Free Essay

Expatriates: Work Life Balance

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mrjr28
Words 4086
Pages 17
The two articles that I have chosen to analyse deal with travel stress among business people and their career options and aspirations.
“Executive travel stress: Perils of the road warrior” by Richard S DeFrank, Robert Konopaske, John M Ivancevich focuses on the concept of travel stress at the executive level, including the sources and the potential impact of stress before, during, and after travel. It also offers practical information for both organisations and individuals about how to prevent and deal with executive travel stress (DeFrank, Ivancevich & Konopaske, 2000). Managers have to travel nowadays more than ever before. Due to a fast globalisation process, executives have to be in several different places (i.e. countries, even continents) in a very small period of time. Michael Bonsignore, the CEO of Honeywell, explains that travel brings along not only negative factors such as sleep deprivation, time pressure and delays, unavoidable changes in eating habits but it has also advantages (DeFrank et al, 2000:58). “I learn a hell of a lot more doing this than sitting in my office reading historical information… Today we can’t be making decisions based on historical information because things are changing too fast” (DeFrank et al, 2000:58) said Michael Bonsignore. Apart this, travel represents a very important way for executive to learn new business techniques while travelling and even come up with new product ideas. According to a survey (DeFrank et al, 2000:59) taken in 1997, 193 million U.S. executive business travellers transform their business travel into holiday. However, business travel comprises more disadvantages than advantages. One are the most encountered problems are distraction, irritability, illness, tiredness and many others. These factors can lead to an emotional and physical change that severely disrupts an executive’s ability to perform effectively on the road, but also after returning to the office.
Travel stress is the perceptual, emotional, behavioural, and physical responses made by an individual to the various problems faced during one or more of these phases of travel (DeFrank et al, 2000:59). Executives have a frenetic and fast-paced lifestyle. For example, one manager could be on Monday in New York, on Tuesday in Los Angeles and travel to Europe on Friday (DeFrank et al, 2000:59). This kind of lifestyle put a lot of pressure on managers who is always on a runaway train. They do not have time to relax, spend time with their family or they cannot even plan to have a family due to the constant change. What is more, they to put aside their careers goals and ambitious because they fear that if they gave up travelling they might loose their jobs. A survey by Hyatt Hotels (DeFrank et al, 2000:59) indicates that a third would stop travelling if it did not hurt their careers and 52% would turn down a job offer if it involved too much travel. Travel is seen as a learning process that leads to individual growth. However, business travels are more complex and most of the time stressful and negative.
There are three types of travel stressors that can affect a business travel: pre-trip, trip, and post-trip stressors (DeFrank et al, 2000:60). There are also several factors that influence the psychological and physiological well-being of travelling executives: demographics, personality, job, organisational, home and family, and travel impedance.
First of all, pre-trip stressors (DeFrank et al, 2000:60) reflect the demanding and challenging tasks that must be solved before going on business travel. These are: trip planning, work arrangements, and home and family issues. It is true that, a successful business travel requires strategic and thorough planning. However, this process can be very stressful and challenging. One might think that all these tasks are taken care of by an assistant or travel staff. And that is true. Nevertheless, an executive still has to give his input on his own preferences regarding air travel, hotel, meeting dates, and flight times. Work arrangements can also add up to an executive pre- trip stress. While trying to find a subordinate to delegate his tasks and making sure that urgent business matters are being resolved, an executive will only fear a tremendous pressure. Family is another concern that executives have to cope with. According to a survey (DeFrank et al, 2000:61) , 75% of married travellers feel that it is difficult to be away from home for long periods.
Trip stressors include characteristics of the travel, travel logistics, health concerns, host culture issues, and job factors. The most stressful travel is the one that involve solving as many business tasks as possible in different countries and even continents. Of course, there is always the problem of flight delays or cancellations. In a survey (DeFrank et al, 2000:62) of 238 U.S. air travellers, 50% seen flight delays as a source of anxiety, and 30% reported delays at baggage claim as a cause of stress. Other factors of anxiety and stress were for 40% of business traveller’s anxiety during take-offs and landings, noise from passengers, crowded planes, turbulence, and uncomfortable seats. Furthermore, there are two major logistical issues (DeFrank et al, 2000:62) that executives face with upon their arrival at destination: the quality of the hotel and communication infrastructure. In a survey (DeFrank et al, 2000:62) made by Hilton Hotels Corporation and the National Sleep Foundation, the most majority of executives (43%) had hard times coping with noise from neighbours, while 23% could not get used to the unfamiliar environment. Another issue related to travel is the change in diet and sleep program which can lead to serious health problems. One out of four business travellers admitted loosing more sleep on a business trip now than two years ago. 55% out of 500 surveyed business travellers find sleep as the most important factor in being highly efficient, followed by exercise (25%) and a healthy diet (16%) (DeFrank et al, 2000:62). Executives who travel long distances in a short period of time loose many hours of sleep due to time change leaving not time to their bodies to adapt to this change. Moreover, they to achieve as much as possible in a business trip so they do not have time to exercise. Although many hotels are equipped with a gym, swimming pool, and sauna, after a long day of work with different cultures and in a different setting an executive might not have enough energy or motivation to hit the gym. Instead, he might prefer to get some sleep. And to make thing even worse, executives suffer massive changes in their diet. In order to show their respect, they must attend every social event and party where they have to eat and drink more alcohol than they would normally drink (DeFrank et al., 2000:63). These constant changes in lifestyle can cause stress and usually lead to psychical and physical breakdowns. The most difficult part of a business travel is meeting people from diverse cultures (DeFrank et al., 2010:63). An executive might feel overwhelmed by cross cultural experiences. An executive must be aware of the cultural differences while getting the deal closed. The post-trip stressors (DeFrank et al, 2000:63) include job issues and family concerns. Once an executive has returned home the work continues. First of all, he has only a few days to recover from the trip and get back to office where piles of papers and work are waiting for him. Secondly, there are family tasks that need to be done which will add up to the post-trip stress. The impact of travel stress is high both for executives and also for companies. An executive sent to negotiate and sign a contract has the fate of the company in his own hands. He is the one who can sign a deal or endanger the company’s future and profitability. One of the most frequently reported travel issue is jet lag. This occurs when multiple time zones are being crossed in a short period of time (DeFrank et al, 2000:64). Another crucial aspect is the psychological disorders such as irritability and excessive anxiety. Age and gender also play an important role on the level of stress. On the other hand, one study indicates that women are more apprehensive and more resistant to travel stress than men are (DeFrank et al, 2000:65). There are different strategies and tools that can be used at an organisational level and individual level in order to reduce and ultimately cope with travel stress (DeFrank et al, 2000:66). Firstly, an organisation must consider the importance level of a travel and see whether it is worth doing it. After it has been decided if a travel takes place a strategic and rigorous plan should be done. A support staff should take care of all tasks regarding flight tickets, accommodation, transportation, etc. Executive should be educated pre- trip about cultural differences, what is good to eat, what to do and not to do. What is more, someone should take care of an executive work schedule for when he comes back at office. Companies could offer concierge services that perform day-to-day tasks for a traveller (DeFrank et al, 2000:67). On the other hand, individuals should prepare themselves to overcome jet lags while working out, drinking plenty of fluids, cut out smoking and alcohol pre-trip, during it, and post- trip. They could also try to combine physical exercises with meditation to release and reduce stress (DeFrank et al, 2000:68).
“Frequent Business Travellers Across Europe: Career Aspirations and Implications” is a research work by Barbara Demel and Wolfgang Mayrhofer. It focuses on Austrian flexpatriates’ career aspirations and some of the consequences of frequent travelling on future careers, private life, and well-being (Demel & Mayrhofer, 2010:301). Flexpatriates are defined as business travellers that go on regular and numerous business trips abroad without relocating (Demel et al., 2010:301). As seen in the previous article, business trips have a great impact on an executive well-being, lifestyle, and performance and can lead to work-private life misbalances. Executives experience personal stress caused by the decision of following their career goals which might mean refusing a well-paid job that involves too much travelling or giving up their dreams and choose the well-paid job that requires flying around the world. Is there the possibility of finding a job that is both promising and with a moderate number of business trips? From a theoretical point of view, there is the concept of “new careers” (Demel et al., 2010:302) which involves a high level of responsibility for the course of own career without being restricted to organisational career paths. This paper builds its research on Derr’s career-success orientations (Demel et al., 2010:302) and on Greenhaus and Beutell’s theory (Demel et al., 2010:302) on work-life conflicts.
Careers are defined as a “sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime” (Demel et al., 2010:302). It also represents “the evolving sequence of work experience over time”. Career success is “the positive psychological or work-related outcomes or achievements one has accumulated as a result of one’s work experiences” (Demel et al., 2010:302). Career success orientations can be explained by using Derr’s approach which is related to Schein’s theory of career anchors (Demel et al., 2010:302). These are: autonomy and independence, security and stability, technical-functional competence, general managerial competence, entrepreneurial creativity, service or dedication to a cause, pure challenge and lifestyle (Demel et al., 2010:303). Derr’s theory of career success orientations aims at “describing a person’s subjective career self-identity about work and life”. It is compounded of: getting ahead, getting secure, getting free, getting high, and getting balance (Demel et al., 2010:303). The highly ranked on Derr’s and Laurent’s study is “getting ahead” (i.e. hierarchical advancement). Due to work-private life balance, “getting balanced” is seen as a central career success orientation among business people. As already mentioned, work- private life balance play a very important role in an executive’s life and it is often the main stress and conflicts source. According to Greenhaus and Beutell, there are three types of conflicts: time-based conflicts (scarcity of time), strain-based conflicts (fatigue, tension, anxiety, irritability), and behaviour-based conflicts (changing behaviour demanded by different roles in different situations) (Demel et al., 2010:303). The articles uses the results of a survey (Demel et al., 2010:304) conducted among Austrian managers who work in Western and Eastern Europe to reflect the career aspirations for these flexpatriates. The survey was conducted in German and face-to-face with 52 Austrian managers from which 20 were flexpatriates (16 males, 4 females) and 22 expatriates (15 males, 7 females). Half of them operate in Eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Russia, etc.), and the other half in Western Europe (Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Switzerland, etc.). A group of 6 males and 4 females was also interviewed as a comparison group. They match the same criteria with the exception that they live and work in Austria without often travelling abroad. According to this survey (Demel et al., 2010:305), the main career aspiration is related to the task they need to fulfil. For the Austrian managers is very important that their tasks are interesting, challenging, and innovative. They search for positions that require more strategically thinking rather than operational tasks. They also feel the need to make a difference through their work. What is more, the Austrian business people would also like to find a job that is different than the usual office jobs and that also involves travelling. “It needs to be something extraordinary that I am doing, I am not satisfied with average” said a male frequent flyer (31 years old) (Demel et al., 2010:305). The second important element is “hierarchical advancement and the desire to reach an executive position or become a member of the board” (Demel et al., 2010:305). This is followed by the need of balancing work life with private matters. A businessman (29) said that he would like to achieve a leading position “if it isn’t at the cost of my relationship…that is a big goal of mine. We always talk about work-life balance, reaching at least a part of it is definitely an ambition” (Demel et al., 2010:305). Further two more important career aspirations are represented by money and wealth and the exchange of thoughts or ideas with others (Demel et al., 2010:305). The major reasons for working as flexpatriates are the international character and excitement of tasks. It seems that for the Austrian managers (Demel et al., 2010:305) the most crucial motive is international mobility, followed by the need of getting abroad, enlarging one’s horizon, etc. There were some who described travelling as “a fundamental condition” (37, male), and others that saw it as “a necessary evil” (36, m) (Demel et al., 2010:305). A female flyer (36) stated that she could not see herself “in a nine-to-five job, sitting at the same desk everyday and having her toothbrush exactly in the same spot day in and out” (Demel et al., 2010:305). Another highly regarded motive for accepting jobs that require a lot of travelling was the chance to meet different people from various cultures. However, there is a common desire encountered among the interviewees was to have Austria as their home base. “I never wanted to leave Vienna, but I love travelling and I enjoy different cultures and…this is great, to still be able to live here and complete tasks from work through travelling” said a female flyer (36) (Demel et al., 2010:305). Their goals coincide with the motives for travelling abroad. The primary goal is the learning and gaining experience process, followed by making contacts abroad, then reaching a leadership position, and also enjoying work while travelling. When it comes to their future careers, 85% of all flexpatriates expect to see their travelling paying off, while more than a quarter also indicates negative career consequences (Demel et al., 2010:306). The positive consequences are grouped in three most important categories: acquired know-how, make of new contacts abroad, and demonstrated abilities of flexibility, openness, and mobility gained through travelling. As for the negative aspects, Austrian managers in Western Europe have illustrated the workload and time loss while being away (Demel et al., 2010:306). This article concentrates on the negative consequences seen by Austrian managers that work in Eastern Europe. First of all, managers complained of the syndrome of “getting stuck” in Eastern Europe. There are not many people who are willing to do to Eastern Europe and once there is someone who once went and became an expert in this region, there might be the “danger” of one being assigned jobs only in Eastern Europe. A manager (40, m) working in Romania explained that “you need to be careful when operating in Eastern Europe in order not to be labelled a CEE specialist; otherwise this reputation will restrict you future career developments in this area” (Demel et al., 2010:306). On the other hand, there is the bad CEE reputation that might keep investors away due to the lower quality of life than in Western Europe and the level of maturity of the market. However, the “virgin” Eastern European market makes out of it the perfect place for managers to learn and to develop their careers. The last part of the article deals with implications and contributions for the Human Resources departments.
I have chosen these two interrelated articles for their increasing important and relevance in the business field and also because of personal reasons. First of all, as the two articles mentioned, the subject of travel stress and its implications on a traveller’s work and private life as well as future careers opportunities has not been given too much importance neither in empirical or theoretical studies nor in Human Resources departments. What is more, by neglecting a very important issue that influence an executive performance while on, during, and after the trip which ultimately will affect the entire performance of the company where one is working at. Secondly, and most importantly for me, I have my personal interest in this subject also as an individual who travels for pleasure but also for my future business career. I think that these two research papers could be also very interesting and helpful for a person who simply likes to travel and wants to know what travel stress is, its implication, and how to deal and cope with it. On the other hand, I consider that every business student should make of these articles a “compulsory” reading because we live in a globalised world and almost every international job requires business travels. I have been always fascinated by a job who would involve travelling across the world. Maybe it is because of the American films that illustrate a major CEO in his huge, full of window office that is always on the road flying at first class or with private airplanes, having his own chauffer and having everything done by a personal assistant. Of course, my perspective has altered in the course of time and I have become more realistic about what business travel is and involves, but there were still some aspects missing. I still want to find a job that requires travelling to different countries to sign up contracts or work there for a couple of months. However, I would like to find that perfect combination of work, as stated in the second article (the “new careers”), where I can decide when and how long to travel and at the same time pursue my careers aspirations and at the same time make a difference and be innovative while keeping a work-life balance. I know that this might sound and be unrealistic, but at least, after reading the second article, now I know that I am not the only one who seeks this kind of dream job. It gave me the feeling that I can relate to someone. I could find myself in the words of an Austrian female flyer who said that she could not see herself in a “nine-to-five job, sitting at the same desk everyday.” I have also considered the same positive and negative aspects of business travel that were commented in the articles. The most important would be for me: gather knowledge, know-how, and dynamism, internationality, broaden my cultural and informational knowledge. And as for the negative aspects probably the constant change of time zones and hotel rooms, long flight hours, changes in my diet, excessive tiredness, and also the feeling of not knowing anymore where one belongs to. I have personally experienced some travel stress, especially pre-trip stress. For example, I had to apply for the U.S. visa and while gathering all the documentation needed, I realised that some papers were missing. The problem was that a part of them were with me in Vienna, while some others back home, in Romania. I had to explain my parents which papers I need, where they were, get them translated and then sent by express delivery. What is more, while completing online applications I had to give my address where to receive the passport with the visa and other papers. The other issues was that I had only 3 weeks before finishing my classes and by the time I would have received the papers I might have been already at home. Therefore, I experienced stress and confusion while switching between two address and always making time calculations.
These two articles combined are a very well executed complementary work. The first one deals the travel stress suffered by executives and its impact on their work and private life; whereas the second focuses on the careers goals of business travellers and their reasons for choosing jobs that involve travelling. If read together, it gives the impression of a complete, empirical work, taking the reader from a general view on business travel (the first article) to a more detailed and focused research. Both articles are written in a clear and structured way and follow a logical sequence. It is very easy for the reader to read through the articles and understand it. The goal and focus of the articles are clearly stated at the beginning and the use of subtitles makes it easier to be followed. The first article is a focused and complex work. It exposes all the aspects and factors of travel stress in a very understandable theoretical way, while also giving valuable practical information for both an individual and organisation. For the reader is very easy to follow the logical line: first they receive the theory with problems and negative effects, then the implications, and then how these can be changed and avoided and also how to do it. As for the second article, it is more an empirical work with practical relevance. What I like at the second article is that they use the theory and concepts based on a survey’s results. As both articles mention, the subject of business travel has not been treated at something of great importance. It has only now begun to increase in popularity and companies and specialists are conducting surveys and trying to deal with it. The first article explains very well how organisations and individuals can deal and reduce travel stress. However, all the surveys were conducted only in the U.S. and with U.S. managers which narrows the view on travel stress among all business people around the world. The second article mentions briefly at the end some implications for HR and individuals but it is too vague. What is more, there is also the question of the accuracy of the survey regarded to the managers interviewed (16 males, 4 females). All in all, I think that these two papers provide the reader with valuable information about business travel and also practical relevance to the subject.


DeFrank, R., Ivancevich. J and Konopaske, R. 2000. Executive Travel Stress: Perils of the Road Warrior. The Academy of Management Executive 1993-2005, 14(2): 58-71. Academy of Management

Demel, B. and Mayrhofer, W. 2010. Frequent business travellers across Europe: Career aspirations and implications. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(4): 301–311. Wiley Periodicals, Inc., DOI: 10.1002/tie.20352

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Swot Analysis

...(TP022124) Module Title: International Human Resource Management Module Code: BM025-3-3 Assignment Description: Individual Assignment Intake Number: UC3F1310 IBM Submission date: 9th January 2014 Lecturer’s Name: Han Kok Siew Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Technical Ability 4 3.0 Cross-Cultural Suitability 5 4.0 Family Requirements 6 5.0 Country/ Cultural Requirement 7 6.0 MNE Requirements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8 7.0 Language Barrier………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8 8.0 Conclusion 9 9.0 References 10 1.0 Introduction With the fast pace of globalization businesses are recognizing the need for selecting and hiring expatriate managers. It has become a key criterion for organizations in order to compete effectively in globalized environments. (Altman, 2012) describes the value of international assignments as conducting businesses and technological knowledge, developing personnel, enhancing and facilitating communication channels between headquarters and subsidiary along with introducing a synergized organizational policy throughout the organization. Expatriation is not just a milestone for individuals to explore their potential but has also raised the economic output levels of businesses in terms of increased productivity. In the article written by (Harris and Moran 1996) they state that global managers and executives have to examine and manage the......

Words: 3174 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Astrazenac Executive Summary

...According to Deresky (2014), AstraZenaca handles a whole process for expatriate management. They assist in setting up training, prior to the move along with on-site training. The expat is paired up with an international assistant manager, and provided with information specific to the assignment to include country destination guidance, home country return procedures, cultural details, social considerations, and any necessary language training. AstraZenaca also provides exposure to a previous expat who served in the destination location for better assistance. (p. 325-327) “Sometimes follow-up is scheduled in the host country. Expats stay in contact with the IA manager along with the manager in the home country. Expats are given flexibility on...

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Training Expatriates

...Training and Preparing Expatriates MGT 555 Melvinne Kitillya Executive Summary Globalization has created opportunities for employers to find the skilled professionals they desire, whether they are in their own national market or elsewhere. These professionals that are being recruited from other nations are called expatriates, and they are chosen to live in another country either temporarily or permanently. There has been an increase of expatriates starting at the end of the 20th century due to the variety employers are now capable of finding. In fact, globalization has actually doubled the number of expatriates within only a matter of a few years ( Now, expatriates are recruited based on desired skill and income level. Companies tend to require training for this role in order to ease the transition of both the employee and the family members involved. This training tends to be quite extensive as this is a great undertaking for everyone involved in the move. Though some employees are chosen directly by management to go and others simply volunteer, much is at stake emotionally and mentally. I will discuss the various problems that are encountered by uprooting the lives of the employees and moving to another country, and more importantly another culture. The largest transitional issue encountered is culture shock. Other concerns include missing family and friends back home, losing out on other employment opportunities, not completing projects due......

Words: 3921 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay


...WOMEN AND INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS: TAKING STOCK— A 25-YEAR REVIEW Y O C H A N A N A LT M A N A N D S U S A N S H O R T L A N D Women’s progress into management and, more specifically, into the world of expatriates, is the subject of this review. Despite advances in equal opportunities legislation, women failed to embark on expatriate missions in significant numbers during the 1980s. In the 1990s, more women were offered international assignment opportunities but they remained a negligible minority compared to men. The first decade of the twenty-first century has witnessed a gradual increase in the number and visibility of women in international assignments. Through a comprehensive review of the literature over the period from 1980 to now, this article charts the emerging themes and changes in the tone of discourse: from when organizations were debating whether to “give women a chance” through attempts to identify and remove “blockages” to women’s progress to, most recently, structural changes in the expatriate assignment and claims for women’s superior affinity to operating internationally. We highlight gaps in the current literature and propose a platform for future research. We conclude with recommendations for practice. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Introduction T he last two decades of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first saw a significant rise in cross-border international business activity, driven by globalization and the......

Words: 10018 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Work Life Balance

...2.2.1 The relationship between Family flexibility and Work-life balance According to (Kenny 2002) is Work-life balance and Family flexibility seeks to find out what difference is there between work and life, so that you can feel comfortable with work and family responsibilities. Sometimes for the life of public and private professionals are 'balance among these three factors which are: paid work, unpaid work and personal time. By definition there is no term that is accepted and contributed to a Work-life balance is a repetition the word regularly mentions to one of the subsequent components: organizational support reliant on care, supple work choices and family or personal. For family boundary is great permeable if the worker receives...

Words: 1346 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Human Resources

...increasingly use expatriates on short-term and long-term international job assignments for a variety of purposes, such as to acquire and transfer knowledge, to manage a foreign subsidiary, to fill a staffing need, to maintain communication, coordination, and control between subsidiaries and corporate headquarters, and to develop global leadership competence. Given this, successful expatriate assignments are indispensable to Multinational companies for both developmental and functional reasons. Training: An expatriate’s success in the host country is largely determined by his or her cross-cultural adjustment to the host country. While immersed in the new culture, expatriates are ‘removed from the comfortable environment of their parental culture and placed in a less familiar culture’ and are susceptible to adjustment problems because of numerous challenges that inhibit their cross-cultural adjustment like the need to speak the foreign language, to cope with culture shock, to understand different laws and customs, and to interact with local nationals. Scholarly research that has been conducted in recent years suggests that expatriates who are not prepared to confront the challenges (e.g., to cope with culture shock) find it difficult to adjust and hence incur, and impose on others, costly implications. For example, expatriates who are unable to adjust are more likely to perform poorly. Poor performance on the assignment has costly implications for expatriates (such as......

Words: 3728 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

International Human Resource Management

...main similarities and differences between domestic and international HRM? • More HR activities. • The need for a broader perspective • More involvement in employees’ personal lives. • Changes in emphasis as the workforce mix of expatriates and a local varies. • Risk exposure. • Broader external influences. • Cultural awareness and the role of the international HR manager o Despite the methodological concerns about cross-cultural research, it is now generally recognized that culturally insensitive attitudes and behaviors stemming from ignorance or from misguided beliefs are not only inappropriate but can all-too-often contribute to international business failure. • Attitudes Of Senior Management To International Operations o Managers may tend to focus on domestic issues and minimize differences between international and domestic environments. Not surprisingly, senior managers with little international experience may assume that there is a great deal of transferability between domestic and international HRM practices. The challenge for the corporate HR manager who wishes to contribute to the internationalization of their firm is to work with top management in fostering the desired ‘global mindset’. This goal requires, of course, a HR manager who is able to think globally and to formulate and implement HR policies that facilitate the development of globally oriented staff. 2. As a......

Words: 1251 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Human Resource Management overseas, particularly in the area of managing human resources. To a large degree, the challenge of managing across borders boils down to the philosophies and systems we use for managing people. In this chapter we will observe that much of what is discussed throughout this text can be applied to foreign operations, provided one is sensitive to the requirements of a particular international setting. The first part of this chapter presents a brief introduction to international business firms. In many important respects, the way a company organizes its international operations influences the type of managerial and human resources issues it faces. In additioft1 we briefly describe some of the environmental factors that also affect the work of managers in a global setting. Just as with domestic operations, the dimensions of the environment form a context in which HRM decisions are made. A major portion of this chapter deals with the various HR activities involved in the recruitment, selection,...

Words: 11547 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

International Committee of the Red Cross

...iTHE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC): MANAGING ACROSS CULTURE ‘We were an orgn made up of Swiss generalists. We are becoming a multicultural and professional enterprise.” 1. INTRODUCTION Dr. Jacques Stroun, M.D. – (1999) Director of Human Resources & Finance (before Head of Detention Division, Deputy Director of Operations) ICRC – provide humanitarian relief, Humanitarian ‘Multinational’ Organisation Home base: Geneva, Switzerland Orgn Values – Neutrality, Independence, Discretion & Humanism Total Workforce – (2008) over 14,000 over 100 nationalities Until recently – ICRC is very Swiss , very Genevoise Expatriate – open to all nationalities but 93% is westerners (1992) Changing expatriate composition – expatriates number increasing – Africa, Asia & Latin America HR Policy – recruitment from Geneva – sent to field with ‘learning by doing’, operate under sense of danger, meeting immediate challenges, focus on short term, quickly develops and reinforces team and team loyalties, rotation every 12 months, no formal training, no continuity for developing people, Career - little career planning, career developed through interpersonal networks & driven by opportunities, most recruits stayed for 2 to 3 years, no management development, those remain and reach top of HQ –mostly Swiss male (old school boys club) CURRENT CHALLENGES – greater diversity in mgmt ranks – more professionals, foreigners and women. NEW STRATEGIC PLAN (2007......

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Int Business

...French Economy General Overview: The French economy is the fifth largest in the world and accounts for about a fifth of euro area GDP. France weathered the global crisis better than most advanced economies. This is explained by the economy being less open than e.g. Germany, a fairly solid financial sector, a large public sector and substantial fiscal stimulus. Exports amount to about 20% of GDP – about half of the euro area average – while government expenditures amount to about 55% of GDP. The government budget deficit as a share of GDP is higher than the euro area average and the debt-to-GDP ratio is only marginally below the euro area average. During the summer France announced austerity measures, aimed at ensuring fiscal sustainability. Significant reforms and privatizations have taken place in the past decades, but the government continues to own shares in corporations in a range of sectors. Key export markets are located in Europe, with Germany, Italy and Spain being the most important ones. About one third of all exports are going to economies outside Europe. The share of exports to Asia is small, but gradually increasing. Tourism is important (France is the most visited country in the world). France runs a current account deficit and has a large foreign debt. France is the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe. Nevertheless agriculture accounts for less than 4% of employment and 2% of GDP. The unemployment rate, which peaked in January 2010, is below......

Words: 4917 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Human Resource Management

...Managing Human Resources, 14e, Bohlander/Snell - © 2007 Thomson South-Western © STONE/GETTY IMAGES chapter 15 International Human Resources Management After studying this chapter, you should be able to objective Identify the types of organizational forms used for competing internationally. objective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Identify the unique training needs for international assignees and their employees. objective Explain the economic, politicallegal, and cultural factors in different countries that HR managers need to consider. objective Identify the characteristics of a good international compensation plan. objective Explain how domestic and international HRM differ. objective Reconcile the difficulties of home- and host-country performance appraisals. objective Discuss the staffing process for individuals working internationally. objective Explain how labor relations differ around the world. PART 6 Expanding Human Resources Management Horizons 639 Managing Human Resources, 14e, Bohlander/Snell - © 2007 Thomson South-Western 640 PART 6 Expanding Human Resources Management Horizons W hen you pick up a newspaper or turn on the TV, you’ll notice that stories are constantly being told about companies competing globally. These stories might include mergers of U.S. and international companies, such as Daimler-Benz and Chrysler a few years ago. Or they might highlight companies expanding into......

Words: 24258 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

Challenges of an Australian Hr Manager May Face in London

...Challenges of an Australian HR manager may face in London | | Subject: HRM in the Global Environment HRMT20022 Subject: HRM in the Global Environment HRMT20022 Over the last few decades the number of expatriates is increasing worldwide. These men and women represent a very important asset for organisations which are developing new business across the world. These expatriates are generally sending abroad to develop strategies or resolve problems in the host country. Consequently, the organisation has to be informed of any issue that expatriates might face and affect the work abroad in terms of international human resource management (IHRM) and industrial relations (IR) issues. Deb (2009) define IHRM as ‘a strategic process of managing a global and diverse pool of talented people in such a way as to achieve aims and objectives of the organisation both at parent and subsidiary level successfully, follow ethical practices on human and business issues and be adaptable to local cultural norms and other human needs and aspirations’. And Dowling, Festing and Engle (2013, p.242) define IR as ‘The board field of study that looks at wider issues of work and employment’. The purposes of this essay are to identify and discuss the IR and HRM issues an expatriate from Melbourne could face while living and working in London. In relation to Industrial relations issues, the role of unions, employment contracts, regulations, visas, taxation, labour laws and employ......

Words: 2911 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...Question 1 Multinational enterprise (MNE) can be defined as a company in which it has facilities as well as other assets in one or more countries other than their home country. These companies usually have offices and/or factories in various countries where a centralized headquarters is used for global management. Trade union is an association consisting of members whereby their membership is has to be made up of mainly workers. Protecting and improving the interests of its members in the workplace is one of the trade union’s aims. Most of the trade unions are independent of any employer. Nevertheless, trade unions attempt to develop close working affiliations with employers. This can occasionally take the form of a partnership agreement between the trade union and the employer that categorizes their common interests and objectives. The purposes of trade unions are to negotiate agreements with employers on conditions and pay, discuss main changes to the office such as great scale unemployment, concerns with employers, discuss their members, complement their members in grievance and disciplinary meetings, deliver their affiliates with legal and financial advice and provide education facilities and certain consumer benefits such as discounted insurance. Four characteristics of Multinational Enterprise (MNE) that give trade union cause for concern are labor negotiations, offshore outsourcing or offshoring, insourcing and the actions......

Words: 3056 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Expatriates and Business

...because it operates in multiple countries, it must deal with multiple sources of sovereign authority. This involves working with different laws and legal systems, or in some cases the lack of systematic legal structures and processes. * Executives in positions at headquarters or in foreign subsidiaries must have the skills to understand the impact of various laws, tariffs, taxes, enforcement practices, overarching legal systems, and be able to work with host government officials in enacting and maintaining reasonable legislation across a wide variety of countries and cultures. * Second, MNCs must also operate in different markets with different cultures, histories, values, social systems, languages, etc., which often require not only product diversification but intra-product differentiationby country. * This requires executives who can analyze these country endowments and form strategy that balances local demands and global priorities. Thus, the current and future business environment demands executives who can work effectively across national and cultural boundaries or can, manage "in a borderless world.' American executives will not...

Words: 1712 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Total Rewards

...rewards system (“WorldatWork,” 2007). However, mega organizations that employ over 20,000 employees and provide services in several different countries may require a more diverse total rewards system. With that said, the organization must have a purpose, objectives, eligibility requirements, measuring techniques, funding, structure, global considerations, a timeline of detailed actions, and laws when creating their total rewards system. According to the experts, a company must consider the following core provisions as components of their total rewards system: * Cash Compensations: The employee’s base pay and incentives. * Benefits: The employee’s health care and retirement aids. * Work and Life Balance: Assisting the employee by offering tools to assist with balancing work and life. * Performance Management and Recognition: Aligning company goals with total rewards through individual and team efforts, and the acknowledgements of employee actions, behaviors, performance, and efforts in achieving company goals. * Career Advancement and Development: The employee’s career development and promotion (“WorldatWork,” 2007). Organizations that employ employees in their home country as well as in international countries are charged with the essential task of integrating a total rewards system that will accommodate employees locally and internationally. According to the experts, the most important factor of an awards system for employees working abroad is......

Words: 2309 - Pages: 10