Premium Essay

Evidence Based Management and Psychological Contracts: the Success of Apple

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rivermistranch
Words 6213
Pages 25
Evidence Based Management and Psychological Contracts: The Success of Apple.
Aaron Wood
Ottawa University

* Introduction
For decades, the application of organizational behavior theories to business management has been an ongoing process of discovery and innovative thinking. Concepts like evidence based management (McShane, 2013) and psychological contracts (Braekkan & Tunheim, 2013) are being employed in some of the world’s leading corporations. For the purpose of this paper, the synthesis of material into conceptual application will be applied to a single corporate entity. By choosing a company with global interests who continues to espouse very personal, individual based value perspectives, Apple is a good representational fit. This paper will highlight not only how Apple in some cases is using these concepts successfully in the market place, but also ways in which their former CEO failed miserably in utilization of these concepts while achieving enormous corporate success. This paper will also look to Apple’s future and how study of these theories along with others may be further developed.
Multiple references from a wide array of media sources and fields of study have been researched to show the breadth of Apple’s stakeholder and business positioning strategies from the earliest days up to resources compiled as late as November 2013. As the development of information threads lead to fields like manufacturing, education, supply chains, demography, and even social-psychology; some of the sources revealed information that indicated trending not anticipated at the beginning of the process. Apple is such a global power, certain media outlets and even some academic sources have been overly salacious (Kar, 2010) in their praise or criticism of the Apple business model (Kamm, 1991). This is possibly representative of the former CEO’s personality...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Toms Answer Sheet

...stemmed from the speed at which information travel in the media arena. In most cases, the information environment outside the organization is changing far more rapidly than the information environment internally. Customers, partners, prospects, and employees can find, access, and share information in a way that corporate infrastructure, security, culture, and policies inhibit. Organizations are having a difficult time responding to or taking advantage of – these new environments. The path of information regarding the organization is no longer just the role of the marketing department. Employees talk to customers, colleagues, and suppliers. They share their experiences, impressions and expectations regarding their jobs, the organization and management. The speed at which the information travels is beyond the control of the organization. Every employee, customer and supplier has become a reflection on how the organization functions and operates. The power has shifted from what the company wants to relay to the public, to what employees, customers and suppliers say about the company—for better or worse. This transfer of power has affected organizations tremendously on all levels. Early...

Words: 8457 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Mergers & Acquisitions - the Role of Hrm

...Human Resources Management – Assignment The Role of Human Resources in Mergers & Acquisitions “In implementing an M&A, most managers and business leaders focus on the financials. But success often hinges on how you deal with people issues and cultural Integration”. Andrew F. Giffin and Jeffrey A. Schmidt 1 Successful Mergers and Acquisitions are much more than just a name change on the premises and changing company branded material and policies. Mergers and acquisitions (M&A’s) are notoriously risky, and international M&A’s are even more so. Numerous studies on M&A’s, show that success is not always guaranteed. To the contrary, the biggest percentage of (costly) M&A’s, do not achieve goals and set objectives. Mercer Human Resource Consulting, after examining the evidence, has concluded that as many as 60–70% of M&A’s fail to deliver their intended benefits. Another study by CFERF 2 claims that 75% of the deals have failed or underperformed. Although it is clear that some of these unsuccessful ventures are due to financial and market factors, the root cause of a considerable number of failures lies in disregarded HR issues and activities. Some of the main (HR- people) mistakes in mergers and acquisitions are: o HR not being involved early in the game o Lack of culture blending and misaligned values- do not underestimate cultural differences o No clarity on mission and vision o Communications, communications, communications – lack of it in the main Other research has shown......

Words: 1723 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Putting People First for Organizational Success

...organizational success. By: Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Veiga, John F. Academy of Management Executive. May99, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p37-48. 12p. 2 Black and White Photographs, 1 Chart. Abstract: There's a disturbing disconnect in organizational management. Research, experience, and common sense all increasingly point to a direct relationship between a company's financial success and its commitment to management practices that treat people as assets. Yet trends in management practice are actually moving away from these very principles. Why is common sense so remarkably uncommon when it comes to managing people? Why do organizations habitually overlook readily available opportunities to boost their financial performance? Drawing on extensive empirical research, an irrefutable business case can be made that the culture and capabilities of an organization, derived from the way it manages its people, are the real and enduring sources of competitive advantage. Managers today must begin to take seriously the often heard, yet frequently ignored, adage that "people are our most important asset" [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.5465/AME.1999.1899547. (AN: 1899547) Base de données: Business Source Complete Putting people first for organizational success[a] Executive Overview There's a disturbing disconnect in organizational management. Research, experience, and common sense all increasingly point to a direct relationship between a company's financial success and its commitment to management......

Words: 9164 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Litzky, Eddleston & Kidder, 2006

...2006 Litzky, Eddleston and Kidder 91 The Good, the Bad, and the Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors by Barrie E. Litzky, Kimberly A. Eddleston, and Deborah L. Kidder* Executive Overview Recent estimates of the costs associated with deviant behavior in the workplace are staggering. While part of the managerial function requires the establishment of rules and policies that promote good customer service and product consistency, managers who lead with a firm hand or place too much pressure on sales quotas, may be unknowingly contributing to their employees’ deviant behaviors. Managers must learn to identify the role that they play in triggering employee deviance. Once recognized, there is much that managers can do to ameliorate the triggers that encourage otherwise honest employees to engage in deviant behavior. M “I wouldn’t say what I did was unethical. Rather, it was more, say, questionable. But hey, my manager says, ‘The customer is always right.’ So basically, I was following her orders.” “Come on – everybody does it. It’s almost expected. I bet even my manager did it when he had my job.” “Considering how much money I bring into this place, I deserve it. They should be paying me more anyway.” anagers often face employees like these who try to justify their actions after being caught behaving inappropriately. Some managers may terminate these employees in an attempt to rid the organization of such unscrupulous......

Words: 8340 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Leadership

...content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, Fifth Edition Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Publisher: Erin Joyner Acquisitions Editor: Scott Person Senior Developmental Editor: Julia Chase Marketing Manager: Jonathan Monahan Marketing Coordinator: Julia Tucker Media Editor: Rob Ellington Manufacturing Planner: Ron Montgomery Senior Art Director: Stacy Jenkins Shirley Rights Acquisition Director: Audrey Pettengill Interior Design, Production Management, and Composition: PreMediaGlobal Cover Designer: Red Hangar Design LLC Cover Image: © John Kershner, Shutterstock © 2013, 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part...

Words: 21932 - Pages: 88

Premium Essay

Loyalty Marketing

...2012 Trends in Loyalty Marketing 2 2 0 1 2 T R E N D S I N L O YA LT Y M A R K E T I N G TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 GAME MECHANICS ................................................................... 3 2 SOCIAL MEDIA ........................................................................... 4 3 TIME-BASED POSTING ................................................................5 4 PRIVACY .......................................................................................6 5 REAL-TIME MARKETING .............................................................7 6 MOBILE ........................................................................................7 7 STAYING AHEAD OF THE CURVE ..............................................8 3 2 0 1 2 T R E N D S I N L O YA LT Y M A R K E T I N G Today’s standards for measuring the strength of customer engagement – frequency, recency, monetary value, and advocacy – are really no different than those in the hit American television show Mad Men, set more than fty years ago. While the measures of success remain the same, the marketing landscape has changed beyond recognition, with enormous challenges to establishing any customer relationship at all, much less advocacy. Marketers can’t simply tack on the internet to the TV, print, radio, and outdoor options available in the Mad Men era. The internet itself is fragmented into social media, search, games, the blogosphere, entertainment channels, and......

Words: 2081 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Case

...Case study notes This case has been updated to include the Apple iPad. Principally this is case explores the issue of licensing and how successful firms can become unsuccessful. It is not a case about Apple and why it has become successful. This case study explores the rise of the Apple Corporation. The Apple iPod is one of the most successful new product launches in recent years, transforming the way the public listens to music, with huge ramifications for major record labels. More than 50 million MP3 players are expected to be sold in 2005; over a third more than last year. Mobile phones have long been regarded as the most credible challengers to MP3 players and iPods. The launch of digital download services via mobile phones illustrates the dramatic speed of convergence between the telecom and media industries, which many observers expect to usher in a new era of growth for mobile phones. Users are willing to pay more for additional services and many analysts predict that mobile phone handsets will eventually emerge as the dominant technology of the age, combining personal organisers, digital music players and games consoles in a single device. Indeed, Microsoft founder Bill Gates has predicted that mobile phones will supersede the iPod as the favoured way of listening to digital music. The launch of the Apple ipad in 2010 makes this case even more topical. This should form the basis of supplementary questions at the end of the case: How will the iPhone succeed? What......

Words: 16512 - Pages: 67

Free Essay

Environmental

...qxd 8/7/09 3:26 PM Page 1 Part One Environmental and Organizational Context 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction to Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach Environmental Context: Globalization, Diversity, and Ethics Organizational Context: Design and Culture Organizational Context: Reward Systems 5 31 57 88 EVIDENCE-BASED CONSULTING PRACTICES A major component of the evidence-based theme of this text and the link to practice are these part openers from the world-famous Gallup Organization. Gallup draws from its internationally recognized survey science and cadre of internal and external researchers (e.g., the author of this text and a Nobel Prize winner in behavioral economics are Gallup Senior Scientists), publishes its findings in the top academic journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology and provides this evidenced-based perspective and representative practices for each text part. Gallup is the recognized world leader in the measurement and analysis of human attitudes, opinions, and behavior, building on over three-quarters of a century of success. Gallup employs many of the world’s leading scientists in management, economics, psychology, and sociology. Gallup performance management systems help organizations maximize employee productivity and increase customer engagement through measurement tools, management solutions, and strategic advisory services. Gallup’s 2000 professionals deliver services on-site at client organizations, through the Web, at......

Words: 17103 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

Marketing Intelligence

...Contents Decision-Making Unit page Buyer's Behaviour page The Report page What is Marketing Intelligence? Marketing intelligence This can be information gathered from many sources, including suppliers, customers, and distributors. Marketing intelligence is a catch-all term to include all the everyday information about developments in the market that helps a business prepare and adjust its marketing plans. It is possible to buy intelligence information from outside suppliers (e.g. Mintel, Dun & Bradstreet, and Mori) who set up data gathering systems to support commercial intelligence products that can be profitably sold to all players in a market. Quoted from: Tutors 2 u .com 1) LO1.1, LO1.2 A: Understand buyer behaviour, the purchase. The Decision Making Process. As follows I have explained the main stages of the D MP (Decision making process) for the individual and the industrial purchaser. The industrial buyer goes through a similar process to the individual customer but, the process for the industrial buyer is longer due to the DMU (Decision-Making Unit) to make a purchase a more rational decision needs to be made. Research advocates that a customer goes through a five stage decision-making process in order to make a purchase. This is shown in the stages below. Stage One : Problem / Need Recognition The buying process starts here with the need or problem...

Words: 8484 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Principles of Marketing

...Introduction For this unit, I have been asked to produce a detailed analytic marketing strategy for a new or existing product. The marketing strategy for the product will include the following evidence and information about: - How the strategy is based on the principles of marketing. - How sources of primary and secondary marketing information will be used in relation to the product. - An analysis of how the impact of the external environment will affect the marketing decisions of the product to be launched. - An analysis of the marketing context and decision on an appropriate strategy. - A developed coherent mix of strategies to meet consumer needs. - An evaluation of the reliability of the different marketing models used. I have chosen to base this marketing strategy on a new laptop. I have decided to launch a new laptop (The PowerBook 4000), which will feature a computer chip for wireless networking and longer battery life. The company developing this new laptop will be Apple Macintosh and it will be a revolutionized development of the PowerBook G4. The Principles of Marketing Marketing is the process of learning about your customers and competitors, so that you can provide the right products at the right price in the right place, promoted in the right way to achieve your business’s objectives. Therefore, in order for Apple’s marketing strategies to be successful, its market knowledge......

Words: 19965 - Pages: 80

Premium Essay

Hrm Revision

...Human Resource Management Revision week 1 HRM encompasses -Policies - Practices and systems (Influence employees behaviour, attitudes and performance) - 1945-1979 HR focus was on Personnel Management - making sure employees comply with law…conditions - 1980-1990s HR focus was on management of human capital Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) - Plans activities for organisations to achieve its goals - To receive ultimate employee performance, they need to be linked to organisational goals and strategy - Achieved by consistently influencing employee attitudes and behaviours - HRM policies are linked towards organisational goals, HRM contribute to them in a meaningful way. Theoretical bases for HRM Behavioural view - HRM controls employee attitudes and behaviours to suit the situation - Suggesting HR focuses on behaviour rather than skills / knowledge of the job Resource Based view - HR are seen as a resource which give an upper hand for the reason they keep employees in right mind of frame for the goals set Political – influence view HR act as a Political leader through - Social communication through one and another - there to prevent negative social influences and maintain positive environment Harvard framework for HRM -HR take raw influences in business - Tune them providing an organisation that has positive, individual wellbeing, effectiveness and social wellbeing. Roles for HR professionals -......

Words: 5530 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Does Ipod Make You Happy?an Exploration of the Effects of Ipod Ownership on Life Satisfaction

...Building, Singleton Park, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK ABSTRACT The Apple iPod is currently the undisputed leading product in the global MP3 player market. This competitive advantage is due to the design, high functionality, and perhaps most importantly, the ‘cool factor’ which Apple has managed to obtain with its products. This study explores if owning an iPod (as opposed to another brand of MP3 player) makes a difference in the perception of general life satisfaction. Using Diener et al.’s generic satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) to measure the dependent variable life satisfaction, a model with the key concepts usage, benefits, peer influence, design, iPod phenomenon, and iPod bubble has been developed and tested in a variety of ways, including regression analysis. The sample consisted of a multinational sample of 240+ young adults, aged 18–35 years. The demographic profiles of iPod and non-iPod owners were very similar, but for iPod owners, 23 per cent of the variance in overall life satisfaction is explained by the key concepts used in this research. Key influencing variables for iPod owners are peer influence and design. For non-iPod owners, the amount of variance explained by the independent variables was negligible. iPod owners also considered their MP3 players to be much ‘cooler’ than did non-iPod owners. This article considers the managerial implications of these findings for Apple and for competing brands. The social implications of these findings and their......

Words: 9427 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Manager

...article: 1 Article Summary The Idea in Brief—the core idea The Idea in Practice—putting the idea to work The Hidden Traps in Decision Making Further Reading A list of related material, with annotations to guide further exploration of the article’s ideas and applications 2 11 Product 5408 THINKING ABOUT … The Hidden Traps in Decision Making The Idea in Brief Making business decisions is your most crucial job—and your riskiest. New product development, mergers and acquisitions, executive hirings—bad decisions about any of these can ruin your company and your career. Where do bad decisions come from? Mostly from distortions and biases—a whole series of mental flaws—that sabotage our reasoning. We all fall right into these psychological traps because they’re unconscious—hardwired into the way we all think. Though we can’t get rid of them, we can learn to be alert to them and compensate for them—monitoring our decision making so that our thinking traps don’t cause judgment disasters. The Idea in Practice The higher the stakes of your decision, the higher the risk of getting caught in a thinking trap. Worse, these traps can amplify one another—compounding flaws in our reasoning. Here are five of the nine traps: Avoiding the Trap: • Get views of people who weren’t involved in the original decisions. • Remind yourself that even the best managers make mistakes. • Don’t encourage failure-fearing. Anchoring: Giving disproportionate weight to the first information......

Words: 7567 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Ethics

...drawn from Janis and Mann’s [1977, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict Choice and Commitment (The Free Press, New York)] work describing the decision process in an environment of conflict, choice and commitment. The model is enhanced by the inclusion of content variables derived from the ethics literature. The resulting integrated model aids in understanding the complexity of the decision process used by individuals facing ethical dilemmas and suggests variable interactions that could be field-tested. A better understanding of the process will help managers develop policies that enhance the likelihood of ethical behavior in their organizations. KEY WORDS: decision making, ethical framework, ethics, process, stress Roselie McDevitt Sc.D. is Assistant Professor of Accounting at the Charles F. Dolan School of Business at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut. Dr. McDevitt teaches financial and managerial accounting. Her Primary areas of research are accounting education and accounting ethics. Catherine Giapponi is an Assistant Professor of Management at the Charles F. Dolan School of Business at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut. Dr. Giapponi teaches courses in management, organizational behavior, and strategy. Her primary areas of research are corporate governance and business ethics. Cheryl Tromley, Ph.D., is a Professor of Management at Fairfield University where she has taught management,...

Words: 6905 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Brand Image

...Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Brand Image Debiprasad Mukherjee* August 2009 * Debiprasad Mukherjee is a Business Process Management Consultant in IT Telecom domain. He has experience of working with Siemens, IBM, and Tech Mahindra in India and abroad. He holds Post graduation in Management from Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management, India and Bachelor in Technology in Electrical Engineering. His areas of interest are Brand Management, Consumer Behavior, Advertisement, Customer Relationship Management, Data Warehousing, Business Intelligence, Master Data Management etc. Email:- debiprasad.mukherjee@techmahindra.com / debiprasad.mukherjee@gmail.com Contact: - Techno India Building, 6th Floor EM-4/1, Sector V, SaltLake, Kolkata-700091, INDIA Tel No: +91 334002 8146 / +91 9830318394 This paper can be downloaded from the Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1444814 Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1444814 Abstract Celebrity endorsement has been established as one of the most popular tools of advertising in recent time. It has become a trend and perceived as a winning formula for product marketing and brand building. It is easy to choose a celebrity but it is tough to establish a strong association between the product and the endorser. While the magnitude of the impact of celebrity endorsement remains under the purview of gray spectacles, this paper is an effort to......

Words: 12521 - Pages: 51