Free Essay

Executive Summary

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ronnyf85
Words 757
Pages 4
Memorandum
To: Professor H.
From: V Feliciano
Date: 11/27/2014
Subject: Executive Summary- “Teaching Smart People How to Learn” by Chris Argyris, Harvard Review

The purpose of this summary is to explore the importance of learning in the corporate world. Much of the business success largely depends on learning; however, this resource tool has shown to be problematic for some. High commitment workers need to consider their behavior critically, identify possible ways they unintentionally contribute to the organization problems, and learn how they can solve these issues.

Looping: A Defense Mechanism?

In order to understand the learning process, such terms as “single loop” and “double loop” were created to understand the differences between the two. Most highly–skilled professionals are very experienced in “single loop” learning. The reason stems from the fact they have spent most of their lives obtaining academic success, mastering one or a few knowledgeable disciplines, and applying those disciplines to answer real life problems. Whereas “double loop” learning explores other opportunities to resolve a problem with a shared perspective all while leaving bias thoughts and opinions out of the equation. These facts alone help explain why workers are horrible at double-loop learning. Because many workers are almost always successful, they rarely experience disappointment. Therefore they act defensive, disregard criticism, and place the blame on others but themselves. With the right attitude, a different approach to the learning process can flow easily.

Companies should focus on creating standards and structural organization, such as positive cultures, high standard policies and incentives that will motivate and empower their employees. Some of the professionals exemplified the learning dilemma by being for continuous learning but contributed complications. Much of these difficulties derived from internal aspects than the external. Once the bar was shifted to focus on the individuals’ performance, something went wrong. Defensiveness is used as a self-protection mechanism to guard themselves from embarrassment of having to admit any misconduct. Repeating cautious actions, in the effort of the manager, to turn the workers attention to its own faults show that defensiveness had become a reflexive routine. The end product was an unproductive discussion.

Behavior Theory To go in depth of the issue, professionals need to first understand the dynamics of defensive reasoning and why they are so susceptible to it. Their attitudes about change or improvements are not the downfall but how the way they reason with others. A set of rules called a “theory of action” is developed by the individuals to plan and implement their own behavior. Usually these actions become so ingrained in the personality makeup that they are unaware that they are using it. There seems to be several core values that contribute to the human tendency to design one’s action:

* Control oneself independently * Downplay negative feelings * Maximize the positives over the negatives

The main objective of all these values is to avoid feeling threaten or embarrassed.
Professionals are often subjected to performance evaluations, which measure their behavior against a formal standard. A poor evaluation can spark defensive reasoning for the entire organization.

Reason….Properly Although people may be genuinely devoted to refining their performance, they will probably remain stuck in protection mode. Self-image is personally tied-up with behaving constantly and performing efficiently. How can a business flourish without defensive reasoning?

* Change has to start from the top – Officials in top management positions have the power to send a message about change and learning * Strategy- Any reasoning skills that are implemented must exceed performance standards and boost confidence for the individual

Results are not always guaranteed; however, when the organization continually works together, the environment changes for the better.

Ultimately, this article speaks different volumes about self-acceptance. It is inevitable that we always strive for the best but we must learn how to accept constructive criticism. Knowing thyself will generate success because we know our talents and limits. Evaluations are not directed towards you as a person but as a worker. Professionals of all ranks in the organization must combine mastery of highly specialized methodical techniques with the ability to work effectively with others. They must form productive associations with customers and reflect their behaviors critically. Also, management executives should consistently guide and empower their employees to help keep employee morale to a high standard. As long as efforts are focused on internal organizational factors such as: job redesign, incentive programs, performance evaluations and training for leadership roles- the business will succeed and it will present a challenge that well-skilled, highly driven individuals can thrive on.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Executive Summary

...Georgia, and China. The research and development is currently housed at the corporate headquarters in San Jose California. The company employs 550 personnel worldwide. Riordan Manufacturing has reported earnings of $46 million. Riordan Manufacturing makes products from plastic injection molding. The company produces and provides the following products: plastic bottles, fans of all sizes, heart valves, medical stents, and custom plastic parts. Presently, our plastic bottles and fans are in the maturity stage. They compete primarily based on the changing economic conditions. Riordan’s future plans include developing the next generation of heart valves, medical stents, and complementary medical devices. The purpose of this executive summary is to highlight and propose changes to the uncoordinated and redundant operations from all manufacturing and testing facilities owned and operated by Riordan Manufacturing. We propose integrating all facilities with Windows based ERP manufacturing software, specifically Solarsoft, which is operated off of IBM System x3850 X5 with MAX5. Buying Cognos software from IBM will help to make all reports look uniform. This will also save time since Cognos pulls data from AS400. We also propose the introduction of barcodes on all inventories. All material will have traceability from the time it enters a company until the time shipment is made to the customer. We currently have the edge in the market due being located in several......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Aa Executive Summary

...2011 Executive Summary AA is burdened by high labor costs, a weak balance sheet, perpetual union issues, increasing pressure from low-cost carriers (LCCs), incessant losses. AA must address its high costs, improve its international offerings, and find a solution to the competitive threat posed by LCCs Chiu Cloud Supreeth Kini Fabien Levet Amruta Vantipalli 9/1/2011 Table of Contents Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 2 Financial Health ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 Market Forces ........................................................................................................................................................ 2 Barriers to entry ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Substitutes ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Suppliers ............................................................................................................................................................ 3 Buyer Power ...............................................................................

Words: 1652 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Management

...Executive Summary The purpose of an executive summary is to summarize a report. Executive summaries are written for executives who most likely do not have time to read the complete document. Therefore, the executive summary must cover the major points and be detailed enough to mirror the content yet concise enough for an executive to understand the substance without reading the entire report. An executive summary differs from an abstract. Readers use an abstract to decide whether to read the complete document. They read an executive summary to obtain information without having to read the report in full. The executive summary should be written as a document that can stand on its own and is usually written on one or two pages, depending on the length of the report. It restates the purpose of the report and describes any results, conclusions, or recommendations made in the report so that the reader understands the reasons for the conclusion or recommendations. Acronyms, symbols, and abbreviations must be written out. Tables and figures in the report should not be referred to by number in the executive summary. The audience for an executive summary is receptive to the message, so the writer should assume that the audience wants to know and understand the message. It is written in a formal tone using an impersonal style and eliminating first person pronouns (I, we, our, etc.). Use the following guidelines when writing an executive summary: • • • • • State clearly the purpose of......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mta 620

...An executive summary, sometimes known as a management summary, is a short document or section of a document, produced for purposes, that summarizes a longer report or proposal or a group of r business elated reports in such a way that readers can rapidly become acquainted with a large body of material without having to read it all. It usually contains a brief statement of the problem or proposal covered in the major document(s), background information, concise analysis and main conclusions. It is intended as an aid to decision-making by managers[1][2] and has been described as possibly the most important part of a business plan.[3] They must be short and to the point. An executive summary differs from an abstract in that an abstract will usually be shorter and is intended to provide a neutral overview or orientation rather than being a condensed version of the full document. Abstracts are extensively used in academic research where the concept of the executive summary would be meaningless. "An abstract is a brief summarizing statement... read by parties who are trying to decide whether or not to read the main document", while "an executive summary, unlike an abstract, is a document in miniature that may be read in place of the longer document".[4] An executive summary differs from an abstract in that an abstract will usually be shorter and is intended to provide a neutral overview or orientation rather than being a condensed version of the full document. Abstracts......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Exec Summary Electronic Discharge

...[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] Electronic Discharge Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Electronic Discharge Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY S. CHANDE, C. CHAHAL, N. GANDHI, A. HUSSEIN, K. MANOHARON. N. NURU S. CHANDE, C. CHAHAL, N. GANDHI, A. HUSSEIN, K. MANOHARON. N. NURU THE PROPOSAL There were 15 million discharge summaries produced for admissions into hospital last year. A staggering 80% of these were found to be inaccurate or incomplete and another 70% of these were reported as being severely delayed on a regular basis. This compromise to clinical care and patient safety is simply unacceptable.  Our empirical market research has found that the majority of junior doctors, the principal users of discharge forms, were unhappy with the current systems in place. It has also been reported that on average junior doctors spend more time carrying out admin duties than in formal training and teaching sessions. There are electronic discharge systems present however, these have been described as insufficient as they lack comprehensive coding and in some......

Words: 1303 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

D Department of Choice Chocolate

...Good and poor examples of executive summaries This is a GOOD example from an Accounting & Finance assignment. Footnote Executive Summary This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective profitability, liquidity and financial stability of Outdoor Equipment Ltd. Methods of analysis include trend, horizontal and vertical analyses as well as ratios such as Debt, Current and Quick ratios. Other calculations include rates of return on Shareholders Equity and Total Assets and earnings per share to name a few. All calculations can be found in the appendices. Results of data analysed show that all ratios are below industry averages. In particular, comparative performance is poor in the areas of profit margins, liquidity, credit control, and inventory management. The report finds the prospects of the company in its current position are not positive. The major areas of weakness require further investigation and remedial action by management.Recommendations discussed include:  improving the average collection period for accounts receivable·   improving/increasing inventory turnover·   reducing prepayments and perhaps increasing inventory levels The report also investigates the fact that the analysis conducted has limitations. Some of the limitations include: forecasting figures are not provided nature and type of company is not known nor the current economic conditions data limitations as not enough information is provided or enough......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Paper for Success

...Executive Summary: Organizational Focus & Goals Derron Venerable University of Phoenix HRM/326 MARIBEL HINES September 15, 2014 Introduction The purpose of an Executive Summary is articulate a full report with the least amount of words possible depending on the size and nature of the issue. In most cases executive summaries serve as a report for executives who do not have the time to read the full report; therefore, the summary will give the executive the information that he or she needs to understand the objective, the issue(s), and the plan(s) in place to solve the issue(s). The following summary is focusing on an on-going overtime issue that one of the company’s branches is having. Focus and Goals The current focus at this particular location is to complete the daily task in the fastest most efficient safest way possible. The goals are to minimize or combine the current routes, run the routes from the closet point to the furthest and create a benchmark for each driver to attempt to meet in a safe but efficient manner. The research states that if the routes are done in a sequence form from the closet point to...

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...The executive summary is often considered the most important section of a business plan. This section briefly tells your reader where your company is, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is also your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary should highlight the strengths of your overall plan and therefore be the last section you write. However, it usually appears first in your business plan document. What to Include in Your Executive Summary Below are several key points that your executive summary should include based on the stage of your business. If You Are an Established Business If you are an established business, be sure to include the following information: • The Mission Statement – This explains what your business is all about. It should be between several sentences and a paragraph. • Company Information – Include a short statement that covers when your business was formed, the names of the founders and their roles, your number of employees, and your business location(s). • Growth Highlights – Include examples of company growth, such as financial or market highlights (for example, “XYZ Firm increased profit margins and market share year-over-year since its foundation). Graphs and charts can be helpful in this section. • Your Products/Services -- Briefly describe the products or services you provide. • Financial......

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Executive Summary

...Executive Summaries are much like any other summary in that their main goal is to provide a condensed version of the content of a longer report. Definition of Executive Summary The executive summary is usually no longer than 10% of the original document. It can be anywhere from 1-10 pages long, depending on the report's length. Executive summaries are written literally for an executive who most likely DOES NOT have the time to read the original. • Executive summaries make a recommendation • Accuracy is essential because decisions will be made based on your summary by people who have not read the original • Executive summaries frequently summarize more than one document Types of Summaries Summaries written in order to recommend a specific course of action are executive summaries. Summaries that highlight the major points of a long piece are called abstracts. The purpose of an abstract is to allow readers to decide whether or not they want to read the longer text. View our Writing Guide about Abstracts Standard summary only refers to a summary of someone else's published work and is written for a variety of purposes. View our Writing Guide about Standard Summaries Processes for Writing an Executive Summary Executive summaries are typically written for longer reports. They should not be written until after your report is finished. Before writing your summary, try: • Summarizing the major sections of your report. You might even copy text from your report into...

Words: 1544 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...An executive summary summarizes, or reviews the main points of, a longer document or report for a reader that does not have time to read the entire report. An effective executive summary analyzes and summarizes the most important points in the paper or report, and will often make a recommendation based on the analysis. Executive summaries are “stand alone” documents that are almost always read independently of the reports they summarize. When preparing to write an executive summary, ask yourself the following questions: * Who will read your executive summary? Sometimes your executive summary may have an “intended” audience: your professor might require you to write it for a CEO, department head, or supervisor, for example. On other assignments, your audience won’t have a specific identity, but always keep in mind that the reader of an executive summary needs to know all of the important information in the main document without reading the actual document. Even if you know that your instructor will be reading everything that you submit, write the executive summary as a “stand alone” document. * What is the main document’s main topic, theme, or idea? Most reports have a “thesis” or central point that they are seeking to communicate. Try to sum this up in two or three sentences. If you are having trouble with this, imagine that someone has asked you, “what’s this report about?” and that you have to explain it in only a few sentences. Once you’re able to say what the......

Words: 2824 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...Macy’s: Executive Summary Macy’s, Inc. Macy’s, Inc. is known as the one of the leading retail corporations worldwide. It offers its customers a wide range of products including clothing, footwear, jewelry, beauty products, and even home décor. Macy’s has opened more than 800 stores across the U.S. and reported fiscal year (FY) 2009 sales of $23.5 billion. Although Macy’s is a prominent retailer today, their success had to start somewhere. In this summary we will take a glance at Macy’s history as well as their prior and current financial information. Brief History of Macy’s, Inc. Before Macy’s, Inc became a household name Rowland H. Macy, the founder of Macy’s Inc., started a dry-goods store in 1851 in Haverhill, Massachusetts where he made $11.06 on its first day. Since then, R.H. went through his share of retail failures and various store relocations. It was not until 1877, when R.H. Macy & Co. started accumulating its high sales, that it made its mark as a retail giant. For example, Macy’s made business history when they were the first to promote a woman in an executive position. Macy’s was also the first to hire an in-store Santa Claus. In 1924, upon the completion of the new 7th Avenue addition, Macy’s Herald Square became known as the “World’s Largest Store” with more than one million square feet (Macy’s, Inc., 2010). In addition, the company also produces their annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade and Fourth of July fireworks display that fills the hearts...

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...Executive Summary 1 Stand: Moderate - There was a clear structure: problem, purpose of the report, brief details of approach, important results and findings before ending of with a conclusion. Identifying these points is important as they form up the basics of what is expected from a reader. It was of an appropriate length for easy reading and comprehension. On the other hand, the executive summary was a little too descriptive on how the ‘Easy Tap’ works. It is true that more description is not bad, as it will explain more about the purpose and providing solutions to the problem. However, a strong summary of the description is preferred as it could well capture the essence of what the author is trying to explain, before further description and explanation is done in the business plan. Executive Summary 2 Stand: Bad - The overall paragraph appears to be more like an advert rather than an executive summary. The words used were informal and there was subjective description. There was no solution and proper findings to prove what this whole executive summary was talking about. For example, if it is trying to promote ‘The Sleepsuit’, the name should already be mentioned earlier in the paragraph, instead of the last sentence which caught us off-guard. This executive summary fails to impress future investors or readers that the business plan is suitable or appropriate. Executive Summary 3 Stand: Good - The first read gave us a good understanding of what the executive......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Executive Summary

...Running head: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Executive Summary XXXX XXXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX Executive Summary Brief Situation Analysis In this ever-growing field of medical services, many providers become overburdened with the tedious tasks and administrative duties involved in the filing and processing of medical claims and payments. Our vision is to be a Medical Billing Service Company that provides excellent quality management and administrative services to medical providers for their Medical Billing and Coding, maintaining of patient accounts, Medical Payments from Insurance Providers and patients, in addition to the follow up on minimum rejections from Insurance Providers. Our mission is to provide these services to alleviate the office staff of these tedious duties and in turn allow them to maximize their income or bottom line, while remaining compliant with all rules and regulations. In addition, we provide consultations and classes to the individual Medical Providers with regards to Medical Coding and Compliance with the various Insurance Providers. We also offer a very aggressive Collection Specialist to minimize the many bad debts and write-off accounts to maximize revenues. Strategies Our corporation believes that out-sourcing the tedious tasks involved in the filing and processing of claims and payments is a smart move for a medical practice. Instead of in-house processing, which takes up a lot of time and effort on the part of......

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Naval, Biliran Prepared by: TERRY JEAN B. DOCALLOS Course, Year & Sec.: BSBA III-A Instructor: RICARDO P. MEJIA, MPM TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Chapter 2: Corporate, Business and Mktg. Strat. 1 * Summary 2 * Reaction 4 * Recommendation 5 * Conclusion 6 II. Chapter 3: Marketing and Competitive Space 7 * Summary 8 * Reaction 10 * Recommendation 11 * Conclusion 12 III. Chapter 9: Strategic Brand Management 13 * Summary 14 * Reaction 16 * Recommendation 17 * Conclusion 18 IV. References 19 1 2 SUMMARY Business and marketing strategies are being altered and renewed in a wide range of companies by executives in their efforts to survive and prosper in an increasingly complex and demanding business environment. Choosing high performance strategies in this environment of constant change requires vision, sound strategic logic and commitment. Market-driven organizations develop closely coordinated business and marketing strategies. Executives in many companies are reinventing their business models with the objective of improving their competitive advantage. These changes include altering the market focus, expanding product scope, partnering with other organizations, outsourcing manufacturing and modifying internal......

Words: 2952 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Executive Summary

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Executive Summary stated the problem analyzed in the feasibility study and the company objectives supported by the study. This also includes the expected cost and benefits, anticipated risk that the company may encounter and the scope and limitations of the study. Statement of the Problem Each aspect would have several problems to determine the feasibility of the study. For Marketing aspect, the problem would be the form of strategies to be used to execute the feasibility study. The problem for technical aspect, would be the steps in production, operation and purchasing process. For management aspect, is how the company personnel deal with their task. The cost and projected sales of the product would be the problem for financial aspect, and the environmental implications of the study for socio-economic aspect. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to solve the several problem of each aspect: To identify the strategies applicable in execution of the feasibility study. To determine the steps in production, operation and purchasing process. To determine how the company personnel deal with their task effectively. To know the cost and projected sales of the product and to site environmental implications of the study. Expected Cost and Benefits The business capital is Php 10,000.00, where the proponents assumed that this capital will be easily return in just a short period of time through good cash management. Through this proposed......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2