for energy efficiency services in the country and provides the much-needed coordination between the various entities.

According to the provisions of this act, ‘Bureau Of Energy Efficiency’, A statutory body of Govt. Of India, was established in March’02. The Bureau’s mission is to develop policies and strategies with a thrust on self regulation and market principles with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity of the Indian economy.

INTRODUCTION:

‘Every watt saved is equivalent to Two watts generated’. Energy conservation is achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving a similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy services.

Figure 1 shows the energy consumption in different sectors. We can see that the residential energy consumption is 24 % and 76% non residential consumption. By mere awareness of the energy problem & by use of Energy Efficient Technologies we can save about 10-30% of the energy. So, hereby we introduce you to the energy efficient technologies which will help us save energy.

SCOPE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION:

1. Energy Conservation Opportunities Residential:

The scope for residential energy conservation lies within the following areas: First Lighting, Second Domestic Refrigeration, Third HVAC, Fourth Domestic Instruments & Fifth, fans.

2. Energy Conservation Opportunities

Non Residential:

Here we will restrict our scope of energy conservation to Industrial & Commercial buildings sector, In these most of the energy conservation opportunities lie in the following areas: First, Thermal Utilities: Boilers, Furnaces, Steam systems, Insulation & waste heat recovery. Second, Electrical Systems: Electric motors, HVAC systems & all the instruments working on electricity.

ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES:

1 Occupancy Sensors & Motion sensors:

Many commercial, industrial and government facilities require a significant number of lighting fixtures for adequate illumination, and therefore use a significant amount of power to operate the lighting fixtures. Occupancy sensors typically sense the presence of one or more persons within a designated area and generate occupancy signals indicative of that presence & hence these signals can be used to turn the load on. The two most prevalent types of occupancy sensors are:

1. Passive Infrared: A passive infrared (PIR) sensor will turn on the load whenever it detects a moving or newly apparent heat source. An occupancy sensor will typically transmit ultrasonic sound waves via one or more transmitters which then reflect off of objects in the room and are detected by one or more receivers.

2. Active Ultrasonic Devices: The ultrasonic sensor emits vibrations at frequencies of 25 kHz or higher and listens to the return echoes; if it detects a significant Doppler shift, indicating the presence of a moving body, then it turns the load on.

[pic]

Figure 3

Sensor Operation

3. Dual Technology Sensors: A growing number of products combine these technologies into a more robust sensor (dual-technology sensor) that offers high sensitivity but minimizes the chance of false-on or false-off switching.

Occupancy sensors have great potential of saving energy up to 50% by switching off the loads such as lighting, fans, Air conditioners. A good quality sensor has a life of 8-10 years & cost around Rs.1500. Its simple payback period is 8-10 months. This makes it very cost effective.

2 Energy Efficient Lighting:

Luminous Efficacy, Colour Rendering Index(CRI) & life of the light form the important criteria for the selection of the type of lighting for a particular purpose. Illuminating Engineers Society has recommended illuminance range for different tasks and activities, the values are related to the visual requirements of the task, to user's satisfaction, to practical experience and to the need for cost effective use of energy. For recommended illumination, one may refer Illuminating Engineers Society Recommendations Handbook.

Following are the types of the Energy Efficient lamps those have revolutionized energy-efficient lighting:

CFLs (Compact Fluorescent Lamps) are simply miniature versions of full-sized fluorescents. They are a type of gas discharge lamps & the light from a CFL is produced by the excitation of gas contained in either a tubular or elliptical outer bulb. Their luminous efficacy is 40-70 lumens/watt compared to 8-18 lumen/watt of Incandescent lamps. Also they offer a very good CRI which make them suitable for general purpose use. Their initial costs are high but they have a great saving potential & hence save on the energy costs (variable) later on.

LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are small, solid light bulbs which are extremely energy-efficient. New LED bulbs are grouped in clusters with diffuser lenses which have broadened the applications for LED use in the home. Life of LED lamps is around 50000 hrs and it consumes only 6 watts of power for the same illumination by a 60 watt incandescent. Saves 90% of the operating cost.
The high cost of producing LEDs has been a roadblock to widespread use. However, researchers at Purdue University have recently developed a process for using inexpensive silicon wafers to replace the expensive sapphire-based technology. This promises to bring LEDs into competitive pricing with CFLs and incandescent lamps. LEDs may soon become the standard for most lighting needs.

HPSVs (High Pressure Sodium Vapor) form a good option when CRI is not an important criterion to be considered i.e. this type of lights can be used for general purpose lighting in industries & ware houses & also for street lighting. HPSV offer a fair amount of CRI with an excellent luminous efficacy of 67-121 lumens/watt. Hence they form one of the important energy efficient lamps.

LPSVs (Low Pressure Sodium Vapor) form another option which has an excellent luminous efficacy & has a poor CRI but this can be used in the applications such as roadways, canals, tunnels & street lighting. These lights offer luminous efficacy of around 101-175 lumens/watt.

3 Variable Frequency Drives:

VFD saves energy by changing the speed of the motor to suit variable loading conditions. The saving is greater than that might initially be expected. As the speed of the fan/pump is reduced, the flow will be reduce proportionally, while the power required will reduce with the cube of the speed. As

P=kN3… (i)

For example, if the speed reduction is 80%, the power required is only 51.2%

Most VFD works on the principle of varying frequency by electronic circuitry. Figure 4 shows the schematic of how VFD operates.

[pic]

Figure 4

When an induction motor is connected to a full voltage supply, it draws several times (up to about 6 times) its rated current. As the load accelerates, the available torque usually drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor approaches full speed. By contrast, when a VFD starts a motor, it initially applies a low frequency and voltage to the motor. The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less. Thus starting at such a low frequency avoids the high inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch. After the start of the VFD, the applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current. This starting method typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range.

In principle, the current on the motor side is in direct proportion of the torque that is generated and the voltage on the motor is in direct proportion of the actual speed, while on the network side, the voltage is constant, thus the current on line side is in direct proportion of the power drawn by the motor, that is product of voltage & current or torque & rpm. Where lies the power saving potential of the VFD applied motors.

With a VFD, the stopping sequence is just the opposite as the starting sequence. The frequency and voltage applied to the motor are ramped down at a controlled rate. When the frequency approaches zero, the motor is shut off. A small amount of braking torque is available to help decelerate the load a little faster than it would stop if the motor were simply switched off.

VFD can generate excessive harmonic distortion and requires harmonic filter.

The payback period is around 2 to 4 years. VFD is suitable for pump, fan motor, chiller motor & compressors.

4 Energy Efficient Motors:

Energy-efficient motors (EEM) are the ones in which, design improvements are incorporated specifically to increase operating efficiency over motors of standard design. Design improvements focus on reducing intrinsic motor losses. Improvements include the use of lower-loss silicon steel, a longer core (to increase active material), thicker wires (to reduce resistance), thinner laminations, smaller air gap between stator and rotor, copper instead of aluminum bars in the rotor, superior bearings and a smaller fan, etc.

Energy-efficient motors now available in India operate with efficiencies that are typically 3 to 7 percentage points higher than standard motors. Which is very significant as far as the amount of working hours for the induction motors are considered. The power factor is about the same or may be higher than for standard motors. Furthermore, energy-efficient motors have lower operating temperatures and noise levels, greater ability to accelerate higher-inertia loads, and are less affected by supply voltage fluctuations.

[pic]
Figure 5

Curve above shows the comparison of efficiency curves for Standard motors & for EEMs.

5 Energy Efficient Windows:

According to the application the type of window to be fitted is decided. There are different types of energy efficient windows & these are differentiated by the degree of glazing, type of frame work, low-E coatings etc.

There are three fundamental approaches to improving the energy performance of glazing products (two or more of these approaches may be combined). The first approach is to alter the glazing material itself by changing its chemical composition or physical characteristics. An example of this is tinted glazing. The second approach is to apply a coating to the glazing material surface. Reflective coatings and films were developed to reduce heat gain and glare, and more recently, low-emittance coatings have been developed to improve both heating and cooling season performance. The third approach is to assemble various layers of glazing and control the properties of the spaces between the layers. These strategies include the use of two or more panes or films, low-conductance gas fills between the layers, and thermally improved edge spacers.

[pic]

Figure 6

Figure 6 illustrates the characteristics of a typical double-glazed window with a low solar gain Low-E glass and argon/krypton gas fill. These Low-E products are often referred to as sputtered (or soft-coat) due to the glass coating process. (Note: Moderate solar gain Low-E products are also sputtered coatings.) This type of Low-E product, sometimes called spectrally selective Low-E glass, reduces heat loss in winter but also reduces heat gain in summer. Compared to most tinted and reflective glazing, this Low-E glass provides a higher level of visible light transmission for a given amount of solar heat reduction.
Low solar gain Low-E glazing is ideal for buildings located in cooling-dominated climates. In heating-dominated climates with a modest amount of cooling or climates where both heating and cooling are required, Low-E coatings with high, moderate or low solar gains may result in similar annual energy costs depending on the house design and operation. While the high solar gain glazing performs better in winter, the low solar gain performs better in summer.
Variants on low solar gain Low-E coatings have also been developed which lower solar gains even further. However this further decrease in solar gains is achieved by reducing the visible transmittance as well - such coatings, which may appear slightly tinted, are best suited for applications where cooling is the dominant factor and where a slightly tinted effect is desired.

FIELD WORK:

1. Visit to Platinum Rated KBL Green Building ‘Yamuna’:

Recently, IGBC (Indian Green Building Council) has certified the Kirloskar Brothers Limited Corporate Office building as ‘Green Building’. And it has been bestowed with ‘ LEED Platinum Rating’.

We visited this building as a part of our project work on 5th of February, 2010. There we saw different energy efficient technologies implemented.

This building is called a ‘ZERO waste’ building. As no plastic is used here, all the paper waste is sent for recycling & all communication is done through

E-mails. Following are the ‘Energy Efficient Techniques’ used:

• Maximum use of sunlight during day.

• Solar panels to provide for the lighting needs of the southern part of the building.

• Use of recycled material for furniture & other accessories.

• Sewage water treatment plant for reuse of waste water.

• Use of ‘Bio Diesel’ for the DG sets in the campus.

• Outdoor flooring is done to ensure maximum percolation of rain water to ground to make sure that ground water potential is maintained & improved.

• Use of Double glazed windows to reduce load on Air Conditioners.

• Also use of UV filters covering on the southern part of building.

• All lights used are Energy Efficient & are arranged as per the need.

• IBMS (Integrated Building Management System) to avoid unnecessary use of energy.

• Use of Occupancy Sensors to sense occupancy & accordingly use energy only when needed.

2. Installation of Occupancy Sensor in college classroom:

As a part of our project we have installed a PIR occupancy sensor in one the classrooms of our college.

During this, we got hands on knowledge about its installation & working. The sensor we installed has a load of four 72W light sources connected to it. This being an M.Tech classroom is intermittently occupied. We see the huge energy saving potential in this sensor.

[pic]

Its diametrical range is 10.5m. There are three settings on it. First, Sensitivity can be adjusted to make sure it turns the on only when a person enters the room. For it to continuously detect persons in the room, there should be some kind of movement which it detects & keeps light on. It is observed that human body cannot be stand still & if someone stays standstill in that room then sensor will shut the appliances off. Second, luminosity sensing, It can sense the ambient light intensity & accordingly decides whether to turn on the appliances on or not. But this setting can be used only when the load connected on it is a lighting load. Third, time setting, we can set the time, for switching off the equipment, after which the occupant has left the room.

3. Visit to Modern Energy Park:

Modern Energy Perk is located in Kanhe village in Taluka Maval near Pune. This is place where Mr. Chandrakant Pathak & his son have put some equipment, which use muscle energy either from man or from some animal like bull to do some day to day work, on display.

We visited this place on 23rd January,2010 as a part of our project work. Here they have used mechanical drives to convert muscle energy from man or animal like bull to make following equipments work:

• Ice- Cream maker.

• Mixer & Grinder.

• Pump for spraying pesticides on crops.

• Use of cycling to compress air in reciprocating compressor.

• Use of cycling to pump water.

• Use of oscillating motion of Swing to drive reciprocating pumps.

• Use of Bull Power to pump water from wells.

• Use of wave energy to do generate energy.

Following are some of the snapshots of these equipments,

[pic]

[pic]

[pic]

This was an innovative use of non conventional energy. We found it very fascinating. We appreciate efforts of Mr. Pathak in setting up such an innovative park.

SIMPLE EFFORTS GO A LONG WAY:

Following are the simple but generally unaccounted for Energy Solutions:

• Make sure that the energy saver switch on your house hold equipments, such as refrigerator & washing machines, are kept ON.

• Use solar heat to dry your clothes than the use of electric dryer

• Do not user electric geyser or coil heater to heat the water, use solar water heater instead.

• Use of solar cookers to cook food, also use of community solar cookers.

• Use of Exhaust fans in the toilets only when they are needed.

• Make sure that exhaust fans are mounted correctly, half the they are not mounted correctly and cause loss of energy.

• In case of Central Air conditioning duct work should be proper & should not cause loss of air.

• All the plumbing joints in our house should be leak proof to make sure that water on which work is performed by pumps to lift it to higher level is not lost.

• Do not unnecessarily refrigerate the food or water to a temperature which makes it unsuitable for eating or drinking.

• And last but not the least, switch off lights & fans when not in use.

CONCLUSION

Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used while achieving a similar outcome of end use. Energy conservation is the need of the hour.

The known reserves of oil and natural gas may last hardly for 18 and 26 years respectively at the current reserves to production ratio. India has huge proven coal reserves (84 billion tonnes), which may last for about 200 years but the increasing ash content in Indian Coal as well as associated greenhouse gas emissions are the major concern. Moreover Indian coal contains large ash content.

Awareness of this problem and the feeling of saving energy should stay forever deep inside the hearts of the people. Simple efforts can go a long way. So we need an extraordinary collaborative effort to save energy for our future generations. We should provide them with a better future than with no energy sources left for use.

Technologies included in this paper will help us save energy. These technologies offer a saving of around 10-30% saving in your electricity bills though costly initially.

Let’s save energy, save some money; save some Electricity for our country. Let’s chant & bring to our lives only one mantra;

‘EVERY WATT IS PRECIOUS’

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Books:

1. Guide book 1 to 4 for NCEEMEA by Bureau of Energy Efficiency.

2. Shri P M Sayeed, Hon’ble Minister of Power’s article on the occasion of Energy Conservation Day, on 14th December 2005.

3. ‘Advance Edge’ magazine by IMS India Pvt. Ltd.

Web Sites:

1. www.wikipedia.org

2. http://eartheasy.com/shop/lighting_led.html

3. http://www.geda.org.in/bio/bio_community.htm

4. http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightingAnswers/lat5/abstract.asp

5. http://www.energyplanet.info/Energy_Conservation/

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Figure 1

Figure 2

Distribution of Residential Energy Usage

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COEP

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