Premium Essay

Expectancy Theory of Motivation and George

In: Business and Management

Submitted By neilbooy
Words 363
Pages 2
In the case study it can be seen that George had the idea, if he made amends with the report and put in more effort he will impress Janet and Daniel, however after his effort his colleagues still were not impressed with what he produced “hopefully we will have something useful to present”. Thus George questioned his effort and saw that even after he worked around the clock and arrived early to work on the project he could still not impress them with his report. This relates to Effort to performance outcome of the expectancy theory which refers to an individual’s perception that his or her effort will result in a particular level of performance it falls between two extremes 1.0 and 0.0, 1.0 where they believe they can definitely finish the task or 0.0 where they believe even their best effort is not going to get the task done (McShane et. al 2015). George’s expectancy that his effort will lead to a specific level of performance is 0.0 he felt even if he tried his best he will still not be able to impress his colleagues with his report or at least satisfy them with his report thus he did not care about their opinion anymore and only started doing the minimum, coming late for work and leaving early, because his best effort did not lead to an expected performance level. The second factor of expectancy theory called performance to outcome expectancy, explains why George was ready to quit after his three-month review with the HR director and Janet. Performance to outcome expectancy is a persons believe that if he or she engages in a specific behaviour or level of performance, it will lead to a certain outcome it also falls between two extremes 1.0 where Janet and the HR director made it sound reassuring that he will receive the 10% bonus after his three-month probation period. Thus George though if he stayed he will receive the bonus and decided not to leave, however once…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Financial Management 8 2.6 Motivation 9 3- Literature review 9 3.1 Organizational Justice 9 3.2 Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory 12 3.3 Expectancy theory 14 4- Solutions and suggestions 18 4.1 Organisational Justice 18 4.2 Stress 19 4.3 Improving feedback process 20 5- Conclusion 21 References 23 Executive Summary There are three purposes for this report. It attempts to indentify the problems in the case study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3. Accordingly, it discusses about six main problems in ABC consulting firm that have negative impact on the organization effectiveness and the productivity of the objectives. These problems are; ABC consulting organization failed in implemented the organizational justice. Next one is the perception errors of Janet, the client manager and human resource director. The third problem is George was forced in the stress situation and George’s dissatisfaction about job and work behaviors which caused to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect actions is the problem number four. The fifth is teamwork environment, processes and the last problem is ABC consulting failed to implement the motivation procedures in motivating its staffs. In addition, it also mentions about the theories which related to each problem. The second aim of this report is to explain the literature review of some theories that are related to the case study’s problems and solutions. Particularly, the organization motivation justice theory, Maslow’s......

Words: 6606 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Google Paper

...c. Annual Revenue: 37,905,000,000 (“Mergent”) 3. Observable Components of Company Motivation Strategy: d. Component 1: Google’s Compensation Motivation. Google employees receive individually tailored compensation packages. With the custom pay packages, employees receive competitive salaries, and get to choose from a wide variety of benefits to create compensation packages that are tailored to each employee’s personal needs and wants (“Benefits”). This idea behind compensation is good motivation because it makes employees feel that their inputs are worth the outputs they receive. When equity exists, people are motivated to continue contributing their current levels of inputs to their organizations to receive the current level of outputs (Jones & George, 2011). e. Component 2: Founders’ Awards Google awards employees that work hard on outstanding projects that add enormous value to the company. These awards are handed out in stock options, but can be worth multiple millions of dollars. The recipients of the award receive their bonus based on their contributions to the project. “We have people who just do phenomenal things, I want a mechanism to reward that.” said Sergey Bin(Co-Founder) (Hafner, 2005). Instrumentalities must be high for motivation to be high- people must perceive that because of their high performance they will receive outcomes (Jones & George, 2011). f. Component 3: Work Choice Google engineers are allowed to use 20%......

Words: 1753 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Organization Behaviour

...Use the Expectancy theory to explain why the student’s motivation decline to such an extent that they destroyed the bottles of chili sauce. What is Expectancy Theory of Motivation? “Expectancy theory is a motivation based on the idea that work efforts is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcome” (McShane, page 132). Expectancy (Effort to Performance), Instrumentality (Performance to outcome) and Valence (reward/ outcome) are three key elements in expectancy theory, work together and range of probability is between 0 to 1 and -1 to +1(valance) and if any of the element is missing motivation become zero. Factor influence of students “Motivation Declined” Expectancy theory relay on external and internal behavior toward motivation. Working at the Chili Sauce Plant Bill, John and Robert faced new challenges and did not receive any recognition and motivation for their work. From very first day working with neuroticism, self efficacy George, student’s efforts lead to poor job performance and they ready to quit but their goal and physiological need insist to stay, face the strong working situational challenges. Lunenburg (2011) assert that “leader should try to increase the belief that employees are capable of performing the job successfully”. Rahim’s as a manager focus directive behaviour, avoidance policies, individualism values among co-worker discourage student to trust on him and to that bring issues which affecting their......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...micromanaging style of George, from auditing with a successful professional track record at work and in the community, who wanted to be involved in every detail of job and kept putting post-it notes to let Bob know about inaccuracies, which made him routinely bump on the tasks. Diagnosis Failure to appropriately transition from Beverly’s hands off management style to George’s deeply involved hands on style provide to be a negative and stressful experience for Bob. Not having the autonomy to supervise his department as he saw fit was not the challenge Bob wanted. “Post-It” notes citing Bob’s failure to do as he was instructed became the main feedback notification from George no matter the level of importance of a project. Bob was feeling disappointed and discontent, he lost his motivation and job satisfaction. When Bob reached his boiling point, he would ask Beverly for help with George’s increasingly demeaning tactics and feedback. This worked for about 10 days max. Then the same negative behavior would start again. The change in leadership styles no longer provided the challenge Bob enjoyed. So much to the point Bob informed Beverly he was looking into finding another job because the last “Post-It” not was the last straw. Theory A few leadership theories address the exchange of leadership styles of Beverly, George and Bob. “Path-Goal Leadership Theory” defines two leadership styles that had an impact on Bob’s work performance and personal satisfaction. Under this......

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Question 1: Motivation Table of Contents Introduction 3 What is Motivation 3 Why is understanding motivation important for mangers 4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 4 Expectancy theory 5 Reinforcement theory 6 In relation to employee performance which theory should a Manager adopt 8 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction Motivation is a broad topic and is at times not clearly understood and often poorly practiced. There are many major factors that mangers conveniently use to escape majority or all the blame of their organisational problems. One would be that whenever things go wrong some managers tend to point out that the problem(s) have occurred due to lack of motivation from employees (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). Theodore Roosevelt once said, "the best …[manger] is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it" (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). Essentially the manager's obligation is to develop employee’s skill and harness their capabilities as much as possible for the development of the organisations they belong to (“Employee-motivation strategies,” 1999). The paper aims to provide an understanding in regards to the importance of human motivation. It will outline and discuss three motivational theories and how mangers may apply these theories to improve employee performance (Halepota, 2005). Having knowledge about motivation......

Words: 3107 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Tree Tops Case Analysis

...most of the problems stated. The group’s cohesiveness is causing them to behave in similar manners, as additive tasks, even though the behaviours adopted are not in line with the norms of the rest of the company (taking longer breaks etc). this packaging department has been separated from others and was far from others which made it impossible for supervisors to go in the afternoon, the employees feel isolated and excluded from the company, causing lack of motivation. The group’s poor performance is causing an overstock which results in high inventory costs and risk of damaged stocks since they have to be stored outside ultimately causing the poor appearance of the finished product which affects the buyer’s decision. It can be assumed that it is a larger group due to the tasks that need to be performed, which affects the group in many ways. In larger groups, friendships develop, participation decreases and disengagement increases resulting in process loss: a group performance difficulty stemming from the problems of motivation and coordination in larger groups. Solutions and Consequences 1. To deal with the gazillions of issues company should start from the social loafing: Increase feelings of indispensability. Doing this within the group would motivate the employees. Increase performance feedback, so that employees will know how to improve themselves as well as knowing what they did well. Reward group performance. Positive Consequence: * They will be highly......

Words: 2683 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Jobs Offshore

...Offshore The number one resource of any business is its employees; keeping employees motivated and energized is a way to meet a company’s organizational goals. Most companies understand that a happy employee is a productive employee. Pfizer understands that concept and that is why they have launched their new program, PfizerWorks; whereby shifting tedious and time consuming tasks offshore. PfizerWorks is the brainchild of Jordan Cohen, the architect and head of this new program. Cohen recalls seeing one of his recruits from the consulting firm McKinsey & Co., a new father stay late at the office one night to crunch number and search for information on the Web. To Cohen, it didn’t seem like the time best spent (Jones & George, 2011, p. 322). This observation brought about the creation of ‘PfizerWorks’ which is a tool that addresses the concerns of employees having to do tedious and time consuming tasks. An article in Business Week highlights the concerns of Pfizer’s employee, David Cain as noted in Essentials of Contemporary Management (2011): David Cain loves his job. Well, most of it anyway. Cain finds real satisfaction in assessing environmental real estate risks, managing facilities, and overseeing a multimillion-dollar budget for the pharmaceutical giant. Further, Cain says that he does not love creating Power-Point slides and riffling through spreadsheet (p. 322). Essentials of Contemporary...

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...In the last two decades, motivation becoming increasingly important in the workplace. Motivation was defined as the ‘psychological forces’ that determine the level of a person’s effort and persistence and the direction of a person’s behavious in an organization (Meyer et al., 2007: 425). As the base of organization, employee is regard as the most essential aspect in order to manage successfully and motivation is considered as the center of management because it explains why workers do in this way (Meyer et al., 2007:425). Moreover, it is concluded by French et al. (2008:156) that the motivation of employee is one of the keys to effective management to reach the objective of the organization. Therefore, this essay will analyze the application of both content and process motivation theories. To be more specific, Maslow’s theory will be explored in Hart Worldwide, followed by Herzberg’s Two-factor theory in Kwik-fit financial service and Vroom’s Expectancy theory in Nike. One of the most widely used theories about needs is by psychologist Abraham Maslow, who assumes that human needs are appeared continuously in a higher level. (Rollinson, 2008:202). Therefore, he arranged the needs in a hierarchy, which is portrayed as a pyramid of five different kinds of needs: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness, esteem needs and self-actualization needs (Meyer et al., 2007:430). Moreover, he assumed that some needs are considered more basic than other needs, such as food and......

Words: 1923 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Grand Regency Hotel

...Introduction “Introducing the practice of empowerment so as to replicate the successes that John Becker had achieved back home (McShane & Sheen, 2012)” did not occur as intended with the Regency Grand Hotel. The series of events that occurred thereafter led to deterioration and poor overall performance (McShane & Sheen, 2012). Incorrect implementation of empowerment is clearly the underlying cause for the hotel’s recent performance, which is explained by the Expectancy Theory of motivation and Dissatisfaction Model. Problem Empowerment was too quickly placed in action without the consideration of culture differences and previous working ethics. This led to hotel performance failure because of employee dissatisfaction. The Dissatisfaction model (Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect) explains how employees had responded to job dissatisfaction (McShane & Steen 2012). The Expectancy theory of motivation complements the previous theory in explaining how employees worked towards a particular outcome (McShane &Steen, 2012). Analysis “After meeting with the managerial team at The Regency Grand Hotel, Becker was pleased with the response from the managerial staff and was eager to have his empowerment plan implemented (McShane & Steen, 2012).” Managers in this meeting expressed loyalty (Dissatisfaction model) by merely accepting the current conditions and waiting for the problem to work itself out (McShane & Steen, 2012). Empowerment encourages employee autonomy,......

Words: 1416 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...barriers for women is important for their status and recognition. Deloitte (2013a) is following this initiative, being a market leader in empowering women. This report will explain that leadership, motivation and human resource strategies have been used by Deloitte to effectively manage its employee’s behaviours through their vision of empowering women. This report will explain that culture in the Asian and Middle Eastern countries play a role in determining the strategies that a company can use. There will be an analysis critiquing the strategies that Deloitte have used, whether they have adopted the correct strategies and what strategies they should implement in the future. “Leadership is the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieve group or organisational goals” (Waddell, Jones & George, 2011, p. 172). Deloitte motivates and manages its employees through using the leadership theories of: House’s path goal theory; Vroom’s expectancy theory and transformational leaders. House’s path goal theory supports servant leadership. This means that the leader is not looked at from a position of power but rather as a life coach providing information and support to employees (House, 1996). House’s Path goal theory entails: offering rewards for the achievement of performance goals; clarifying paths towards these goals and removing performance obstacles. Deloitte (2013a) has a clear path......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Motivatin Empoloyee

...satisfaction. Some are not concerned with the aspects of a job but mostly with the meaning of the work itself. Work motivation is the motivation within work and careers. It is generally the motivation to perform; however, when it comes to work it can mean other things as well. The motivation to stay and work, commit to a project or even quit a work group or organization is all examples of work motivation. The motivation to cooperate; work with others, share knowledge and to follow a leader is all aspects of work motivation. Motivation is important because it explains why employees behave as they do. One of the first steps to developing a motivational program is the managers. Since the downsizing, the workloads of most employees have been increased by about 30%. The managers need to see and know their employees’ values. Our text explains that “the employee’s motivation can be driven by making their work more interesting, giving them more freedom to make their own decisions, or expanding the number of activities they perform” (George, J., & Jones, G. (2012). Ch. 4). This relates to the Expectancy theory; “it is the extent to which an employee’s effort will result in a certain level of job performance” ((George, J., & Jones, G. (2012). Ch. 6). We also need to look at intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation; intrinsic is work performed for its own sake and the motivation comes from actually enjoying what you do. Extrinsic is when work is performed in order to......

Words: 943 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Uts Managing Work & People Spc Ardmona Individual Essay

...through the perspectives of motivation. Literature review is provided to gain an insight into the area of motivation, and some of the models in which motivational factors are articulated. From the review, intrinsic motivation is a key to the prolonged development of competitive advantage. Nevertheless, extrinsic motivation acts as a foundational support for the development of such intrinsic motivators. The report investigates the nature of the SPC-Ardmona enterprise agreement in 2012 in relation to its motivational capacity upon employees. Findings suggest that the agreement relies heavily upon extrinsic motivators through financial rewards to motivate employees. Nevertheless, intrinsic motivation is ignored, and thus prevent the ability for the employees to gain motivation. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theories are applied in this instance to evaluate the advantages and flaws of such application of extrinsic motivation within the agreement. Furthermore, the report suggests that development of intrinsic empowerment of employees is a key factor in allowing greater productivity and competitive advantage to be developed. Finally, the report concludes that the enterprise agreement is not the ultimate cause of SPC-Ardmona’s performance failure. However, the cause can be attributed to the failure of unions and management in understanding the needs of the employees, and the requirement for intrinsic motivation within the organization. ...

Words: 3237 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Motivation Is a Combination of Needs That Influence Behavior and Action

...only in case if this decision would successfully be embodied in the employees’ affairs. And it can occur only in case if workers are interested in results of the work. For this reason, it is necessary to motivate the person, to induce to action. “Motivation is a combination of needs that influence behavior and action” (Kressler, 2003). In case if an employee is to successfully complete a task in any organization, he or she requires motivation, performance capacity and development potential in order to activate skills, experiences, talents and creative energies, and reach company goals. The main purpose of this assignment is the consideration and analysis of motivation theories (content & process theories), on which based the modern management within organization, for effective human resource management. Thus it is necessary to examine these theories in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in understanding what and how to motivate employee for organization. In order to gain the basic knowledge about the theories of motivation the Maslow’s theory of need will be considered and analyzed in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in organization. In his well-known theory Abraham Maslow proposed that individuals have a basic set of needs and that this needs are arranged as hierarchy of needs. (Maslow, Abraham H., 1987) Maslow (1987) also claimed that individual behavior depends on which need among the hierarchy......

Words: 2602 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Balace Scorecard

...that the Hard model is commonly used in the USA whilst Soft is a model used in Europe. The strategic values of a company, HR distribution, formal personnel scheduling and further production issues are steered through the Hard model. Production issues apart from people can easily be moved around, rearranged, improved, altered and rejected centered on the manager’s requirements. When it comes to people, it is a different matter and cannot be easily ignored. A good example is a woman manager who has young children based in the UK is less movable than transferring $250,000 from UK to say Sri Lanka, which is usually done electronically in a matter of seconds. In cases like this a soft HRM model can be applied. Producing commitment through motivation and communication to concede effective performance is the emphasis. Various, Multi National Cooperation’s (MNC) apply both the Hard and Soft HRM Models depending on the situation and people. An example would be where highly competent employees most likely will be treated based on a Soft Model but the employee who may not be competent will be treated based on the Hard Model. Similarly, the Best Fit approach looks at the importance ensuring that HR Strategies are appropriate right across a company keeping in mind the internal environmental factors such as culture, operational processes and the external such as governmental regulations, technology advancements, demographics. Therefore, best fit looks at the thought that......

Words: 3675 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Motiviation and Human Behavior

...People go to work for many different reasons: because they are board, or need to help support a family in this day in age it takes 2 incomes to support a family and keep a home in running order with the cost of everything going up. There are many different types of ways to motivate people, because different people get motivated in different ways not just one thing will work on everyone. There are two types of motivations intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic is where if you stay over at work to help out because you enjoy the work, Extrinsic is I hurry threw my work as so to get out early so I can go shopping, the reward shopping. Green River employees are motivated by higher rates of pay and benefits, Aberdeen’s are motivated by extra days off, or self accomplishment. (Jones,G,George,J(2007). Aberdeen’s reward structure is different all employees are referred to and treated as technicians all paid overtime for anything over 40 hours per week. Working in group atmosphere at Green River will work with a steady time line. The employees may first object because most people do not like change but it will make their jobs easier and more efficient for FMC. The employees at Green River employees will have to trust the leadership of managers to work thru it. At Aberdeen there is more trust employees are allowed to do their jobs with complete trust and confidence, unlike at Green River where there is fear they only do what they are told and show no creativity on fear of getting in trouble...

Words: 1887 - Pages: 8