Premium Essay

Examine the View That Morality Is Dependent on Religion.

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By naeemm10
Words 1039
Pages 5
Examine the View that Morality is Dependent on Religion.
(21 Marks)

There are three main views for Morality and religion: Morality is dependent on religion, morality is Independent of religion and morality is opposed to religion. There is a myriad of reasons for and against each of these statements. Many people do believe that morality does depend on religion for reasons such as that western law was originally based on Biblical principles, for example stealing and murder. For many however the question is how morality should be linked with religious faith, even though this causes problems between secularists and religious believers. The view I’m going to explore mainly in this essay is the view that ‘morality is dependent on religion’.

People who believe that religion and morality are linked would argue that you cannot have morality without religion and that all rules come from God as he is the source of Religion. This is backed up by the fact that even social laws created to run western countries are taken from religious books such as, the Bible.

Many people who believe the statement morality is dependent on religion would be Absolutists and believe that we should never question moral codes or there is ever a time when moral codes should be lenient. Absolutists would have no emotion to a situation and would therefore condemn situation ethics as they would believe the answer to a problem is always the same no matter the situation. This is because an absolutist would believe that part of what is to believe in God is to live in obedience to his laws and have faith in them and Him. R.B. Braithwaite the English philosopher agreed with this statement by saying, ‘to be religious and to make religious claims is to be connected to a set of moral values’. However this arises many issues with relativists as they struggle to think that there could ever be a time…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Past Papers

...AS Philosophy of Religion 2001 1. (a) What are the key features of the design argument for the existence of God? (10 marks) (b) Identify the strengths of this argument. To what extent are these strengths more convincing than its weaknesses? (10 marks) 2. (a) Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. (14 marks) (b) To what extent do the weaknesses of this argument limit its effectiveness? (6 marks) 3. (a) Examine the characteristics of BOTH a religious and a scientific interpretation of the origins of the universe. (14 marks) (b) Comment on the view that the differences between these interpretations rule out any major disagreement between them. (6 marks) 4. (a) What do religious believers mean by the ‘problem of suffering’? (5 marks) (b) Select any TWO theodicies and consider how far they offer solutions to this problem. (15 marks) 5. (a) Examine TWO philosophical reasons for belief in miracles. (6 marks) (b) Outline at least TWO problems with belief in miracles. (8 marks) (c) Consider the claim that there are no acceptable solutions to these problems. (6 marks) 2002 1. (a) Outline the design argument for the existence of God. (7 marks) (b) ‘The design argument fails because of its weaknesses.’ Examine and comment on this claim. (13...

Words: 3353 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Religion and Morality Are Linked

...(i) Examine the claim that religion and morality are linked (21) If we agree with Ninian Smart, then an important dimension of all the world religions is the ethical dimension. But this is not necessarily the same as saying that religion and morality are inextricably linked. A slightly different way of framing the question is to ask whether you can have morality without religion, as Dostoyevsky suggested when his character Ivan asserts that ‘if God does not exist then everything is permitted’. Broadly speaking there are 3 different approaches to the question that can be taken: 1) Morality depends on religion 2) Morality is independent of religion 3) Morality is opposed to religion The first approach is to argue that behaving morally means behaving in accordance with God’s will, so that morality cannot be separated from religion. For religious people moral behaviour and commitment to the religion are closely related to beliefs about salvation in the afterlife. They also point out that without religion there would be no morality because all moral codes are derived from religion, many of our most firmly held moral convictions can be traced back to religious morality, such as the prohibition against murder, homosexuality and adultery. One strength of divine command ethics is that they provide a set in stone moral law with clear guidelines for how you should and should not behave; which some people may get from the bible, or other holy texts. The rules can be......

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Emile Durkheim

...And finally in 1898, he founded the journal, L'Année Sociologique, in order to publicize the promising works of sociology students and colleagues that shared his sociological views. In 1902, Emile finally achieved a prominent status in French society when he attained the chair of education at the Sorbonne. His social theories stressed the importance of social facts which people must accept as objective "things." He argued against no-fault divorce, for example, on the grounds that his study of suicide showed that single people were more likely to take their lives. His goal was to provide a scientific basis for social order and morality to replace the narrow religious beliefs of more primitive communities. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. This was the analysis of religion being naught but social happenings, using the religions of aboriginal tribes in Australia. World War I had quite a tragic effect on Durkheim’s life. His own son was killed, which devastated him so emotionally that he never recovered. He died from exhaustion, on November 15th, 1917 at the age of 59. E.D. DURKHEIM CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY Concern with morality and social order is a persistent theme in Durkheim's sociology. His work was shaped by a need to find a basis for order and morality in the secular world. His analysis of industrial society emphasized the tendencies towards order and harmony. He was well aware of social problems, conflicts and class......

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Law and Conscience

...Norms of Morality Prof. Fernandino J. Pancho Definition •Norms of morality ◦is the criteria of judgment about the sorts of person we ought to be and the sorts of action we ought to perform. ◦the quality of things manifesting their conformity or non-coformity with the norm or criteria. (that which conforms is good or moral, that which do not conform is evil or immoral) ◦The subjective norm of morality – Conscience ◦The objective norm of morality – Law (natural) •Both natural law and conscience are rooted on Eternal Law, the ultimate norm, thus, there is only one norm. Loading... Conscience •The subjective/proximate norm of morality. ◦It is proximate because it is what directly confronts an action as good or bad. •Function: to examine/investigate, to judge, to pass punishment on our moral actions. ◦It approves & commends; reproaches & condemns; forbids & commands; accuses & absolves. •Synderesis – it is the quality by which man naturally perceives the truth of the self-evident principles of the moral order. Conscience - definition •Derived from the Latin words “con” plus “scientia” which means “with knowledge” of what is right or wrong or “trial of oneslf” both in accusation and in defense. •It is the “inner or little voice of God in man” crying out man’s moral obligations and telling him what to do and what to avoid in the moral order. •It is an act of the practical judgment of reason deciding upon an......

Words: 3356 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Miss

...inherent quality which is widely beneficial.. B. The opposite of bad or evil. C. Something one person (or more) approves of. D. Useful, in that the good action/concept/attitude enriches human life. E. God-like, or what God wants. For each of these five types of usage (and the list is not exhaustive) it is possible to see room for differences of interpretation. Usage A will vary, depending on how 'widely' and' beneficial' are defined. 'Widely' could mean anything from 'often in the life of one person' to 'universal, to every being'. 'Beneficial' could mean any of pleasant, healthy, productive, useful, life-enhancing/ enriching. Usage B depends entirely on the person's view of what is evil. Usage C will probably be different in detail for every single individual, and will be dependent .on the background of the person concerned. Usage D depends on the long-term and ultimate goals that a person has in life. A person aiming primarily for monetary wealth will regard training for increasing earning power as good. Someone else aiming to create a happier! more equitable society will regard training in social work as good. Usage E depends on the individual's ideas of the nature of God. Since there are as many understandings of God as there are believers, this use of the Word 'good' will have the greatest number of different shades of meaning, although, of course, there will be many similarities. The problem of how to define Good in a moral sense has puzzled......

Words: 8170 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Buddhism

...the modern world faces problems that did not exist in the Buddha’s time this latency remained untapped until Buddhism encountered the Western world. Modernists emphasize newness and discontinuity with the traditional past. Despite the debate surrounding the issues of continuity and discontinuity both schools of thought cite a common handful of scriptures and commentaries to support their methodology. Among the principal texts are The Dhammapada, The Edicts of Asoka, and Nagarjuna’s Precious Garland. In addition both schools cite the core teachings of Buddhism as their philosophical and ethical foundation, including: The Four Noble Truths, The Eightfold Noble Path, The Five Precepts, the Vow of the Bodhisattva, the doctrine of Dependent Origination and Interdependence. In his overview of the “Traditionists” Thomas Yarnall links scholars both from historically Buddhist cultures and from Western cultures. These include Thich Nhat Hanh, Sulak Sivaraksa, Dr. Walpola Rahula, Ven. Khemadhammo, Kato Shonin, the Dalai Lama, Patricia Hunt-Perry, Lyn Fine, Paula Green, Joanna Macy, Stephen Batchelor, Bernard Glassman Roshi, and Robert Thurman (Yarnall 289). “Modernists,” scholars chiefly from Western cultures, include Cynthia Eller, Nelson Foster, Richard Gombrich, Ken Jones, Joseph Kitagawa, Kenneth Kraft, Christopher Queen, Aitken Roshi, Sangharakshita, Gary Snyder, Judith Simmer-Brown, and Max Weber (Yarnall 295). In this thesis I survey and critique the methodology...

Words: 23858 - Pages: 96

Premium Essay

Week 1 Journal

...PHI445 February 10, 2014 Week One Journal Objective You will outline and explain ethical theories and then apply that knowledge to how organizations would function were they to adopt those ethical principles. In addition, you will also examine punishments for corporations and present your own ideas about the relationship between ethical demands on business entities vs. those on individuals in society. Instructions In this assignment you will reflect on the topics of Week One and apply them to an analysis of ethical paradigms. You will be asked to respond to two prompts below. The first asks you to explain three of the ethical philosophies you encountered in Chapter 1 of Introduction to Business Ethics, and then determine how companies that abide by these policies would act. In the second prompt, you will be asked to explain various punishments that can be given to corporations and the behaviors that are ethically dangerous to corporations. Please answer all questions in detail. Because this journal is worth 5% of your final grade, there is a high expectation for your participation. Grades for the journals are based on content, critical engagement, quality of reflection, and detail. Please submit the completed journal via the Assignment Basket found in the Week One Journal tab on the left navigation toolbar by Day 7. Organizations Select a Not-For Profit and a For Profit organization you would like to study. These will be the organizations that you will be......

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Religion and Family from a Functionalist Perpective

...enlightens on how religion and family is affected by the functionalist perspective. The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable. The functionalist perspective emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts. Each of the social institutions contributes important functions for society: Family provides a context for reproducing, nurturing, and socializing children; education offers a way to transmit a society’s skills, knowledge, and culture to its youth; politics provides a means of governing members of society; economics provides for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and religion provides moral guidance and an outlet for worship of a higher power. Functionalism has received criticism for neglecting the negative functions of an event. Critics also claim that the perspective justifies the status quo and complacency on the part of society's members. Functionalism does not encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment, even when such change may benefit them. Instead, functionalism sees active social change as undesirable because the various parts of society will compensate naturally for any problems that may arise. Religion......

Words: 3236 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Etica

...history of ethics are presented and major ethical theories are analyzed and critiqued. Part I of the site relies on original sources, excerpts from Ethics in the History of Western Philosophy (Macmillan, 1989), and excerpts from the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The treatment of 'ethical theories' in Part II is often informed by the approach of Beauchamp and Childress in their Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th Ed.) And the introduction to the topics of Applied Ethics owes much to Brendan Minogue's pedagogical use of institutional review boards in his Bioethics: A Committee Approach. Of course, for a full appreciation of these authors positions, a reading of their texts is required. I make no claim to fully represent their views. GENERAL PHILOSOPHY RESOURCES: Relevant online materials from the Internet can be accessed through Episteme Links as well as the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the Stanford Online Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Routledge Online Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Of special importance for the area of Moral Philosophy is Larry Hinman's Ethics Updates site. Part I History of Ethics Introduction to Ethics: Preface Many of the key problems and concepts of ethics go back to the time of the Greeks and the origins of Western Philosophy. In the 5th Century BC, the City-State of Athens was the center of the world's intellectual life. And during this century, the "Golden Age of Pericles" came to epitomize the height of......

Words: 14800 - Pages: 60

Premium Essay

Philosophy & Ethics

...AS Religious Studies [pic] PHILOSOPHY & ETHICS Revision Summary Notes Revision Notes Foundation for the Study of Religion Part One: Philosophy of Religion Plato and the Forms Influence of Socrates • Socrates said that virtue is knowledge – to know what is right is to do what is right. • All wrongdoing is the result of ignorance – nobody chooses to do wrong deliberately. • Therefore, to be moral you must have true knowledge. The problem of the One and the Many Plato was trying to find a solution to the problem that although there is underlying stability in the world (sun comes up every morning), it is constantly changing (you never step into the same river twice). 1. An old theory about this problem is that we gain all knowledge from our senses – empirically. 2. Plato disagreed with this. He said that because the world is constantly changing, our senses cannot be trusted. Plato illustrated his idea in the dialogue, ‘Meno’: Socrates sets a slave boy a mathematical problem. The slave boy knows the answer, yet he has not been taught maths. Plato suggests that the slave boy remembers the answer to the problem, which has been in his mind all along. So, according to Plato, we don't learn new things, we remember them. In other words, knowledge is innate. Plato’s Theory of the Forms Plato believed that the world was divided into: 1. Reality and; 2. Appearance |REALITY ...

Words: 17188 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

A Critique on Kant's Principle of Autonomy

...loving and caring God, My family and the community of the Missionaries of Africa. 2 DECLARATION I………………………………………………………..have read the rules of Uganda Martyrs University on plagiarism and hereby state that this work is my own. It has not been submitted anywhere else for any qualification. I have acknowledged the secondary sources used in this work. NAME OF STUDENT…………………………………………………………. SIGNATURE…………………………………………………………………… DATE: …………………………………………………………………………… SUPERVISOR………………………………………………………………….. SIGNATURE…………………………………………………………………… DATE: ………………………………………………………………………….. 3 ABSTRACT The importance of a philosophical study dealing with moral issues, especially the principle of autonomy is indisputably great. It is a common agreement that morality is located within the scope of duty. Kant corroborates this held agreement by stating the categorical imperative which every human is obliged to act upon. He conceived this categorical imperative as the moral law which all those who claim to be moral beings have to live on. However, he also affirmed that only autonomous beings can be moral. Moreover, Autonomy seems to be opposed to any idea of law. It is important to note that Kant conceived autonomy as auto-legislation, auto-determination of the moral subject while the categorical imperative requires a total submission of the same subject. What is categorical imperative? What is moral autonomy? How can a person be autonomous and simultaneously conceives himself/herself as subject......

Words: 21012 - Pages: 85

Premium Essay

Moral Paper

...Lindsay J Thompson Leadership Ethics Course Manual ~ © 2005 Lindsay J Thompson ~ All rights reserved 2 THE MORAL COMPASS Leadership for a Free World Table of Contents introduction page 5 core learning page 9 the leadership labyrinth page 11 the m oral com pass page 27 values and global value creation page 73 corporate citizenship page 93 bibliography page 109 the case lab page 113 Leadership Ethics Course Manual ~ © 2005 Lindsay J Thompson ~ All rights reserved 3 Leadership Ethics Course Manual ~ © 2005 Lindsay J Thompson ~ All rights reserved 4 introduction Moral Leadership for a Free World If you read a newspaper this morning, you almost surely read something related to morality, leadership, and freedom. From international relations to neighborhood and family life, concerns about leadership ethics and human welfare are the focus of news, political movements, and civic initiatives. Emotionally engaging terms like “moral leadership,” “the free world” and “human freedom” are often used in the media without much explanation or clarification. Momentous decisions are made and life choices established in the name of values attached to these and similar terms. What do we really mean by “moral leadership,” or “freedom?” If two people use these terms in a conversation, do they explicitly share a common understanding of them or just assume common ground? For instance, you might want to start such a conversation......

Words: 29833 - Pages: 120

Premium Essay

Q&a Jurisprudence

...of Modern Jurisprudence Natural Law Common Law and Statute Utilitarianism Punishment Legal Positivism Authority American Realism The Nature of Law Contemporary American Jurisprudence and Political Philosophy Rights Law and Morality vii ix xi xiii 1 9 21 39 65 83 101 111 155 173 185 199 211 225 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13   Index  239 VII Preface This collection of Questions and Answers has as its objective the provision of structured material designed to assist students preparing for first examinations in jurisprudence. The mode of presentation adopted involves the setting of a question of the type often asked in examinations of this nature, and the providing of an appropriate answer. The answers are not to be considered as ‘model answers’; they are intended specifically to be illustrations of the type of answer required, with particular reference to content and structure. The format is as follows: Introduction to chapter. This indicates the subject matter to be covered by the questions. Checklist. The relevant jurisprudential concepts to be tested are noted. They should be learned or revised carefully before the answer presented is considered. Question. The rubric and its specific demands should be studied carefully. ‘Comment’, ‘critically examine’, ‘outline’ are not interchangeable terms; each requires its own pattern of answering. Answer plan. This indicates the approach that is taken to the question and suggests a skeleton plan that is followed. Students should......

Words: 105136 - Pages: 421

Free Essay

Fredrick Bastiat

... Life, faculties, production — in other words, individuality, liberty, property — this is man. And in spite of the cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. What Is Law? What, then, is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right — from God — to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. These are the three basic requirements of life, and the preservation of any one of them is completely dependent upon the preservation of the other two. For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by force — his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Thus the principle of collective right — its reason for existing, its lawfulness — is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person,......

Words: 18033 - Pages: 73

Premium Essay

Politics, Theology

...POLITICS, THEOLOGY AND HISTORY RAYMOND PLANT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Politics, Theology and History is a major new book by a prominent academic and an active politician. It ranges widely across the disciplines of theology, political theory and philosophy and poses acute questions about the basic moral foundations of liberal societies. Lord Plant focuses on the role that religious belief can and ought to play in argument about public policy in a pluralistic society. He examines the potential political implications of Christian belief and the ways in which it may be deployed in political debate. The book is a contribution to the modern debate about the moral pluralism of western liberal societies, discussing the place of religious belief in the formation of policy and asking what sorts of issues in modern society might be the legitimate objects of a Christian social and political concern. Raymond Plant has written an important study of the relationship between religion and politics which will be of value to students, academics, politicians, church professionals, policy makers and all concerned with the moral fabric of contemporary life. r ay m on d pl an t is Professor of European Political Thought at the University of Southampton and a Member of the House of Lords. He was a Home affairs spokesperson for the Labour Party from 1992 to 1996, and Master of St Catherine's College, Oxford, from 1994 to 2000. Lord Plant's main publications are Social and Moral Theory in......

Words: 144283 - Pages: 578