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第 22 卷 第 2 期
2006 年 3 月

国际经贸探索
INTERNA
TIONA ECONOMICS A

ND TRA RESEA
DE
RCH

实质性损害威胁: 确定倾销损害存在的第二条标准


要: 在以往的反 倾 销 案 例 中 , 有 关 当 局 大 都 是 采 用 确 定 倾 销 损 害 的 第 一 条 标 准 , 即 实 质 性 损
害的存在来确定倾销损害的成立, 而对判定倾销损害存在的第二标准和第三标准却 鲜有
援引。
文章 试 图 通 过 对 有 关 反 倾 销 案 例 的 观 察 与 分 析 , 阐 明 判 定 倾 销 损 害 存 在 的 第 二 条
标准即实质性损害威胁在反倾销实践中的运用。

关键词: 反倾销; 实质性损害; 实质性损害威胁
中图分类号: D996
文献标识码: A



文章编号: 1002- 0594 ( 2006 ) 02- 0048- 03

收稿日期: 2005- 09- 27

何国家的反倾销主管当局在决定对某项进口产品征收反倾销税时, 都必须同
时考虑三个前提条件: 证明倾销的存在、
确定倾销损害的存在、
证明倾销与损

害之间存在着某种因果关系, 三者缺一不可。
各国反倾销法也都规定了确定损害存
在的三个标准: 即实质性损害、
实质性损害威胁和实质性阻碍一国产业的建立。

的解释, 损害



《协议》 第三条对
“损害的确定”
WTO 1994 年反倾销协议》 以下简称
一词的广义概念是指对某一国内产业的实质性损害、对一国内产业的实质损害威
胁或对一国内产业建立的实质性阻碍。
在各国反倾销实践中, 大多采用的是第一条
标准, 即以实质性损害来确定损害的存在。
但随着国际市场竞争的日趋激烈, 贸易
保护主义势力日益增强, 各国反倾销有关当局援用后两个标准的机会不断增多。

一《 协议 》
对实质性损害威胁的规定

实质性损害威胁是指一国在反倾销调查时, 进口国的某一产业虽然没有达到如
第一条标准所规定的实质性损害的境地, 但如果反倾销当局能用事实证明将会导致
这种境地, 就可以成为主管当局认定倾销产品对该国产业造成损害的第二个标准,
如果审查结果是肯定的, 就可能成为征收反倾销税的依据。
纵观各国反倾销法对实
质性损害威胁的规定, 表达的意思基本一致。 《1994 年反倾销协议》
第三条 7
WTO
款规定: 对实质性损害威胁的确定应依据事实, 而不是依据指控、
推测或极小的可

能性。
倾销将造成损害发生的情形变化必须是能够明显预见且迫近的。
在做出有关
存在实质性损害威胁时, 主管机关应特别考虑下列因素: ( 1) 倾销进口产品进入国内

宫桓刚

市场的大幅增长率, 表明进口实质增加的可能性; ( 2) 出口商可充分自由使用的或即
将实质增加的能力, 表明倾销出口产品进入进口成员市场实质性增加的可能性, 同

东 北 财 经 大 学

时考虑吸收任何额外出口的其他出口市场的可获性; ( 3) 进口产品是否以将对国内价

国际商务外语学院

格产生大幅度抑制或压低影响的价格进入, 是否会增加对更多进口产品的需求; ( 4)

辽 宁 大 连 1 16025

被调查产品的库存情况。这些因素中的任何一个本身都未必能够给予决定性的指

作者简介:
宫桓刚 1957-) ,

男, 辽宁丹东人, 教
授, 研究方向为国

导, 但被考虑因素作为整体必须得出如下结论, 即更多的倾销出口产品是迫近的, 且
除非采取保护性行动, 否则实质性损害将会发生。 在该条第 8 款中还指出

“对于倾
销进口产品造成实质性损害威胁的情况, 实施反倾销措施的考虑和决定应特别慎
重。 可见, 实质性损害威胁的存在必须是真实的、
迫近的、
有根据的、
可预见的; 而不


际贸易实务与惯

能是一种假设、
推测、
怀疑或遥远的事实。
要想确定实质性损害威胁的存在, 进口国

例、反倾销法律与

主管当局要有充分的理由和证据, 证明倾销产品会大量增加, 比如证明已经有大量

实务。

的在途货物存在, 或证明出口国拥有生产同类产品的巨大能力或大量闲置设备, 或

48

Vol. 22 No.2
Mar.2006







遭受实质性损害的威胁①。

出口国确定继续扩大对进口国的出口, 或进口国免
税仓库中积压大量的进口产品, 或库存将大量增加

另外一起与实质性损害威胁相关的案例是

等等。
另外, 确定实质性损害威胁, 某种产业受到的

印度等 国 的 钢 丝 绳 反
2000 年 4 月, 在美国对中国、

应该是一种现实的威胁, 如果不及时采取反倾销措

倾销案中, 美国国际贸易委员会的最终裁定中做出

施, 则实质性损害必然发生。
相同产业是受到倾销产

了不存在实质性损害威胁的结论, 否定了初裁中认

品的损害威胁还必须是已经造成实际的、实质性损

为有合理证据表明美国国内产业因倾销而受到实质

害, 这是区别实质性损害与实质性损害威胁的重要

性损害或实质性损害威胁的结论。国际贸易委员会

特征。

在终裁中认为: 首先, 没有证据证明中印两国生产能

二 、 与实质性损害威胁相关的反倾
销实践

力及生产能力的利用率的增长会导致美国进口的大
其次, 尽管中印被指控在欧盟市场倾销, 但两国以欧

迄今为止, 在各国以实质性损害威胁为标准来

盟为市场的产品已大部分转移至亚洲、加拿大和其

确定损害存在, 从而采取反倾销措施的案例并不多

他发展中国家, 不会对美国市场形成威胁; 第三, 虽

见。
美国是受到实质性损害威胁最多的国家, 对这一

然美国的钢丝绳库存量有所增加, 其中包含法尔胜

标准的研究与防范也比较深入, 乌拉圭回合后美国

公司生产的不包括在本案调查范围之内的钢丝绳,

在对反倾销法所作的最新修改中, 进一步明确和简

委员会还认为美国钢丝绳库存量的增加还不足以达

化了确定实质性损害威胁的判断标准, 更加注重对

到形成损害威胁的程度; 第四, 该委员会还认为, 在

产品存量这一因素的考虑, 只要进口产品的存量达到

不远的将来中印钢丝绳产品不存在以抑制美国国内

一定程度, 就可以确定为实质性损害威胁, 足见美国

市场价格的低价进入美国市场。美国国际贸易委员

反倾销法赋予进口产品存量因素的决定性意义。
美国

会最终认定, 中国和印度的钢丝绳产品在美国市场

反倾销法的这一新变化与其 20 世纪 80 年代受到日

的低价销售没有对美国国内产业构成实质性损害威

本彩电倾销时所采取的
不无关系 。
“库存猝死法”

胁。

幅增加, 因为两国的国内市场消耗了其大部分产品;

[1]

在 20 世纪 80 年代以来的两起对华反倾销案的

在美国与加拿大两国关于软木进口倾销的争议

调查中, 美国国际贸易委员会也曾试图采用实质性

案中, 尽管加拿大政府一再向 WTO 提出申诉, 但美

损害威胁的标准。
1988 年 5 月, 美国帽子协会对中

国国际贸易委员会还是于 2004 年 11 月对原产于加

国出口美国的帽子产品提出反倾销起诉, 经过实地

拿大的软木进口做出了产业损害的裁决, 认为美国

考察, 1989 年 4 月美国国际贸易委员会做出否定终

国内产业受到了来自加拿大软木进口的实质性损害

裁, 此案最后以我方胜诉而告终。
美国国际贸易委员

威胁。
美加两国关于软木进口的争议由来已久, 2002

会在决定被诉产品是否对国内制帽行业构成实质性

年, 加拿大向美国出口了价值约 60 亿美元的木材,

损害威胁时, 具体考虑了中方是否具有能力增加生

占到美国木材市场的三分之一, 迫于国内生产商的

产, 从而导致增加向美国出口的能力; 进口对美国国

压力, 2002 年 5 月, 美国国际贸易委员会裁定对接

内的渗透能力以致达到损害程度的可能性; 进口价

受政府补贴的加拿大软木将会在美国市场激增, 对

格对国内价格上涨的抑制能力的可能性; 进口库存

美国国内的相关产业存在实质性损害威胁, 于是商

大幅增加的可能性等。
通过一系列的调查与听证会,

务 部 下 令 向 进 口 的 加 拿 大 软 木 征 收 2.18% 至

国际贸易委员会最后认为, 实质性损害威胁必须是

12.44% 的倾销税。2004 年 3 月, 世贸组织争端解决

事实上存在的威胁, 从中国进口的帽子因受到多边

机构专家小组做出裁决, 认定美国国际贸易委员会

纺织品协定的限制, 扩大出口的可能性不大。
在对该

所做出裁决缺乏客观和公正性, 违反反倾销和反补

产品进行调查期间, 国内价格依然上升, 说明进口产

贴协议的相关条款, 所征收的反倾销税和反补贴税

品价格并未对国内价格上涨产生抑制作用。国际贸

违反世贸组织规则①。

易委员会还认为, 由于进口配额的管制, 中国没有理
口帽子的数量已开始下降, 中国已经着手开拓美国

三 、 确定实质性损害威胁应考虑的
其它因素

以外的其他市场。美国国际贸易委员会的最后结论

1997年 1 月, 墨西哥糖酒工业协会向墨西哥商

是美国国内帽子行业没有因中国进口帽子的倾销而

业与工业发展秘书处递交申请, 声称美国以倾销价

由因为要向美出口而扩大生产, 而且中国对美国出

49



第 22 卷 第 2 期
2006 年 3 月

国际经贸探索
INTERNA
TIONA ECONOMICS A

ND TRA RESEA
DE
RCH

格向墨西哥出口高糖玉米糖浆, 对墨西哥国内产业

最一般性的要求。
从第三条 4 款所使用的
“应当包括

造成了实质性损害威胁, 要求政府发起反倾销调查。


(should include)” “所 有 有 关 经 济 因 素 (all relevant

1998 年 1 月, 调查当局对涉案产品做出了倾销与损

的 economic factors) ” 用 词 来 看 , 对 第 三 条 4 款 所 列

害存在的肯定性终裁, 并随后采取了最终反倾销措

的各项因素进行审查是确定实质性损害威胁的一项

施。
而美国方面认为, 墨西哥当局关于实质性损害威

不可缺少的义务。反倾销有关当局对上述任何应审

胁的裁定不符合
第三条的总体要求, 因为对
《协议》

查因素的忽略都可能导致所做出的裁决缺乏依据。

实质性损害威胁的裁定不能仅限于对
第三条
《协议》

因此, 专家小组的审查结论是: 墨西哥关于存在实质


《协议》
7 款所列的四项因素进行审查, 还应给予

性损害威胁的裁决不符合其根据 《协议》第三条 1

三条 4 款所列因素对国内产业的影响进行评估, 要

款、
三条 4 款和三条 7 款所应承担的责任。
因此, 墨

求成立专家小组 。 协议》
第三条 4 款的内容是

“关

西哥玉米糖浆一案不仅成为
生效以来, 第一
《协议》

于倾销进口产品对国内产业影响的审查应包括对影

个以实质性损害威胁为标准来确定倾销损害存在的

响产业状况的所有有关经济因素和指标的评估, 包

例证, 也成为如何使用
第三条 7 款以及如何
《协议》

括销售、
利润、
产量、
市场份额、
生产力、
投资收益或

理解第三条 7 款与第三条 4 款之间关系的一个很好

设备利用率实际和潜在的下降; 影响国内价格的因

的说明。

[2]

素; 倾销幅度大小; 对现金流动、
库存、
就业、
工资、

长、
筹措资金或投资能力的实际和潜在的消极影响。

注释 :

该清单不是详尽无遗的, 这些因素中的一个或多个

① 本文中关于中国帽子遭美反倾销及美加关于软木进口倾销的资
料均来自中国贸易救济信息网。

均未必能够给予决定性的指导。
”专家小组认为, 在
涉及实质性损害威胁的案件中, 墨西哥当局不仅要
考虑第三条 7 款所要求的特别因素, 还应该考虑第

参考文献:
〔 1 〕 宋 和 平 , 黄 文 俊 . 反 倾 销 法 律 制 度 概 论 [M]. 北 京 : 中 国 检 察 出 版

三条 4 款所规定的一般因素。因为第三条中所指的
一词应该包括实质性损害、
实质性损害威胁
“损害”

社, 2001 : 65- 66.
〔 2 〕 陈 静 . 案释 WTO 反倾销协议 [M]. 北京: 对外经济贸易大学出版
社, 2002 : 51- 102.

和实质性阻碍产业建立这样三个标准。而第三条 4
款所列出的十五项因素是对此三类损害确定标准的

Thr eat of Mater ial Har m: The second cr iter ion for confir ming the dumping Har m
GONG Hua n- ga ng
(Dongbei University of Finance & Economics, Dalian 116025 , China )
Abstr act: In previous anti- dumping cases, the authorities concerned only apply the first criterion to confirm the dumping harm. It is rarely seen that the second and the third criteria are applied. The paper, by examining the relevant ani- dumping cases, attempts to discuss the application of the second criterion- the threat of materi- al harm- in determining dumping harm in anti- dumping practices.
Key wor ds: anti- dumping; material harm; threat of material harm
( 责任编校

50



捷)

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...EXAM An exam is an official test that shoes your knowledge or ability in a particular subject. Some people, however, argue that exam only is a kind of memory skill. They say that many people have a good memory and a special ability to pass exams and achieve brilliant results, though they have no capacity for original thought or imagination. But it should be realized that today the syllabuses are so extensive that a student cannot expect to pass an examination by relying entirely on his memory. There are many good things about the exam but also have bad things too. The exam is important to everyone because you can know your real knowledge that you really know. From the exams, you can also know your weakness. The exams require us to manage our time and to plan well. This can help us develop our management skills. If you have the plan to do something, you will be a diligent person. Many students that extra ordinary qualities are built up due to exam and they built up a great personality in their life because of exam. Besides, the minds of students, even if they are dull, receive good exercise when they prepare for the exams. But the exams increase the stress level of students because of parental and our expectations. All parents want their children to be the best. Sometimes they don’t know what the children feel. Students may suffer from the consequences of stress and anxiety during exam preparation so they may show poor performance in exams...

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...When you hear the word exams, you usually get to be anxious about them, and about the possibility of passing or failing them. For me, exams are not a thing to be scared of. I know that some exams are very important in life but I don’t see a tragedy in failing them. You will always have a second chance to make things better as long as you will fight and learn more. I think that exams are not accurate measure of a person’s ability. Many people can get scared and they could panic and fail exams, not because they don’t have the necessary information to pass them, just because of the fact that they get very nervous, and usually they can’t concentrate enough. I understand them, because a few years ago it was a problem for me too. After a lot of exercises I managed to overcome my fears, and now I am very accustomed to exams. As a start point, we can say that people are different and it is a known fact that being different has its bonuses, but it also defines us and the way we can be and are appreciated. Therefore, an individual cannot necessarily be compared with another one because our minds and our talents don’t function in the same way. Exams test students for the same abilities ,in the same way. This can affect the grade or the overall measure of the ability tested. It is true that people have different talents, that people manifest themselves in various ways and domains. For example, an artist can choose to paint a picture of a beautiful......

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...[pic] Term-end Exam Details – GMBA DXB DEC 2008 Important Notice: If your invigilator feels that you are talking to any one or him feels that you are copying from other students or any other mode you will be awarded zero for your final examination without any discussions.  No warning will be given to you and the invigilator will make a note of your name and update the Program Manager. You are not allowed to leave the examination hall till you finish your examination. You are required to switch off your mobiles always. |Course |Date |Time |Duration |Type of Exam |Comments | |Principles of Management |Wednesday |10.30 am - 12.30 pm |2 hours |Closed Book/Closed notes |Multiple choice ( 50 min) | | |4th Feb, | | |Laptops not allowed |Descriptive(1 hr 10 min) | | |2009 | | |Internet not allowed |Write with pen no scribbling | | | | | | ...

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...Algebra 1 Quarter Exam Review 2011-2012 ____ 1. Solve for m. . a.|-7/2| b.|-6| c.|6| d.|12/15| ____ 2. Which property best describe the following statement? a.|distributive property| b.|associative property| c.|transitive property| d.|commutative property| ____ 3. Simplify a.||c.|| b.||d.|| ____ 4. Which graph below represents a function? a.||c.|| b.||d.|| ____ 5. What is the domain of the given function? a.| |c.|| b.||d.|| ____ 6. Use the distributive property to simplify the expression: . a.|| b.|| c.|| d.|| ____ 7. Which of the following is not a function? a.||c.|| b.||d.|| ____ 8. Choose the correct algebraic translation of “ 3 more than twice a number is three times the sum of the number and 5”. a.|| b.|| c.|| d.|| ____ 9. Which statement illustrate the symmetric property? a.|| b.|If 3 + 2 = 5 and 5 = 4 + 1 thenn 3 + 2 = 4 + 1| c.|If 3 + 2 = 5 then 5 = 3 + 2| d.|3 + 2 = 5| ____ 10. Translate the verbal phrase below into its mathematical representation. “ Six decreased by three times the sum of two and four times a number is one.” a.|6 - 3 + 2 + 4n = 1| b.|6 - 3 2 + 4n = 1| c.|3(2 + 4n) -6 =1 | d.|6 - 3(2 + 4n) = 1| ____ 11. Simplify a.|| b.|| c.|| d.|| ____ 12. A function, has a domain of {-6, -2, 3}. What......

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...STUDY GUIDE ECO/365 This is a guide, not a giveaway. Everything that is on the exam might not be covered in great detail here. So please study accordingly. You might even have to look these up. • Know what opportunity costs are:Opportunity cost is the benefit that you might have gained from choosing the next-best alternative . • Know the definition of economics (Micro and Macro):Microeconomics is the study of individual choice, and how that choice is influenced by economic forces. Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole. It considers the problems of inflation, unemployment, business cycles, and growth. • Know what the invisible hand is:The invisible hand is the price mechanism, the rise and fall of prices that guides our actions in a market . • Know about mergers:a statutory combination of two or more corporations by the transfer of the properties to one surviving; corporation any combination of two or more business enterprises into a single enterprise; an act or instance of merging. • Know about patents :A patent is legal protection of a technical innovation that gives the person holding it sole right to use that innovation —in other words, it gives the holder a monopoly to produce a good. • Know excise taxes and tariffs:An excise tax is a tax that is levied on a specific good . The luxury tax on expensive cars that the United States imposed in 1991 is an example. A tariff is an excise tax on an imported good . ......

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...Take-home exam (30%) Objective: This writing assignment is designed for you to select advertising campaigns 广告活动and analyze persuasive strategies and the effectiveness of those strategies used in the campaigns by applying persuasion theories. Requirements: • This is individual work. • Identify an advertising campaign, past or present, local or global, print, television, radio or Internet, commercial or public service announcement. A campaign can include more than one advertisement across different media platforms. • Also identify 1-2 competitor(s) for the selected campaign and the competitor(s)’ campaign(s). • Sort advertisements based on your own logic. • Length: 4-5 pages, single-spaced with spacing between paragraphs, excluding attachments and references. Use Times New Roman, 12-point font size. • Follow APA style to include a reference list for sources you use. • In addition to the analysis, submit all print ads used in the analysis. Organize the print ads so that you can display them in class for an informal discussion. Main parts of the paper: 1. A description of each of the campaigns and the context in which they were implemented (a brief description of relevant background information, media used, period of time run, etc.) 2. An analysis of the campaigns’ relevance 关联to persuasion theories or concepts (the primary reference sources are the textbook and lecture, but you may also find references from outside the class) 3. An analysis of the......

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...ECON 301 Practice Final Exam NAME: . Fall 2014 FINAL EXAM PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. Suppose Demand and Supply for a competitive industry in the short run can be described the following equations: QD=100 – 2P, and QS=40+2P. Suppose further that the total cost curve for a representative firm in the industry is given by TC = 100+4q+q2, with MC=4+2q. a. Sketch a double graph that depicts the market supply and demand in equilibrium in conjunction with individual firm costs and output choice. Does not need to be to scale. Label all of your answers to b. b. Calculate the short-run equilibrium market price, quantity, individual firm output and firm profit level. Show your work. c. Calculate the long-run equilibrium market price, quantity, individual firm output and number of firms in the industry. Draw and label in a new graph the double graph depicting this equilibrium. Page 1 of 5 2. My Uncle Bob claims that a firm should produce (in the short run) until its average cost is at its minimum. He reasons that in order to maximize profit, a firm must minimize it costs of production. Is my Uncle Bob correct? Carefully explain your answer. (Stating a mathematical rule is not sufficient.) 3. A single vendor supplies the popsicles to the beachcombers on a beach in a small resort town on the east coast. Assume that this vendor acts as a single price-monopolist and that the marginal cost per popsicle is always $0.60 The price elasticity of demand is -5 in the month of......

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...6th Grade 1st Semester Spelling and English Exam Directions: Find each misspelled word, and write the correct spelling above it. This week our local naeborhood association sent out a bulleten about a picnic. The new mayor wanted to entroduce himself in person, so he took the notices to every house. He was threw with the job by noon. We can asume he got to every house, but there is no prewf of that. Deliveries are not part of his rootine, but we have underrstood that this is a new kind of mayor. We hope it’s a sign of his generosity and gooddness . There are many legends about noble knights of medieval times who traveled the land defending the helpless against feerce intruders. With only their sword and sheeld, they were able to achive noble deeds, preventing the seiege of the castle. Other stories tell of knights who forced robbers to yeld their weapons, keeping them from causing further harm and mischeif. Kenji and his business partnor, Ed, are each about to perchase some land, but they are approaching their home construction differently. Kenji hired an architect to design his home. The architect and her construction formean have the final authority on the details of the house. Ed, on the other hand, is planning to build his home himself; theirfour, he and his carpintar will consern themselves with all of the major decisions. Building a tunel in the 1920s was a difficult and unplesant task. Every day, parshul progress was made toward the goal...

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...Management and organization: the exam 1. Please read the ethical dilemma in the Communication (chapter 14) of the textbook (pg. 559). Read the case carefully in order to be able to analyze the situation. a) Provide a short description of the situation (the symptoms and the problems in this case, describe the individuals that play the roles). b) Take the role of Cathy Putnam and make a decision what would you do if you were in here shoes. You may select one of the three alternatives suggested in the case or you may come up with your own alternative. Apply a communication model or concept of your choice to justify your decision. We will evaluate the quality of your analysis based on your use of relevant concepts and models from the chapter 14 (up to 15 points, not more than 500 words). 2. If you had to motivate one of your employees to perform on a higher level, what would be the steps that you would take that would enhance his or her motivation? a) Describe his/her job. b) Point the motivational factors in that job. c) Propose a redesign of the job. d) Apply one of the motivational theories to explain why his/her motivation would increase. We will evaluate the quality of your analysis based on your use of relevant concepts and models from motivation chapter (Ch. 13), (up to 15 points, not more than 500 words). 3. Take two tests from the chapter 8 (pg. 303-304), score and interpret the results. Reflect upon the fit (match) in......

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...Exam 1. Based upon Remarks by the President in his Address to the Nation on the Way Forward in Afghanistan and Pakistan, what vital national interest does he see at stake in Afghanistan and how does our involvement support that interest? President Obama see’s the “security of the United States and the safety of the American people at stake in Afghanistan” (Obama 5). “It is in our vital national interest to send an additional 30,000 US troops to Afghanistan” (Obama, 4). Despite having scattered and eliminated many al Qaeda insurgents, as well as, driving the Taliban from power, al Qaeda has retained their pockets of safe havens along the Afghanistan border. Additional troops in Afghanistan will allow us to meet the President’s goal to “disrupt, dismantle, and defeat al Qaeda in Afghanistan...and to prevent its capacity to threaten America and our allies in the future” (Obama 5). The rapid deployment of troops is needed that we can “target insurgency and secure key population centers...increase our ability to train competent Afghan security forces, and to partner with them so that more Afghans can get into the fight...and help create the conditions for the United States to transfer responsibility to the Afghans” (Obama 5). Because what is at stake is “the security of our allies, and the common security of the world” (Obama 5). 2. Why and how does the 2008 National Defense Strategy counterbalance the armed forces’ past tendency to focus on conventional threats and......

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...Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The phase of the SDLC in which an information system is systematically repaired and improved is referred to as: 1) _______ A) maintenance B) implementation C) physical repair D) analysis 2) Which of the following is a true statement about RAD? 2) _______ A) RAD requires moderate user involvement. B) The bulk of the work in RAD takes place in the requirements planning phase. C) The focus of RAD is on system integration. D) The emphasis in RAD is generally less on the sequence and structure of processes in the life cycle and more on doing different tasks in parallel with each other and on using prototyping extensively. 3) Which of the following are deliverables for the analysis phase? 3) _______ A) code, documentation, training procedures, and support capabilities B) functional, detailed specifications of all system elements C) description of current system and where problems and opportunities are with a general recommendation on how to fix, enhance, or replace current system D) priorities for systems and projects; an architecture for data, networks, and selection hardware, and IS management are the result of associated systems 4) The traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and......

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