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Examine the Main Trends in Births and Deaths in the United Kingdom Since 1990.

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Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1990.
There has been a long-term decline in the number in the number of births since 1990. In that year, England and Wales had a birth rate of 28.7, but by 2007 it had fallen to an estimated 10.7. Similarly, the death rate has fallen since 1900. The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year. In 1900, the death rate stood at 19 000, whereas by 2007 it had almost halved, to 10 000.
For the birth rate, there have been fluctuations in births, with three “baby booms” in the 20th century. The first two came after the two world wars (1914-18 and 1939-1945), as returning servicemen and their partners started families that they had postponed during the war years. There was a third baby boom in the 1960s, after which the birth rate fell sharply during the 1970s. The rate rose during the 1980s, before falling again after the early 1990s.
One reason for the decline in the birth rate is the changes in the position of women. During the 20th century there were major changes for women. For example, women gained legal equality with men (including the right to vote), increased educational opportunities, laws outlawing unequal pay and sex discrimination, access to abortion and reliable contraception and easier access to divorce. As a result of these changes, women now see other possibilities in life apart from the traditional role of housewife and mother. Many are choosing to delay childbearing, or not to have children at all, in order to pursue a career. For example, in 2006, one in five women aged 45 was childless- double the number of 20 years.
Another reason for the decline in the birth rate is the decline in the infant mortality rate (IMR). During the first half of the 20th century, the UK’s IMR began to fall due to improved housing and better sanitation and reduced...

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