Premium Essay

Evolution of Management Accounting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By SASardilla
Words 2288
Pages 10
INTRODUCTION

Robert Samuel Kaplan was born in 1940. He is an American accounting academic, and a Professor of Accounting at Carnegie-Mellon University and Arthur Lowes Dickinson Professor of Accounting at the Harvard Business School. He had wrote a journal entitled “The Evolution of Management Accounting” in 1983. The purpose of this article is to summarize the development of management accounting, including the new demands for management information, and to develop a research strategy to meet these demands

i) THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
(From Robert S. Kaplan point of view)

In his paperwork, he divided it into five sections. • Section 1 - Development of cost accounting practices from the early textile mills and railroads (circa 1850) through the formation of the great industrial enterprises in the U.S. and the emergence of the scientific management approach. • Section 2 - Management control innovations of the DuPont Corporation and the General Motors Corporation after its reorganization by Pierre du Pont and Alfred Sloan in 1920. • Section 3 - Development in cost accounting and managerial control form 1925 to the present. • Section 4 - Challenges from the contemporary environment that may not be met by the accounting practices developed more than 60 years ago for a substantially different competitive situation. • Section 5 - Agenda for field based research to document or develop innovative management control practices appropriate for the changing industrial environment.

ii) A SUMMARY OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

STAGE 1 - COST ACCOUNTING

The development of cost accounting and management control practices in U.S. Corporations has been traced by Thomas Johnson. . During the 1850-1925 period, cost and management control information was used to support the growth of large transportation, production,...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Evolution of Management Accounting

...Evolution of Management Accounting: Contemporary Significance and Retrospection Abstract: The management accounting aim in future forecasting, planning and making decisions for the firm. It is also good at cost managing (cost accounting), improving production and management controlling, for example, the Balance Scorecard and Management Control System. What is evolution? The synonym of evolution is development which means the experiences of its past to present, also means history. Thus, it will introduce the management accounting's history of U.S and China so that we could clarify why China lag behind. Moreover, it would move forward to describe the circumstance today to emphasize the new missions of management accounting. Of course, it would make suggestions for China based on the present and past. Finally, expect the future outlook of management accounting Generally speaking, besides telling readers the main factors of influencing management accounting in China, it aim to encourage and remind readers as well as schoolmates to study the management accounting and notice the significance and potentials of management accounting. Key words: Management Accounting, Cost Accounting, Evolution of Management Accounting, Balance Scorecard, Management Control System. Contents INTRODUCTION 6 1. LITERATURE REVIEW 8 1.1 THE INFLUENCING FACTORS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING 9 1.1.1 Business size, Organizational Structure and Technology 9 1.1.2......

Words: 9769 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Summary Evolution of Management Accounting

...raised of competitive environment that must make us to check thoroughly our traditional cost accounting and management control system. The most important cost accounting text books had been developed by 1925 is explained most the entire practices employed by firm today. Looking down on for the past 60 years, there’s a huge change in management nature and competition dimensions with a few innovation in the design, implementation of cost accounting and management control system. Then, it is not only applicable but important that we understand current practices that reflect on the latest demands for planning and control information, and evolve a research strategy to meet these demands. There are five section of the evolution of management accounting, namely ‘A Summary of Historical Development in Cost Accounting’, ‘Historical Development of Managerial Control’, ‘Development since 1925 in Cost Accounting and Managing Control’, ‘New Challenges for Cost and ‘Managerial Accounting Research’ and ‘New Directions for Management Control Research’. 1. A Summary of Historical Development in Cost Accounting Thomas Johnson has been traced the development of cost accounting and management control practices in US corporations. The history of the development of US corporations in Chandler had been built by this research. During the period 1850-1925 it is very important to know the cost and management control information to support the gain business of transportation, production and......

Words: 958 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Evolution of Management Accounting Practices

...AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICES by Magdy Abdel-Kader University of Essex and Robert Luther University of Bristol WP No. 04/06 October 2004 Address for correspondence: Magdy Abdel-Kader Department of Accounting, Finance and Management University of Essex Colchester Essex CO4 3SQ UK E-mail: mabdel@essex.ac.uk 1 An Empirical Investigation of the Evolution of Management Accounting Practices Magdy Abdel-Kadera and Robert Lutherb a: Department of Accounting, Finance and Management, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, CO4 3SQ (Correspondence address) b: Bristol Business School, U.W.E., Bristol, BS16 1QY The authors are grateful for the constructive comments of participants at the EIASM conference on New Directions in Management Accounting: Innovations in Practice and Research, December 2002, Brussels. Financial support from the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants is acknowledged with gratitude. 2 An Empirical Investigation of the Evolution of Management Accounting Practices Abstract This paper investigates and reports on the status of management accounting practices in UK industry. The analysis operationalises the IFAC statement on Management Accounting Concepts and its description of the evolution of management accounting. The results, based on responses from 123 practising management accountants, suggest that the management accounting employed in many UK industrial companies......

Words: 11706 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Day-1

...1. Evolution of management accounting practices using IFAC model. As per IFAC (1998), there are four stages of evolution of management accounting. Prakash (2013) stated that the framework is provided to explain the developement of management accounting as to promote better understanding in changes in management accounting. Four stages of evolution of the focus of management accounting are shown in the figure 1 and describes as below. Stage 1 occurs prior to 1950 where most of the companies were focusing on cost determination related to stock valuation and the allocation of overheads. Among the accounting techniques that were developed for the cost estimation were Last In First Out (LIFO) and First In First Out (FIFO). Prakash (2013) stated that cost estimation was emphasized because by estimating the cost, managers were able to control their financial position. From 1965 to 1985, companies had moved into generating information for management planning and control. This is because only valuable information can be used to make correct decisions. This stage is using such technologies as decision analysis and responsibility accounting, to help managers choose the right decision oriented towards manufacturing and internal administration rather than strategic and environmental concerns. Management accounting, as part of the management control system tended to be reactive, identifying problems and actions only when deviations from the business plan took place [ (Abdel-Kader......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Evolution of the Cpa Practice

...The Evolution of the CPA Practice Introduction According to Pepe (2011), everyone understands that accounting is the mode of communication in business. It is the channel through which investors and businessmen get to understand whether their investments are worth it or not. It helps in giving the value of an investment at any given time. The contemporary accounting practice and methods are quite diverse. However, they have not been so since the beginning. According to Waweru (2010), there are numerous changes that have marked the evolution of accounting. This research paper seeks to look into the accounting evolution process. Reese and Janes (2012) indicate that accounting has changes both in terms of accounting theories, as well as application of technology in accounting. Therefore, when looking at the history and evolution of accounting, it is imperative to look at the changes that have occurred. These changes are both in theory, and the application of technology in accounting. It is also worth looking at the various accounting theories that have come up. These have to be related to the changes in technology, higher literacy levels, and more complex business operations which call for the review of accounting practices. The need to protect the interest of the public is also a chief reason why changes in the accounting practice needed to occur. This essay looks at the changes both in practice and application of technology. Evolution in Theory and Practice According......

Words: 2417 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Student

...MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING: AN OVERVIEW Learning Objectives      Distinguish between managerial & financial accounting. Understand the evolution of management accounting. Explain about the IFAC model. Understand how managers can use accounting information to implement strategies. Explain about Relevant Lost & Relevant Regained. 2 Learning Objectives      Distinguish between managerial & financial accounting. Understand the evolution of management accounting. Explain about the IFAC model. Understand how managers can use accounting information to implement strategies. Explain about Relevant Lost & Relevant Regained. 3 Accounting System (accumulates financial and managerial accounting data) Managerial Accounting Information for decision making, and control of an organization’s operations. Internal Users Financial Accounting Published financial statements and other financial reports. External Users Managerial Accounting Users of information Managers within company Regulation Financial Accounting Interested outside parties Required. Must comform to Not required because for internal GAAP which is regulated by use only FASB and SEC. Basic accounting system plus Almost exclusively from the Source of Data various other sources basic accounting system Reports often focus on subunits. Reports focus on the enterprise Nature of Reports Based on a combination of in its entirety. Based......

Words: 2550 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

: Role of Cost and Management Accountants in Ifrs Regime

...TITLE: ROLE OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANTS IN IFRS REGIME Personal Details |NAME |CMA. ARINDAM BANERJEE | |QUALIFICATION |MCOM AICWA | |RANK |Faculty Member, United Institute of Management, Allahabad | |Email |arind2001@yahoo.com | |Mobile |09794108735 | | | | |Communication Address |C/O Mr. Salil Chakroborty, | | |198 A, Sarat Bose Road, | | |Kolkata – 700029. | | | | ROLE OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANTS IN IFRS......

Words: 2489 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

History Development of Accounting

...Development in Accounting Theory * General Scientific Period (1800-1955) * Normative Period (1957-1970) * Positive Era (1970s) * Behavioral Research (1980s) Evolution of Double-Entry Book Keeping * Early History of Accounting * 4500-3600 BC -Chaldean Babylonion -Assyrian and Sumerian Egyptian -Chinese( Chao Dynasty) -Greek -Roman * 11th to 13th century -Italian Renaissance * Luca Pacioli’s Contribution * Introduction of double-entry book keeping, Dr and Cr were used for entries to secure double entry. * Three book are used: -memorandum -journal -ledger * Development of double entry * 16th Century: a few changes are made in the book-keeping techniques. * 17th Century: separate inventory accountant for different types of goods. * 18th Century: Three methods of treating fixed assets * 19th Century: depreciating property was accounted for unsold merchandise 4 reasons generally advance to explain the role of double-entry in the economic expansion: * Double-entry contributed to a new attitude toward economic life. * The acquisition was aided and propelled by systematic organisation. * It permits a separation of ownership and promotes the growth of the large joint stock company. * The new rationalism was further and enhance by systematic organization. Capitalism and Accounting * the linked between accounting and capitalism become known as the Sambart thesis or argument that the......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Journal Article

...Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School ftess, 1987) pp. 269. Given the reaction that this book has caused in the management accounting milieu, it seems destined to play an important role in the direction that teaching and research may adopt in the near future. In fact, the accounting literature is already witnessing an increasing number of articles regarding the lack of relevance of management accounting systems (MAS) in the decision making process of the firm. The book of Johnson and Kaplan (J&K) is implicitly divided into three parts. Part I—^The Rise of Management Accounting, chapters 2 through 5, provides an interesting overview of the evolution of management accounting in the United States from the 1880s through the 1920s. According to the authors, MAS were developing and adapting to management's needs, providing relevant, accurate, and timely information. Part II—The Fall of Management Accounting, chapters 6 through 9, analyses and explains the loss of relevance of MAS. Unlike some historians, J&K assert that this was not due to the fact that financial accounting unduly influenced managerial accounting, but to the prohibitive costs of implementing adequate MAS. Part III—Possible Course of Action, chapters 10 and 11, sets out what can be done to recover the relevance of MAS. Tliis review looks at the three parts in tum. The last section provides conclusions. The rise of management accounting In its early years, MAS appeared......

Words: 2820 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Chapter 1

...Managerial Accounting in a y Dynamic Business Environment McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Define Managerial Accounting g g Managerial accounting is the process of Identifying Measuring Analyzing Interpreting Communicating information 1-3 Learning Objective 2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Managing Resources, Activities, and P d People l An organization . . . Directing Acquires Resources Organized set of activities Decision Making Controlling g Planning Hires People 1-5 Learning Objective 3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. How Managerial Accounting Adds Value to the Organization Add V l t th O i ti • Providing information for decision making and planning. • Assisting managers in directing and controlling g g g g activities. g g p y • Motivating managers and other employees towards organization’s goals. • Measuring performance of activities, managers, and other employees. • Assessing the organization’s competitive position. 1-7 Learning Objective 4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Managerial versus Financial Accounting A ti Financial Accounting......

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Week 1 Work

...Week 1: Information Systems in the Digital Firm - Lecture Print This Page Information Systems in the Digital Firm Evolution | Current State | Trends | Tutorial The Evolution, Current State, and Trends of Information Systems In addition to the material currently described, an introduction to cloud computing and user involvement in IT projects also will be included in this lecture. This is required as foundational knowledge for the chapters to come. We will explore it at a business level and a minimal technical level. Evolution The business landscape has changed over the past seventy years in every significant way. Without information systems, these changes would not have occurred. To gain a perspective on the evolution of information systems, we can review the significant computer inventions from the first computer through to cloud computing. As computer technology progressed, new skills had to be learned, and new methods of management evolved to replace old hierarchical styles with new team based methods. Increased productivity resulting in new information technology caused the downsizing of employees that began in the late 1980s and has continued. Information systems consultants identified productivity gains, so large that they cut the numbers in half and still weren't believed. Many of the products and services we use every day had not been invented just five or ten years ago. The ability to communicate electronically with anyone anywhere in......

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Efdsafdsa

...The impact of technology on the public accounting profession By Ricardo Ruiz Bentancourt IC Member | Represents Latin America To ask oneself what impact technology has on  the  public  accountant’s  work  is  redundant.  And  the   reason for this is that the development of technology has been inherent to human progress and it has affected practically all aspects of life; the accounting profession not having escaped this influence. However, if this question were to have been asked merely thirty years ago, the answer would not have been so obvious. In my opinion, the change that has had the greatest impact on this profession is, without doubt, the electronic worksheet. “Visicalc, the first worksheet would take some 20 hours of work per week for an accountant and has now been reduced to 15 minutes, allowing accountants to be more creative”1. When I first used this worksheet back in 1986, I immediately sensed the effect that it would have in my work. In particular, I had that same sensation when another important moment for my practice came about which was the wide-spread use of personal computers - the PCs. At that time, a computer was assigned to me at my job and with it, I was able to perform a series of analyses that complemented the reports issued at that time by an AS 400 from IBM. I even became an expert in Lotus 123 and was given the opportunity to give courses on this program. But this was not only a change at a personal level. Agnes Ann Pepe pointed......

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The Factors Which Changed Auditing

...the world has changed over time physically, economically, and culturally. As the world has evolved, so has business, and as business has evolved so has auditing. The concept of auditing is as old as civilization. The need for a knowledgeable, external, third person to verify transactions or accounts and detect fraud has been present since the advent of trade and accounting. Thus the goal of auditing, in this sense, has not changed since. Teck-Heang Lee observed that “auditing serves as a mechanism to monitor conduct and performance, and to secure and enforce accountability (Lee 2008). All in all, an audit function plays a crucial role in maintain welfare and stability in society.” However, what has changed is how the roles and responsibilities of auditors have changed to reflect the needs of the business environment of the time. As such, auditors and the auditing profession have always played a very important role in business and, more recently, in society in general. As business in today’s world becomes more dynamic, accounting (and therefore by extension auditing) must also evolve to become more dynamic. The evolution of auditing is a complicated history that has always been changing through historical events. This can be seen in the shift in the role of external auditors from a cyclical audit approach to now more of a top-down risk-based continuous audit. The factors that have played a major role in this shift of role and responsibilities are the cycle of fraud,......

Words: 5760 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

How Managerial Accounting Adds Value to the Organizations

...1.0 ABSTRACT Managerial Accounting is tools for business decision making. The use of management accounting information is a key for organizational success. This essay will explain on the importance of managerial accounting process in organization to successfully carrying out the day to day as well as long term activities and goals. First, it describes how the evolution and change in managerial accounting. Second, the essay looks at the role of managerial accountants. Third, it explains several function of managerial accounting that tend to contribute the adds value to organization. 2.0 INTRODUCTION According to the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants ( CIMA ), Management Accounting is defined as the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information for both financial and operating used by management to plan, evaluate and control within an organization and to assure use of and accountability for its resources. The Institute of Management Accountants ( IMA ) defined Management Accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management system and providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formulation and implementation of an organization’s strategy. Managerial accounting applies to all types of business such as service, merchandise and manufacturing. It also applies to all......

Words: 3231 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Fasb: the Next Turn in the Road

...in the Road Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 4 Research Findings 4 FASB Foundation and History……………………………………………………………………4 Impact of the New Code and Globalization………………………………………………………5 Feelings About the New Normal………………………………………………………………….7 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………8 Conclusion 8 References………………………………………………………………………………10 Executive Summary The financial crash of 1929 and the subsequent depression of the 1930’s created the desire an need for the formation of a set of standards for financial reporting and began the evolution toward present day FASB rulings. From the first set of standards it became obvious that this would not be able to be handled informally and by 1972 the FASB was formed so as to be the go to, non-governmental source for all regulations in the accounting industry. However, the formation of this body did not end the evolution or creation of regulations as they continue in the attempt to improve the transparencies of financial reports. This has, in turn, led to a rules oriented mindset that creates far more paperwork than is typically deemed necessary and creates the possibility for confusion and muddies the water. Therefore, many thought that the mission was failing and clarification of information was no longer occurring. For this reason FASB instated its codification clarification database in 2009 with the intention of simplifying access to the rules if not the......

Words: 3695 - Pages: 15