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Executive Shirt Company, Inc.

In: Business and Management

Submitted By VickyCao
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经理人衬衫有限公司
经理人衬衫公司(缩写为 ESC)出产几个著名商标的男士正装衬衣,以高质量和有竞
争力的价格在服装业取得了良好的声誉。
由于公司最近的销量出现了下滑,
总经理德怀特·

里尔决定将公司的产品线扩展至客户定制的正装衬衣市场,
他认为这是一个有很大机会的市
场。定制衬衣目前拥有较高的溢价,同等质量和相同样式的定制衬衣,比现货衬衣至少贵
75%。另外,消费者通常需要等待 6 周或更长时间来等待定制衬衣的交货。克里尔认为很多
现在购买现货衬衣的人其实很愿意购买定制衬衣,
但高昂的价格和漫长的等待把他们挡在了
门外。同时,有些由 ESC 供应的零售商也对 ESC 进入定制衬衣市场表现出热情,于是克里
尔决定启动一条生产中档价格定制衬衣的生产线,目标是在客户下订单之后的 10 个工作日
之内能够交货。克里尔希望相比标准化生产的衬衣,ESC 的定制衬衣能获得 10 美元的批发
溢价和 20 美元的零售溢价。这一计划的实现并不遥远:定制的李维斯女式牛仔裤 2 周之内
就可以交货,在零售市场仅比常规牛仔裤贵 10 美元。
ESC 的生产设施
ESC 目前的生产流程是针对大批量生产设计的,它要求衬衣种类不多且需求稳定。它出
产一些基本类型和颜色的衬衣,比如该公司超过 80%销量来自白色和蓝色的衬衣。在 ESC 密
西西比州波奎特市的工厂里,衬衣生产采用传统的按批次生产流程。
波奎特的车间被分成若干个工作区,各个工作区对应不同的裁剪和缝韧操作(见附件
1
1)
。衬衣的板型 是在电脑控制的切割机上剪切而成的,该切割机最多可以一次剪切 60 层
布料(一种或多种颜色)
。工厂现在的做法是摆好 60 层布料再一起剪切。准备工作是很费人
工的——在剪切台上小心地铺好一层布料需要大概 1.5 分钟(60 层就需要 90 分钟)
。每块
布料的可以分布 8 件衬衣的板型(见附件 2)
。因此,针对每一种板型布局,可以同时剪切
60 件同样类型相同尺寸的衬衣。布料全部铺好之后,需要平均 30 分钟来剪切并移开 8 个板
型的所有布片。
不管所剪切多少层布料,
剪切的时间是不变的。
在铺开和剪切布料的过程中,
4 名机器操作工全都在干活。
剪切之后,生产 60 件同样衬衣所需的布片被归为一批。每一批被送去缝制,在成衣被
检查、熨烫和包装之前,需经过 12 道工序(见附件 3)
。所有的缝制工序都使用类似的缝纫
机。带轮子的料箱由 4 名材料员从一道工序移至下一道工序,每个料箱里有 60 件衬衣(或
60 件衬衣的布片)
。平均而言,包括正在处理的衬衣,每个工人(不包括剪切工序)手头都
2
有 3 批衬衣。一共有 64 名直接工人(进行从剪切到包装的所有操作)每天工作 8 小时 ,每
周 5 天,每月 20 天。4 名材料员和 64 名直接工人,常规工作时间工资为每小时 6 美元(不
包括津贴)
,加班工资为每小时 9 美元,实际上加班的情况很少(见附件 4,标准尺寸衬衣
的成本结构)

规划定制衬衣生产线
克里尔知道引入定制衬衣生产线需要对目前的生产流程进行一些改动。
第一步,
克里尔
订购了一台新的“少层”激光切割机。这台新机器更小一些:每次只能剪切一个衬衣板型,
并且一次最多切 5 层布料。但是,它非常快:整个铺开和剪切布料的过程仅需 2.5 分钟。相
对于每次剪切 8 个板型,每次只剪切一个板型将造成更高的废料率——克里尔预计定制衬
衣的材料成本会比标准衬衣高出大约 10%。克里尔希望生产定制衬衣的计划能够雇佣一名
新工人来操作新机器,现有的切割机还是继续由 4 名工人来专职操作。
克里尔想考量一下定制衬衣生产线的不同设计方案,
他要求手下的两名经理——麦克和
艾克——提出方案,将定制衬衣的生产并入现有的生产体系。他只要求以下两点:定制衬衣

的生产准备时间不得超过 5 个工作日;
该方案应当一开始就具有每月 2000 件衬衣的生产能
力。该工厂目前每月生产 16,000 件标准衬衣,并且产量预期还保持在这一水平。他还提醒
麦克和艾克,在涉足定制衬衣市场的行动取得成功之前,避免产生大额的费用。
麦克的计划(见附件 5)
麦克认为 ESC 应当规定,同一尺寸衬衣的最小订单量为 5 件,他据此设计了相应的方
案。
他相信现有的生产设施能够轻易地满足定制衬衣生产线带来的额外产量。
新切割机可以
设在现有切割机的旁边,新雇佣一名工人专门操作它。常规衬衣在旧切割机上剪切,定制衬
衣在新切割机上剪切,定制衬衣和常规衬衣一起缝制。为了缩短准备时间,满足每批 5 件
定制衬衣的要求,麦克提出将每批衬衣的数量由 60 件降低为 5 件。他还认为,在剪切工序
之后的每个工作台增加缓冲库存,使得每个工人手头有 6 批衬衣,是一种精明的做法。
艾克的计划(见附件 6)
另一方面,
艾克认为定制衬衣生产应当从标准衬衣生产线中分离出来。
他提出从剪切到
包装,
所有的定制衬衣生产工序都应当在一条单独的装配线上完成。
因为目前工厂里的产能
是过剩的,他提出应当从每个缝制工序中分出一名工人,从检查、熨烫及包装工序中各分出
一名工人配给新生产线。另外,12 台缝纫机和一台熨烫机也应当从常规衬衣生产线移至定
制衬衣生产线。在新生产线上,每个工人将以同样的次序完成他们在目前生产线上的工序。
每个工人每次处理一件衬衣,生产线上 15 名工人平均每人手头有 3 件衬衣要处理(剪切工
序之后)
。和麦克的计划一样,艾克也要雇用一名新工人专门操作新切割机。艾克计划对常
规生产线不作任何改动,只在每道工序减少一名工人(不包括剪切)
。他认为常规生产线上
人员和设备的减少带来的问题很容易处理,只须在必要情况下要求工人稍微加班就可以解
决。

备注:
1. 衬衣板型是指一个模板,它包括一件衬衣的所有组成部分(袖子、后片、袖口等等)

2. 工人从早上八点工作至下午 5 点,中间有一个小时的吃饭时间(不计薪)
,没有正式规
定的休息时间,工人们在需要休息并且工作量允许的情况下自行休息。

案例分析和建议
回答以下问题,清楚地说明你的假设,写出所有的计算过程。基于案例所描述的事实来
证明你的推理是否正确。请简明扼要。
问题一:
假设计划按照案例中的描述来实施,
请计算现有生产过程以及麦克和艾克的计划,
得出
下列数据。
当前生产流程
常规衬衣

麦克的计划
常规和定制
衬衣

艾克的计划
常规衬衣

定制衬衣

实际生产周期(分钟/件)
生产提前期(天)
在制品库存(件)
产能(件/天)
产能利用率
直接人工工作量
(分钟/件)
直接人工利用率
直接人工成本(美元/件)

问题二:
对常规衬衣和定制衬衣的生产,分别比较两个计划的优劣。根据你的分析,你对德怀
特·克里尔有什么建议?(不超过 600 字)

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