Free Essay

Evolution

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By hatrix
Words 3572
Pages 15
Are Modern Humans Still Evolving?In the year eighteen fifty-nine, Charles Darwin published a book which he called “The Origin of Species”. In this book Darwin theorized that populations evolve over the years through a process called natural selection. Darwin realized that in a population, more individuals were born than could possibly survive, he also recognized that the individuals that survived and reproduced were the ones with some sort of competitive advantage over rival animals, therefore they were more likely to pass their useful traits down to their offspring (Darwin, 1859). As this process of natural selection occurred for millions of years, these desirable traits that were once only prevalent in a few individual animals became common traits for entire species (Winston, 2009). There are countless amounts of evidence that suggest that humans owe their existence to evolution, however, many people are skeptical as to whether or not it is still occurring, and whether or not it is happening in the same way. Some scientists hold that the human race has reached “its biological pinnacle and is no longer capable of changing” (McKie, 2005, ¶1). Alternatively, some experts believe that humans are evolving faster than ever (Sample, 2007), and others believe it is still happening, just on different terms. There has not been any deciding evidence as to whether or not humans are still evolving, however, saying it isn’t happening is a very difficult position to defend. Gene mutations happen at random so saying that humans will never undergo any more evolutionary changes seems very unlikely (Douglas, 2006).

Many scientists and evolutionists believe that the complexion of modern society is changing the means by which natural selection and, consequentially, evolution is occurring. The evolutionary trait of an advanced brain is what defines us as humans; ironically that same brain is what is allowing us to change the rules of evolution. As a result of a number of medical advancements, doctors are able to sustain life that would not have lasted back in Darwin’s time. This means that humans with genetic advantages are not the only ones to survive (Nasrallah, 2009). In today’s world, genes are not as important for survival as they once were, with about ninety-eight percent of children in well-developed areas living until adulthood (Belluz, 2008). When considering how evolution might be happening, experts say the human species may be “in a sort of genetic drift in which changes happen randomly with no driving force behind evolutionary changes” (Douglas, 2006). Upcoming technological advancements may also play a big role in changing the way in which evolution functions. If genetic engineering becomes common, humans will be able to choose certain genes and get rid of others; the future of evolution will be dependent on which genetic traits parents will choose for their children. This would have huge implications; humans would essentially have evolution in their hands (Adams, 2004). It seems that in modern society, humans have more of a say in natural selection than nature and the environment does. Additionally, survival of the fittest has been taken out of the equation with the “survival regardless of fitness” (Nasrallah, 2009) replacing it.

On the other hand, some scientists like to believe that evolution was halted between fifty thousand and a hundred thousand years ago, before the races diverged (Douglas, 2006). Geneticist Steve Jones theorizes that evolution has come to a halt as a result of societal changes on earth (McKie, 2005). He says that natural selection, mutation, and random change were the three things that drove evolution, and he believes that these factors are no longer present in the modern, western society. He further argues that the likelihood of mutations in genes is declining because of a generally younger age for fathers; he says fathers over the age of 35 are more likely to pass on mutations. This is because cell divisions in males increase with age, and increasing the number of cell divisions increases the chance for an error or a mutation (Belluz, 2008). Natural selection is also not as prevalent in modern society, years ago almost half the children died before twenty, whereas nowadays most people reach adulthood regardless of their genetics (Douglas, 2006). The final factor that Jones believed was responsible for the slowing down of evolution is the decreasing of random change in human genes. According to the rules of the animal kingdom, the human population should be ten thousand times smaller than it actually is (Belluz, 2008). Small populations are much more likely to undergo random evolution than large populations because genes can be accidentally lost. Because the earth’s population of humans is so large, it is very unlikely that any genes will be accidentally lost (Belluz, 2008). Furthermore, human races are now being constantly mixed, which makes the likelihood of losing any genes even less (McKie, 2005). Although all of these factors contribute to a change in the way evolution happens, it seems very farfetched that evolution can ever truly be stopped.

In an alternate view, others are convinced that evolution is now happening faster than ever because of the speed at which society is changing. According to a study done at the University of Wisconsin: “in the past 5,000 years, humans have evolved up to 100 times quicker” than ever before (Sample, 2009, ¶1). This increase in the rate of evolution appears to be because of rapid growth in population (Shute, 2008), new mutations are being spread around faster than ever before. One example of a recent addition to the human genome is the ability to digest lactose; this gene became common only about three-thousand years ago and spread through the population very quickly and is now present in most people (Shute, 2008). Also, a gene called microcephalin which regulates brain size, emerged less than sixty thousand years ago is now prevalent in seventy percent of the population (Douglas, 2006). It seems that the rate at which the human population is growing is allowing new mutations to spread quickly through the population, even if natural selection is less prevalent. In the future, scientists predict that genes which defend against disease will be the most rapidly developing part of the human genome. Robin McKie predicts that “In a thousand years, Africa will be populated only by the descendants of those who are currently immune to the AIDS virus” (2005, ¶7). Due to the nature of evolution, no one can predict what humans will look like; however, some scientists have come up with some interesting theories. Alan Boyle hypothesizes that humans will all become much more homogenous, he believes all the races will converge into one (Boyle, 2005). He also speculates about the evolutionary possibilities if humans are able to spread out onto other planets. If humans diverge onto other planets, he believes speciation will occur, and the humans on one planet will evolve into a separate species, distinct from the humans on a different planet (Boyle, 2005).

Evolution is and always has been very unpredictable; there is seemingly no way to determine whether or not evolution is still occurring or what rules it is following. Only one thing seems to be certain in terms of modern evolution, and that is the fact that humans nowadays have more control over their own evolution than they ever did in the past. The human race was able to survive throughout history because they evolved an enlarged and highly developed brain; this same brain is what is now allowing humans to build societies that allow for survival regardless of genetic superiority (Nasrallah, 2009). As a result of new medical technology, humans have the ability to sustain life, cure diseases, and take care of those who are disabled. No longer does survival of the fittest play a role in human society, because in society those who are fit are now finding ways to help those who are unfit (Nasrallah, 2009). The human lifestyle has definitely undergone a change since Darwin wrote the ‘Origin of Species’ in eighteen fifty-nine, and it is almost certain that natural selection has changed since then, however, it is not clear as to what extent the rules of natural selection have been altered. Quite possibly, the rate of evolution could now have been heightened as a result of many technological advancements. Or, evolution could have been halted as a result of human interference with natural selection. Either way, it seems likely that today’s evolutionary patterns will only be uncovered to mankind in the future.

ReferencesAdams, Mike (2004). Top ten technologies: #7:genetic engineering of humans. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Natural News Web site: http://www.naturalnews.com/001337.htmlBelluz, Julia (2008, october 7). Leading geneticist Steve Jones says human evolution is over. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from The Times Online Web site: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article4894696.eceBoyle, Alan (2005, May 2). Human evolution at the crossroads. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from MSNBC Web site: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7103668/Darwin, Charles (1859). Origin of species: By means of natural selection. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc.

Douglas, Kate (2006). Are we still evolving?. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from New Scientist Web site: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18925421.300-are-we-still-evolving.html?page=1McKie, Robin (2005). Is human evolution finally over?. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2005/feb/03/genetics.researchNasrallah, H A (March 2009). Is Darwin still relevant? Advanced human brain breaks evolutionary rules. (Charles Darwin)(Editorial). Current psychiatry, 8, 3. P14. Retrieved March 28,2009, from General Reference Center gold via Gale: http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPSSample, Ian (2007 december 11). Humans are still evolving and it's happening faster than ever. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from The Gaurdian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/dec/11/evolutionShute, Nancy (2008, July 24). Where is human evolution heading?. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from US news Web site: http://www.usnews.com/articles/science/2008/07/24/where-is-human-evolution-heading.html?PageNr=1Winston, Robert (2009). Evolution revolution. New York, NY: DK publishing.
Abstract
Human societies respond to ecological (for example, climate) indicators by means of numerous conduits including break up or break down, resettlement and inventive construction by way of innovation and discovery. Extreme drought, for example, has triggered both communal disintegrate and ingenious administration of water through irrigation. Human answers to change may sequentially regulate responses among weather conditions, communal, and environmental schemes, making a convoluted world broad web of multidirectional attachments in time and space. Ensuring befitting future answers and feedbacks inside the human-environment scheme will count on our comprehending of this past world broad web and how to acclimatize to future surprises. To evolve that comprehending, we are required to gaze at multiple time and space scales.

Introduction Human evolution is the term that denotes the process of evolution which leads up to the manifestation of up to date human. Evolution is a process parallel to the continuous linear progression of time which, in a variable alternating phase-outs increases stagnation-regression, delivers all the factors of phenomenological world organic and inorganic matter, concepts and facts towards achieving their purpose, and that guides human towards increasing their knowledge, a better understanding of the universe, itself, the organization of society and, in principle, to a condition which, in time varied propel it towards its own conquest and its environment increasingly expanded. The learning of evolution of human being engages several logical regulations, together with corporeal anthropology, archaeology, primatology, genetics linguistics, and embryology (Heng, pp. 512–25).

Research Question Are the humans still evolving?

Research Methodology

Research design For this research study, the secondary qualitative research methodology will be conducted.

Secondary and Qualitative Methodology This research study will be based on the data which will collect via secondary research. The data will be extracted from different sources like peer review journal, articles, websites, and different online books. The aim of secondary research will accumulate the information via different sources like broadcast media, literature, publication, and other sources which will be classified as non human interference. This research type will not require any subjects that are pertinent to human subjects. In contrast with the methods of quantitative research, the qualitative research methodologies occupy additional partisanship. The researchers will more information by using the qualitative research methods in secondary and primary research. As this research will be based on the secondary research method, that is the reason that the research will be exploratory and its nature will be open-ended. The advantages of using the qualitative research are that, it is less expensive in comparison with quantitative research methods. Information or data acquisition is more effective and efficient. Researcher should use qualitative methods for their research because it is the right method for collecting information for the research topic. Its viability depends on the type of research; if the data cannot be collected with the quantitative research methods then qualitative methods are the right choice.

Literature Search The implication of the subject of research and the year of publication has been the decisive factor for the compilation of appropriate prose. The practice of private, public, and the online libraries has been prepared for the gathering of the majorly applicable accessible data. Handful online records for the collection of data contacted will be Proquest, Questia, Ebsco, and Phoenix and so on. Apart from the Internet sources the qualitative sources will also been used in this research study.

Data Analysis One of the advantages of secondary qualitative research design in this research study will be that the researcher will be able to concentrate on the already collected data through the authenticated websites and interviews. By using this methodology, research will be conducted in-depth, and note taking will be scrupulous and organized.

Ethical Considerations One deep ethical problem that exploits researchers, during investigation the use of knowledge cannot be avoided. That is why the researcher should consider the ethical reasoning while conducting the research study. The researchers should take the transparent actions and consider a wider range of queries pertinent to aim and objective of the study’s validity and its reliability. Following are some questions that should be consider while conducting any research study: 1. What is the reason for choosing this topic? 2. What are the sources of funding this research study? 3. To what extent does the subject declare or maintain method? 4. Are concerns of ethics and admission understandable or not? 5. From what institutions are the explanations of truth and science obtained? 6. In what manners the problems of demonstration, bias, reliability, and validity are being thrashed out? 7. What is the function of the investigation? In what modes do these prop up the rationale of the research? 8. How this research supplies to understanding and knowledge? A reasonable consideration of what outlines information and of the accuracy with which it is offered must be competent to undergo coherent assessment from different point of views. Provided the complexness’ of nature of human being, complete indulgence is impossible to effect from the exercise of a single methodology of research. By pursuing the ethical proceedings, the investigators will represent the community the approach they choose for inspecting a particular event. With obvious and clear endeavor, it is feasible to value the restricted, but not undividable, regions occupied by natural and social, as a result cooperative approbation for the worth of several outlooks of the experiences of the individuals.

Discussion

Evolution only Evolutionists suppose, and the magistrates have the same opinion that firm constructionism cannot be compulsory in order to be instructed in groups of science course. Whereas stringent conceptionists however put their sabers off, their arguments are mainly controversial, excluding in the public opinion court, because of the blatantly basis of religion of their dispute. To evolutionists such as Eugenie Scott, “Intelligent design is a fancy way of saying ‘God did it’”.

Public Opinion about Evolution Americans separated for years on the issue of evolution with around 45 percent admitting it and 45 percent refusing it, and the rest of the natives ambivalent. This ratio of recognition is greatly extraordinary amongst developed populations, where in general 80 percent or high of the natives admit development, the majority of the rest are uncertain, and a small number of people decline the concept completely (Dean, pp. 16). A range of opinion polls show numerous appealing approaches regarding how the group analyzes evolution.

Life-History Evolution in Modern Humans In spite of exercising civilization and expertise as methods of becoming accustomed with latest surroundings, human beings, similar to every other living thing in the world, go through inherent alterations as a reaction to circumstances in relation to them or in this incidence, constructive characters in their genetic materials. Extraordinarily only some experimental researches of worldly transforms in traits of life-history in human beings have judged as hypotheses of micro evolution. Indeed, these ought not to be rejected a past only as an abrupt non-genetic rationalization may be present. Particularly, expected assortment on timing of reproduction come s out to be prevalent in human beings, while “at first reproduction (AFR)” was uncovered to be genetic in some modern inhabitants, with an average of 0.11of transverse- study (Stearns, Byars, Govindaraju, Ewbank, pp. 611–622). Furthermore, as a minimum one more research revealed a depressing covariance of genes in between AFR and LRS [in an American populace (Byars, Ewbank, Govindaraju, Stearns, pp.1787–1792)], which is a superior interpreter of the feedback to collection as compared to the equation of the breeder (Morrissey, Kruuk, Wilson, pp. 2277–2288). Obviously, the capacity for inherited feedbacks of the type studied at this point is not only restricted to the population of île aux Coudres. Though, just by the extensive relevance of the techniques utilized at this juncture to further populations of human being can launch their generalization. It is frequently declared that contemporary human beings have discontinued developing and evolving for the reason that technological and cultural developments have eradicated ordinary range. On the contrary, latest research studies demonstrate that the collection can be powerful in modern populace. Although, identifying a reaction to collection is demanding on the whole; prior facts from uncultivated animals has been censured for equally relating anti-conventional tests of statistics and worsening to think about unsystematic flow of genes. As accounted for communities, innate choice privileged a prior period of age “at first reproduction (AFR)” amongst females. AFR was extremely transmissible and hereditarily associated with health as well, expecting a micro change in evolution on the way to prior reproduction. In harmony with this prophecy, AFR rejected from around 26 to 22 years over a period of 140 years. Significantly, a substantial change was uncovered in the values of breeding for this attribute, demonstrating that the revolution in AFR fundamentally took place at the level of genetics. In addition, the trend of inheritance was greater than anticipated underneath the outcome of unaccompanied indiscriminate drift of genetics. The outcomes reveal that the micro-evolution can be demonstrable in excess of comparatively only some age groups in individuals and give emphasis to the necessity for learnings of demography of human being and ecology of reproduction to think about the position and responsibility of the processes of evolution.

Conclusion The theme of evolution of modern humans has congregated much concentration in latest history, for the reason that scientists have discovered confirmation of connection between the genus that no longer survive in current humanity among groups that continue living in this globe (Bergson, 175-161). The record outlined the open debate on evolution of genus from the book “Origin of Species” by Charles Darwin, though a lot of thoughts in that book were unsuccessful to present powerful substantiation and dispute of what Darwin declares but the humanity is at the moment observing loads of genus which have been developed from one structure to a new for their continued existence. Evolution is a process parallel to the continuous linear progression of time which, in a variable alternating phase-outs increases stagnation-regression, delivers all the factors of phenomenological world organic and inorganic matter, concepts and facts towards achieving their purpose, and that guides human towards increasing their knowledge, a better understanding of the universe, itself, the organization of society and, in principle, to a condition which, in time varied propel it towards its own conquest and its environment increasingly expanded.
Works Cited

Bergson, H. Creative evolution. Mineola, NY: Dover. (1998). pp. 175-161 (Original work published 1907)
Birx, H. J. Interpreting evolution: Darwin & Teilhard de Chardin. Amherst, NY: (1991). pp. n.d Prometheus Books.
Byars, S.G., Ewbank, D., Govindaraju, D.R., Stearns, S.C. “Colloquium papers”: Natural selection in a contemporary human population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(Suppl 1): (2010), pp.1787–1792.
Hamer, Dean The God Gene: How Faith Is Hardwired Into Our Genes. Anchor Books. (2005). pp. 16.
Heng, H.H., "The genome-centric concept: resynthesis of evolutionary theory". BioEssays 31 (5): May, 2009. pp. 512–25.
Morrissey, M.B., Kruuk, L.E.B., Wilson, A.J. The danger of applying the breeder’s equation in observational studies of natural populations. J Evol Biol 23: (2010), pp. 2277–2288.
Stearns, S.C., Byars, S.G., Govindaraju, D.R., Ewbank, D. Measuring selection in contemporary human populations. Nat Rev Genet 11: (2010), pp. 611–622.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Evolution

...ION * PART A. Examine the mechanisms of evolution. * Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient ancestors (Evolution, N.D.) The four mechanisms that allow evolution to take place are genetic drift, gene flow, mutations, and natural selection. All of these mechanisms happen naturally and are necessary for evolution to take place. Genetic drift is the random change in gene or allele frequency with which an allele variation occurs in a small population. Genetic drift is simple change. Two different genetic drifts that can change the size of a population are the bottleneck effect and the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). The bottleneck effect occurs during drastic changes in an alleles population causing the population to have some alleles that may be underrepresented or eliminated completely (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Chance may affect the alleles population for generations until the population will become large enough to allow sampling errors to be considered insignificant (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Genetic drift in a new colony is called the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). It is likely to occur when a few individuals colonize an isolated area (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). When a colony migrates away from a larger population its gene pool becomes least representative of the larger colony it migrated from (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Gene flow is the genetic exchange of......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Evolution

...Evolution Abstract One paragraph… The discussion on the origin and fate of the universe continues to revolve around creationists and evolutionary ideas, though creationism positions arise mainly of religion and philosophy, while the evolution is postulated mainly from science. One wonders if possible convergence in these fields in the discussion, that is, if you can address both creationism and evolutionism from science, philosophy and religion. Theory of Evolution In science the theory of evolution explains the huge variety of life arising by postulating a process of transformation through changes in genes that lead to new adaptations to the environment. By studying the genetic structure of living beings is a verifiable fact that they are related to each other and, therefore, aims to have a common origin as the emergence of new species due to the accumulation of changes that do diverge and take different paths to adaptation to the environment. In the scientific world, biological evolution represents the interpretative key of the living world. Life began about 3500 makes 4000 million years in the form of single-celled organisms without nuclei and took about two billion years to produce the first eukaryotes (unicellular organisms with nuclei), so the start was given very slowly. However, in evolutionary history there are times with a high evolutionary rate as the Cambrian period (540 to 520 million years, they were many forms of multicellular life). They also......

Words: 2014 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Evolution

...Evolution within the field of Physical Anthropology is the Idea that “species change over time and have a common ancestry”(Park 2009, p36). With this in mind, the field of Physical Anthropology, also known as Biological Anthropology, can be used to explore and investigate the evidence of the human evolution. Within Biological Anthropology, evolution is observed as the change of humans and human ancestors over time. These changes that occur do not take place over night, nor do they happen over a decade. It takes thousands of years to produce changes in an organism to the effect that it would be classified as evolution. Physical Anthropologists study the remains of Hominins and other ancestors of humans to discover the link that connects us all. They also study other creatures to compare them to humans in an effort to understand where humans come from and what makes us human (Gonder, 2013). One way that Physical Anthropologists have found links of evolution from early Humans and Neanderthals is through dental evidence found and investigated by Professor Alan Mann. He concluded that modern humans did in fact evolve from Neanderthals by finding links in the dental history of each species. Though his evidence is disputed by some, like any other scientific evidence, there have been some that support him and have come to the same conclusion of the relationship between Humans and Neanderthals. One piece of evidence that supports his theory is from a group of researchers from......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution

...being taught in schools. Although we are known as a Christian country, religious ideas in public places are frowned upon or replaced. Now, scientific theories- evolution and the big bang- are being taught as fact to students across the nation. This is a growing problem because evolution is not a fact, only a weak theory based on misinterpreted evidence. There are two types of evolution being taught. One type, also known as natural selection or species adaptation, is when specific changes occur in one species. According to Roger Patterson, author of Evolution Exposed, natural selection is how a species changes, or evolves, in short periods of time. For example, one breed of dog evolved slightly to create the many different breeds of dogs we have now. This makes sense. Why? All dogs are similar to each other. You could say the same for birds, fish, cats, or any other animal. However, the theory of evolution says every living thing on the earth- plants, humans, animals and microscopic organisms- originated from only one organism. This is unrealistic. Natural selection can be tested and observed. On the other hand, the theory of evolution should not be taught as logical, evident factual information because it has not been scientifically proven as most of the non-Christian scientific world would tell you. Along with evolution, a theory for the origin of life, we have the Big Bang Theory, a theory for the origin of our universe. According to Dr. Jason Lisle, author of The......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Evolution

...The beginning of the earth has been a mystery, boggling the minds of the erudite and the simple minded alike for years. The topic of creation vs. evolution has become increasingly controversial. In biology, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though changes produced in any one generation are normally small, differences accumulate with each generation and can, over time, become substantial changes in the population. Such similarities among species suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pools process of gradual divergence). Evolution is supported in many different ways, but one major category pointing to its validity is fossils. Through fossil dating, hominoid fossils, and, evolution has become the theory accepted by the majority of those in the scientific forefront. Evolution is supported through fossil records. The study of the sequence of occurrence in rocks reveals the relative time in which organisms lived. This technique shows that one layer of rock is older or younger than another. Later through the discovery of radioactivity, scientists were given the opportunity to learn the age of fossils and rocks . Through these records, a vague timeline is illustrated of the evolutionary change that has been occurring over the past four billion years. This proves that the earth is much older then creationist would like to argue. A popular......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Evolution

...Search for Evolutionary Proof Arjumand Parham Sci 115 7/24/12 Dr. Freeman Search for Evolutionary Proof “Our ability to grasp, to build, and make out thoughts real lie inside this complex system of bones, nerves and vessels.” –Neil Shubin These things would only be possible through evolution. Evolution is any process of formation or growth and development, without it we wouldn’t be here today. Evolution though only an theory has an massive backing within the science community; many fossils, scientist and scientific studies have all but proved evolution indefinitely. The proof for evolution is massive and profound; fossils and carbon dating are absolute proof that creatures very similar to us not only lived but were evolving and walking around. African hominids such as the bipedal Australopithecus afarensis or “Lucy” are some of the most profound examples of evolutionary history. Unlike a common monkey Lucy was a bipedal specimen which meant she walked upright much like an human. What makes her such an amazing discovery is the fact that she was about three-million to almost four-million years old. Scientist from every side of the spectrum have gathered to try to make this theory fact. Neil Shubin paleontologist and archeologist said” We were not designed rationally, but are products of a convoluted history”. The history of the human body is convoluted in every sense of the word; there are approximately three-billion-five-hundred-million years of history in the......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Evolution

...The theory of evolution, formalized by Charles Darwin, is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Unlike theories of physics, biological theories, and especially evolution, have been argued long and hard in socio-political arenas. Even today, evolution is not often taught in primary schools. However, evolution is the binding force of all biological research. It is the unifying theme. In paleontology, evolution gives workers a powerful way to organize the remains of past life and better understand the one history of life. The history of thought about evolution in general and paleontological contributions specifically are often useful to the workers of today. Science, like any iterative process, draws heavily from its history. It is a FACT that the earth with liquid water, is more than 3.6 billion years old. It is a FACT that cellular life has been around for at least half of that period and that organized multicellular life is at least 800 million years old. It is a FACT that major life forms now on earth were not at all represented in the past. There were no birds or mammals 250 million years ago. It is a FACT that major life forms of the past are no longer living. There used to be dinosaurs and Pithecanthropus, and there are none now. It is a FACT that all living forms come from previous living forms. Therefore, all present forms of life arose from ancestral forms that were different. Birds arose from nonbirds and humans from nonhumans. No......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Evolution

...*Q: What is Evolution? - Descent from modification * Macro Evolution (Large Scale Evolution) * Common Ancestor - descent of different species over many generations * OVER LARGER TIMESCALE (ex. Speciation) * Micro Evolution (Small Scale Evolution) * Changes in gene (allele) frequency in population from one generation to the next * May be over shorter time period (generations) * BOTH OF THESE IMPLY: * 1. Common Ancestry * 2. Changes through time *Natural selection occurs when 3 conditions are met; results in evolution * 1. There is variation in a trait * (Ex. Beetle color) * 2. The trait is heritable * (Ex. Brown beetles tends to have brown babies) * 3. There is differential reproductive success, and not all individuals reproduce to their full potential * (Ex. Green beetles are selected against by natural and Brown beetles are selected for- so they reproduce more) *Adaption: A trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared with individuals without the trait Adaption in an evolutionary context: An inherited trait that makes an organism more fit in its abiotic and biotic environment, and that has arisen as a result of the direct action of natural selection for its primary function. Ex. Mimicry of the non-toxic king snake to evade predators Natural selection leads to Adaptions * Adjustments or changes In behavior,......

Words: 4620 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evolution is what has allowed humans beings to become the complex organisms that we are today. This long and interesting process has taken millions of years to occur. There is a significant amount of evidence found in living and non living species that the first human ancestors lived approximately 6 million years ago. There is still a few holes in the theory of evolution that can’t quite be explained yet, but scientist have a pretty clear understanding of where, why and how humans evolved. The family Hominidae or hominids, is defined as including humans and the great apes. Scientists further split up this family into two sub-families, one of which is the hominins, which includes humans and their ancestors since the time of divergence from the common ancestors of humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos. The oldest known human ancestor is A. tchadensis. The first evidence of this species was named Toumai and was found in Chad, Africa. It is believed that A. tchadensis inhabited the part of Africa that we now call Chad about seven to six million years ago. Based on Toumai’s cranial characteristics it is believed that this species was bipedal. Fossils have also been found from a different species in Ethiopia. According to the fossil records this species called A. ramidus lived about 4.4 million years ago and were definitely bipedal. The famous fossil of “Lucy” unveiled yet another species that is a common ancestor of humans called A. afarensis. A. afarensis live approximately 3.3......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evolution

... For this stop, Darwin a fact that characteristics ended up being picking the higher quality beak form above the fewer helpful types. Darwin can be both equally acknowledged with discovering co-evolution and also convergent development while in the getaway for the HMS Beagle (Loxton, 2010). Convergent development happened any time different types developed individually any time subjected to similar choice conditions. Thus, convergent development grew to become obvious in divergent types such as placental mammals and also marsupials; camel and also sharks and also for the pearly white's and also head associated with mammals. However, corp development happened any time 2 types demonstrated a intimately related evolutionary record (Pickrell, 2006). For instance, corp development happened concerning bug pollinators such as bees plus the blooming crops. References Loxton, D. (2010). Evolution. Toronto: Kids Can Press. Pickrell, J. (2006, September 4). Introduction: Evolution - life - 04 September 2006 - New Scientist. Science news and science jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist. Retrieved November 22, 2012, from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9953-introduction- evolution.html?full=true Ruse, M., & Travis, J. (2009). Evolution: the first four billion years. Cambridge, Mass.: elknap Press of Harvard University Press....

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution

...Menneskets evolution Beskriv nedenstående figur: (stamtræet) Dette stamtræ visser menneskets udvikling igennem flere millioner af år. Den viser for 18 millioner af år siden skete der en mutation og en art har udviklet sig i forskellige retninger. Stamtræet viser den evolutionære udvikling en monofyletisk gruppe, der består af mennesket og de tre store menneskeaber. Disse arter tilhører gruppen primater, der er en del af hvirveldyrene og herunder de placentale pattedyr. Som det ses på figuren har alle fire grupper en fælles stamform for ca. 18 mio. år siden. Herfra har orangutangen udviklet sig forskelligt fra mennesket, chimpansen og gorillaen. For ca. 6,1 mio. år siden udviklede gorillaen sig evolutionært i en anden retning end mennesket og chimpansen. Chimpansen er den tættest nulevende relaterede art til mennesket. Herudover ses det at australopithecus afarensis deler stamfar med mennesket, men uddør for omkring 2,5 mio. år siden. Figur 1. figur 2. Figur 3. Forklar princippet i DNA-DNA hybridisering – Brug herunder de tre ovenstående figurer. (Husk at være klare og præcise i sproget) DNA- DNA hybridisering er en analyse af slægtskabet mellem to arter fx mennesket og menneskeaberne. Hydriseringer sker uanset om DNA strengene er af forskellig oprindelse, men jo de to DNA strenge hybridiserer, jo tættere beslægtet er de to arter. For at DNA’et kan blive til et enkeltstrenget DNA opvarmes det, hvorefter det blandes sammen, blandingen afkøles og nogle af......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Evolution

...Many different theories of human evolution cause people to think one way or another on how humans came about. The process of natural selection can easily be known as one of the most popular ideas that have dominated the beliefs of many people. Having a common ancestor is the act of descent with modification. There are many different species that are classified into groups depending on how they adapt. These groups of mammals have been given certain names depending on the lifestyle in which the species are adapted. These may range from living in water to being airborne, burrowing in the ground, open grassland, predation, and even trees. Cetaceans are the marine mammals. Chiroptera are the mammals that have the ability to fly, mostly known as the bat. Rodentia are the mammals known as the rodents. Ungulata are the mammals that are known as being hoofed. Carnivora are the mammals that are predators. Lastly, the primates are the mammals that are arboreal or live in trees.The common ancestor for humans happens to be those who adapted to living in trees. Humans are known as mammals. They have an adaptation that makes them survive called the mammary gland. This is an organ that produces milk to breast feed offspring. The word mammal in fact comes from mammary which is interesting enough why the young usually learn their first word as "mamma." All mammals happen to have a chemical that leads to the relationship between a mother and child. This hormone is called oxytocin. They are......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evidence of Evolution Introduction: Evolution is usually defined as the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms. Inherited traits are particular distinguishing characteristics. Evolution may occur when there is variation of inherited traits within a population. The major sources of such variation are mutation, genetic recombination and gene flow. This process has produced all the diversity of living organisms. Charles Darwin characterized the result as endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful. It has always been debated if there is any evidence of evolution and in what fields, in this report we will give a brief summary concerning: • DNA Evidence of Evolution • Biological Evidence of Evolution DNA Evidence of Evolution: DNA molecules are complex molecules which contain the assembly instructions for every living creature. Certain aspects of DNA have been interpreted as evidence for Darwinian evolution. DNA evidence for evolution includes mutations, genetic similarities among species, so-called “Junk DNA” and “Pseudogenes.” The fact that mutations can corrupt DNA is important for the Darwinian paradigm because in order for an organism to eventually evolve into an entirely different organism, changes must be made to the creature’s genome over time. But Darwinian evolution needs more than just change. It needs an increase in genetic information. Critics point out that genetic mutation does not appear to provide a...

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Evolution

...Tanner Pardue #16 Video 1 essay: Is it correct to say the evolution is just a theory? Is Gravity just a theory? Many people would argue about weather Evolution is a fact or theory. There are certain characteristics that make a theory a theory and a fact a fact. A theory is something that is thought to have happened or why something happens etc. but a theory is something that hasn’t been proven. When someone’s theory is proven it is considered a fact. So with knowing this I must agree that Evolution is just a theory because there is no complete proof or evidence to prove support or back up the theory of evolution. Therefore due to the definition of a fact and theory evolution must be a theory. Too me Gravity is not a theory. I believe this because gravity has laws; each law explains how gravity works. When these laws are tested in both environments with and without gravity the laws are proven to be true and work. Therefore due to the definition of a Fact in my personal opinion gravity would be a fact since the laws of it can be proven to be true. Video 2 essay: Why was Darwin considered to be a “revolutionary”? Charles Darwin is one of the most famous biologists in history. With a Theory called Natural selection he helped prove that biology makes since and how all species evolve to be designed how they are over time. As he studied the Galapagos Islands off South America he observed many different species of animals. He looked at how they reacted around......

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Evolution

...Evolution Evolution is something that made us human beings today; it had a great impact in our world and made us who we are. Natural selection is something that has to do a lot with evolution. Natural selection defines something, most likely specie that experiences a huge change in characteristics and traits such as looks, movements and the way they live. Adaptation is also something that relates hugely to evolution. Adaptation is when species become comfortable with the environment around them. Adaptation allows them to improve their conditions of living and it permits them to live easier (Sheiner, p. 1106). Natural selection and adaptation are both things that occur in the process of evolution. When species go into the process of evolution they experience both natural selection and adaptation because they go through an amount of characteristically and environmental changes. Evolution, adaptation and natural selection all had major impacts on our world and how it turned out to be today. Without evolution, our world would be completely different, as us humans would not exist. Species are important factors of evolution. By watching “Walking with Cavemen” and reading “Natural Selection” by Scheiner I was able to understand and observe the changes throughout time, and how us humans were created. Species like boisei, ergaster, and afarensis have made impacts on the way we are. We learnt many things from them and adapted to our environment similar to them. In......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2