Free Essay

Experiment

In: Science

Submitted By tohzixin96
Words 2374
Pages 10
Experiment 1

Title: Standardization of potassium permanganate solution by ammonium iron (II) sulphate

Name: Toh Zi Xin
Name of partner: Wong Jing Hui, Gan Chun Yiang, Wong Teck Jun
Date: 17.6.2015
Lecturer: Dr. Neo Kian Eang
Practical class: P4 Introduction: Potassium permanganate solution can be standardized by titration against a standard solution of ammonium iron(II) sulphate solution. This is an example of standardization, which is a process to determine the concentration of a solution by using it to titrate another solution which have a known concentration. This titration is known as redox titration as the titrant, which is the potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent. The ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution is measured by using a pipette and transfer it into a conical flask while the potassium permanganate solution is placed in a burette. The ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution is made acidic by adding dilute sulphuric acid. Potassium permanganate solution is dark purple colour because of the presence of permanganate ions, MnO4- . Since potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent, it can oxidizes iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions.
Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- On the other hand, the Mn7+ ions of the dark purple colour permanganate ion, MnO4- are reduced to colourless Mn2+ ion. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- Mn2+ +4H2O As a result, the overall ionic equation is: MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 Fe2+ → Mn2+ + 5 Fe3+ + 4 H2O At the end point of the titration, the colourless solution in the conical flask will change to pale pink colour. As a result, no indicator is needed. Iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate crystals, FeSO4 . 7H2O, which is a common reducing agent is not suitable to be used in this titration because it will easily oxidizes with air to form Fe3+ ions. The equation is:

As a result, ammonium iron (II) sulphate, Fe(NH4)2 (SO4)2·6H2O is used. This is because it is much less easier to be oxidizes in air to Fe3+, can be obtain in high state of purity and has a high molar mass. The oxidation of Fe2+ is depend on pH and it will be more readily occur when the pH is high. Thus, sulphuric acid is added to reduce the pH of the solution in order to reduce the oxidation of Fe2+. Objectives: To standardize potassium permanganate solution by ammonium iron (II) sulphate. Procedure: 1. About 3.9g of ammonium iron (II) sulphate was weighed accurately in 4 decimal places with a clean and dried 100mL beaker using analytical balance. 2. The salt was dissolved in distilled water ( ̴ 50 mL) and the solution was transferred to a 100mL volumetric flask. 3. The beaker was rinsed with small quantity of distilled water. 4. The flask was stoppered and shook well. 5. Distilled water was added to make up the volume to the mark by using a dropper. 6. The flask was stoppered and shook well by inverted the flask repeatedly. The molarity of ammonium iron (II) sulphate was calculated. 7. 25cm3 of the ammonium iron (II) sulphate was pipetted into a conical flask. 8. 15cm3 of 1M sulphuric acid was added. 9. The potassium permanganate solution was titrated until the first permanent pink colouration is observed. 10. The first conical flask was kept as reference and the titration were repeated twice.

Result: a) Calculation of result Titration number | 1 | 2 | 3 | Initial volume of burette (cm3) | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | Final volume of burette (cm3) | 25.00 | 24.90 | 25.00 | Total volume of burette (cm3) | 25.00 | 24.90 | 25.00 | Average volume of KMnO4 required for titration = 24.97cm3 Mass of ammonium iron (II) sulphate, Fe(NH4)2 (SO4)2·6H2O used = 3.9027g Molar mass of ammonium iron (II) sulphate, Fe(NH4)2 (SO4)2·6H2O = 392.05 g/mol No. of mole of ammonium iron (II) sulphate = Mass of ammonium iron (II) sulphate Molar mass of ammonium iron (II) sulphate = 3.9027g392.05 g/mol = 0.01 mol Molarity of ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution = No. of mole of ammonium iron ( = 2 \* ROMAN II) sulphateVolume = 0.01mol0.1 L = 0.1 M ∴ Thus, the molarity of ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution in the volumetric flask is 0.1M.

Molarity = No. of moleVolume No. of mole = Molarity × Volume No. of mole of ammonium iron (II) sulphate in conical flask = 0.1 M × 0.025 L = 0.0025 mol The overall equation is : MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 Fe2+ → Mn2+ + 5 Fe3+ + 4 H2O From this equation, 1 mole of MnO4- ions react with 5 moles of Fe2+ . No. of mole of KMnO4 required to reach the end point = No. of mole of ammonium iron = 2 \* ROMAN IIsulphate in conical flask 5 = 0.0025 mol5 = 0.0005 mol Average volume of KMnO4 required for titration = 24.97cm3 = 0.02497 L Molarity of KMnO4 = No. of mole of KMnO4Average volume of KMnO4 = 0.0005 mol0.02497 L = 0.02002 M ∴ The molarity of KMnO4 that we get from this experiment is 0.02002M. b) Result interpretation

(x – mean ); First result >> 25.00-24.97 = 0.03 Second result >> 24.90-24.97 = -0.07 Third result >> 25.00-24.97 = 0.03 (x – mean )2; First result >> (0.03)2 = 0.0009 Second result >> (-0.07)2 = 0.0049 Third result >> (0.03)2 = 0.0009 Ʃ( x – mean)2 = 0.0009 + 0.0049 + 0.0009 = 0.0067 = 0.04726 ∴ The value of standard deviation indicate that the 3 data collected are very close to the mean value and data collected are very precised. Percentage error = | Actual value-Experimental value |Actual value × 100% = | 0.02000M-0.02002M |0.02000M × 100% = 0.1% ∴ The molarity of KMnO4 determined in this experiment is 0.02002 M which has a percentage error of 0.1%.

Discussion In this redox titration, potassium permanganate is used as the titrant while ammonium iron (II) sulphate is used as the analyte. Ammonium iron (II) sulphate is used as a primary standard to standardize potassium permanganate and this process is known as standardization. A standard solution is a reagent with a known concentration that is used in volumetric titration. A primary standard is a highly purified compound that used as a reference material in titration and also can be used in other analytical methods. A primary standard must be very pure, atmospheric stability, absence of hydrate water, large molar mass to minimize error during weighing and be soluble. (Skoog et al, 2014) Potassium permanganate solution is not a primary standard because distilled water that used to dissolve the solid potassium permanganate may contain traces of reducing organic substances, which will react with potassium permanganate to form manganese dioxide, MnO2 and this manganese dioxide will catalyzes the auto-decomposition of potassium permanganate. Thus, potassium permanganate is not pure enough to act as a primary standard. (Mani, 2014) The ammonium iron (II) sulphate is much more stable towards oxidation both as the solid and in solution, have high molar mass and so, this makes ammonium iron (II) sulphate suitable for use as a primary standard in this volumetric analysis. (Experiment 4 Preparation of Ammonium Iron (II) Sulfate Hexahydrate, (NH4 ) 2Fe(SO4 ) 2 . 6 H2O, from Iron Metal, 2013) Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent and is dark purple colour due to the presence of Mn7+ ion in MnO4-. Thus, it will oxidize iron (II) ions into iron (III) ions. The ionic half equation is: Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- On the other hand, the Mn7+ ions of the intense purple colour permanganate ion, MnO4- are reduced to colourless Mn2+ ion. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- Mn2+ +4H2O As a result, when each drop of dark purple potassium permanganate solution drop into the solution in the conical flask, it is reduced and decolourised. (How to Balance Redox Reactions, n.d.) The overall ionic equation is: MnO4- + 8 H+ + 5 Fe2+ → Mn2+ + 5 Fe3+ + 4 H2O
Indicator is not used in this titration because the dark purple colour of the potassium permanganate act as an indicator. At the end point of the titration, the colourless solution in the conical flask will change to pale pink colour. This is because when one drop excess of potassium permanganate is added to the solution, there will be no more Fe2+ ions left in the conical flask to convert the purple MnO4- ions into colourless Mn2+ ions. The solution at the end point will be pale pink in colour even though the concentration of excess MnO4- ions is very low since MnO4- ions have an intense purple colour. (Potassium Permanganate Solutions, n.d.)
After the titration, we found out that the pale pink colour solution in the conical flask turned into pale brown after left it for a short period. This is because the unreacted excess MnO4- ions react with the reduced Mn2+ ions to form brown product, which is MnO2. (Mandatory Experiment 4.5, n.d.)
2MnO4- + 3Mn2+ + 2H2O 5MnO2 + 4H+

Dilute sulphuric acid is added to provide an acidic condition for titration. This is necessary for titration that involving potassium permanganate. The reason is to ensure that the Mn7+ ions of the dark purple colour permanganate ion, MnO4- are reduced to colourless Mn2+ ions instead of brown Mn4+ ions. If the condition is neutral or alkaline, the Mn7+ ions will reduced only to Mn4+ ions, forming brown precipitate in the solution. So, it is impossible to determine the end point of the titration. Hydrochloric acid is not suitable to be used in order to provide acidic condition for this titration because it can react with potassium permanganate and produce Cl2 gas since potassium permanganate is a very strong oxidizing agent that can oxidizes Cl- into Cl2. The equation is:
2MnO4- + 10Cl- + 16H+ 2Mn2+ + 5Cl2 + 8H2O
Nitric acid is also not suitable because nitric acid is a very strong oxidizing agent. So, iron(II) ions will be both oxidises by nitric acid and potassium permanganate and this causes the titration to be not accurate. (Mandatory Experiment 4.5, n.d.)
Dilute sulphuric acid is also added to prevent iron(II) ions air oxidizes into iron(III) ions. This is because iron(II) can undergo air oxidation to form iron(III) ions under neutral or alkaline condition. So, acid is added to lower the pH of the condition and to prevent oxidation of iron(II) ions. (Chapter 15 – Volumetric analysis (Redox titrations), n.d.) In these 3 titrations, we found out that when the first drop of potassium permanganate is added, the purple colour of the MnO4- remain briefly but when further drops of potassium permanganate are added, it decolourise immediately. This is because the Mn2+ ion act as an catalyst to catalyse the reaction and this is an example of auto-catalysis. Thus, when the first drop of potassium permanganate is added, the purple colour of potassium permanganate do not decolourise immediately because there are no Mn2+ ions in the solution to catalyse the reaction and so, the reaction proceeds with a slow rate. However, when further drop are added, the purple colour of MnO4- decolourise more faster due to presence of Mn2+ ions as a catalyst. (A Level Appendix 6, n.d.) Several precautions have been done to minimise the error occur in this titration. Firstly, after transfer the ammonium iron (II) sulphate solution form the beaker to the volumetric flask, the beaker is rinsed with distilled water and transfer the water into the volumetric flask. This is to prevent some of the ammonium iron (II) sulphate from stick to the wall of the beaker and to ensure that all of the mass of ammonium iron (II) sulphate has been transferred to volumetric flask. The glass rod that has been used to stir the solution also rinsed with distilled water and the water is transferred into the volumetric flask. Secondly, a dropper is used to slowly add the distilled water up to the mark of the volumetric flask because this will be more accurate and safer. This can prevent overshoot of the volume. Thirdly, while doing the titration, the burette is ensure to place at vertical position to avoid parallax error so that the reading observed will be more accurate. Moreover, a piece of white paper also place at the bottom of the conical flask while doing the titration so that the change of colour will be more easily to observe and the reading obtained will be more accurate.

Conclusion:
From this titration, the molarity of potassium permanganate solution is 0.02002M with a percentage error of 0.1% which is very close to the molarity of the prepared potassium permanganate. The 3 value collected from the 3 titration are very close to the mean value. So, the molarity of the potassium permanganate obtained can be considered as accurate.

References:
1. A Level Appendix 6 Transition Metals & compounds acting as catalysis, catalytic theory and practice, examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts GCE AS A2 IB inorganic chemistry revision notes. ( n.d.). [online] Available at: http://www.docbrown.info/page07/appendixtrans06.htm [Accessed 20 Jun. 2015].
2. Chapter 15 – Volumetric analysis (Redox titrations). (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://www.trionoide.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/CHAPTER_15_-_REDOX_TITRATIONS.pdf [Accessed 20 Jun. 2015].
3. Experiment 4 Preparation of Ammonium Iron(II) Sulfate Hexahydrate, (NH4 ) 2Fe(SO4 ) 2 . 6 H2O, from Iron Metal. (2013). [online] Available at: http://www.chem.mun.ca/courseinfo/c2210/lab/W2013%20Experiment%204.pdf [Accessed 21 Jun. 2015].
4. How to Balance Redox Reactions. (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://www.physchem.co.za/OB11-mat/oxidation2.htm [Accessed 20 Jun. 2015].
5. Mandatory Experiment 4.5. (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://cmsnew.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/4.5%20complete_0.doc [Accessed 20 Jun. 2015].
6. Mani, P. (2014). Permanganometry, iodometry in analytical technique, P K MANI. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/pabitramani/permanganometry-iodometry-in-analytical-technique [Accessed 21 Jun. 2015].
7. Potassium Permanganate Solutions. (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://www.cffet.net/C4_toolbox/laboratory/studynotes/snPotassPermanganateSol.htm [Accessed 20 Jun. 2015].
8. Skoog, D., West, D., Holler, F. and Crouch, S. (2014). Skoog and West's Fundamental of Analytical Chemistry. 9th ed. Mary Finch, pp.303-305.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Experiments

...Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose not to use experiments when conducting research. 20 Scientists set out to discover scientific laws of cause and effect. The method favoured by natural scientists for discovering these laws is the laboratory experiments take place in labs are considered more artificial. In this essay I will conclude the reasons why experiments are not used to evaluate research. In addition the field and the comparative method will also be outlined as wells as their strengths and limitations which is used by sociologists in their research. Field experiments takes place in real social world. positivist sociologists use laboratory experiments as they favour a more scientific method. Positivist sociologists however also acknowledge the short comings of laboratory experiments, such as, it is often impossible or unethical to control the variables. Also their small scale means that results may not be representative or generalisable to the wider population. On the other hand interpretivists reject  the laboratory experiments because it fails to achieve their main goal of validity. It is an artificial environment producing unnatural behaviour.  There are various practical problems with laboratory experiments. Society is VERYhttp://cdncache-a.akamaihd.net/items/it/img/arrow-10x10.png complex and in practice it would be impossible to control variables that may influence a situation. Therefore although the ability to control variables in laboratory......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Experiments

...Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use experiments when conducting research. Study the reason why sociologist prefer to use experimental methods when carrying out a research There are many different types of experiments that can be conducted by sociologist, in order to help with the research that they are planning to carry out or just to help further prove their hypothesis. There are three main experimental methods that sociologists may choose to carry out their research/study. These three experimental methods are: Natural, field and Comparative. Each of these experiments has their own advantages and disadvantages. These positive and negative factors can analysed by practical, ethical and theoretical limitations and strengths that can be considered. This essay will be looking at each of these in detail. But, firstly what is an experiment? An experiment is a way of investigation a cause and effect relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The first type of experiment that sociologist may choose to use in their research is, laboratory experiment. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a control setting, (this means that IV (The independent variable) and DV (dependent variable) can be controlled and manipulated by the researcher). Participant are given instruction to carry out certain tasks, in a normally manner. From this, the researchers are able to observe behaviour and be able to see cause and affect relationship between......

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Experiments

...Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use experiments when conducting research. Study the reason why sociologist prefer to use experimental methods when carrying out a research There are many different types of experiments that can be conducted by sociologist, in order to help with the research that they are planning to carry out or just to help further prove their hypothesis. There are three main experimental methods that sociologists may choose to carry out their research/study. These three experimental methods are: Natural, field and Comparative. Each of these experiments has their own advantages and disadvantages. These positive and negative factors can analysed by practical, ethical and theoretical limitations and strengths that can be considered. This essay will be looking at each of these in detail. But, firstly what is an experiment? An experiment is a way of investigation a cause and effect relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The first type of experiment that sociologist may choose to use in their research is, laboratory experiment. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a control setting, (this means that IV (The independent variable) and DV (dependent variable) can be controlled and manipulated by the researcher). Participant are given instruction to carry out certain tasks, in a normally manner. From this, the researchers are able to observe behaviour and be able to see cause and affect relationship between......

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Experiment

...priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect) There is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same effect) The magnitude of the correlation is great. (Reference: en.wikipedia.org) The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment. This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure. A very wide definition of experimental research, or a quasi experiment, is research where the scientist actively influences something to observe the consequences. Most experiments tend to fall in between the strict and the wide definition. A rule of thumb is that physical sciences, such as physics, chemistry and geology tend to define experiments more narrowly than social sciences, such as sociology and psychology, which conduct experiments closer to the wider...

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Experiment

...Project Design Plan Double A alkaline batteries are used in many electronic devices today. Alkaline batteries produce electricity from the chemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide. There are many different manufactures of Double A batteries all claiming that their batteries last longer. Literature Review There are many different uses for Double A batteries and all battery manufactures want their batteries to be the longest lasting. There have been many tests done by the manufacturers of batteries and independent companies. The Power Stream Company tested the discharge rate of different batteries. They used the CBA II Battery Analyzer to test the discharge rate of each battery. The batteries they tested were Radio Shack Enercell Plus, Duracell Coppertop, Energizer Titanium, Energizer Max, Eveready Gold, Energizer Lithium and the Power Stream 2000 mAH Rechargeable. The Radio Shack Enercell and the Duracell Copper top were the two best batteries. The Radio Shack Enercell was best at a high discharge rate and the Duracell Copper Top was best at a very low discharge rate. The Bit Box Company tested over forty different brands of batteries. They used their own engineered constant load testing device. That was connected to a laptop computer which would graph the results of the test. It could test several batteries at one time. They used batteries from name brand manufacturers to discount store brands. The graph below shows the results......

Words: 1104 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Experiments

...Are laboratory experiments useful? Laboratory experiments are easy to replicate and help to find how the Cause and effect of relationships can be established. Laboratory methods usually have High levels of control over extraneous variables. One of the major strengths of laboratory experiments is, control. The more variables you have control over, the easier it becomes to draw conclusions about the effect of the individual variable on the dependent variable. Laboratory experiments allow for high levels of control which are evident in the study of Bandura, Ross ands Ross (1961), for example, the way that the model produced exactly the same behavior for each child and the fact that each child was observed in the same room with the same toys. Although laboratory experiments have advantages they also have disadvantages just like any other research method it is never 100% Accurate. The high level of control usually means that you have created an artificial situation which makes it difficult to apply your results to everyday life. This is referred to as low ecological validity and is discussed further below. Participants know that they are taking part in a laboratory experiment and this will affect their behavior in a number of ways. They will be looking for clues as to how to behave (demand characteristics) and they will usually want to help the experimenters by giving them the results that they think they want. Demand characteristics may have had a major affect on the......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Experimental Experiment

...Experimental Experiment In this short report I will be utilizing the scientific method to help solve problems that I have been having with my mode of transportation. I will be starting with a question and moving through the method to produce an experiment that I will conduct on my Honda CBR 600RR to attempt to fix a coolant leak. I have already started my process of elimination by checking, testing, and replacing key components of the coolant system the runs through the front end of my motorcycle. Some of the things I have tried is pulling out the radiator to check if there has been any damage done due to weather or rock chipping from high speed travel, after that proved not to be the problem I started going down the line. The question I imposed when first starting was “Why and where is this coolant leak and how can I fix it?” My hypothesis this time around is that maybe the coolant reservoir is compromised from overheating, damage or old age. So first I must do some research and find a new reservoir to put into my motorcycle, after removing the reservoir I was able to find a part number that I could give to Honda Motor Sports in order to find a fitting part. Now to design and conduct the experiment, this will require a specific set of tools, some spare parts and 4 hours of time. First I will follow a method that is used as part of a lean production system call PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act), this is a check list I use to help me solve various problems I have had and......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Surveys and Experiments

...Introduction Surveys and experiments can prove to be an extremely valuable tool that organizations can use to gain pertinent information. In order to effectively utilize these tools firms must pay careful attention to the design, methodology, and ethical issues of the experiment chosen. Among these issues are variables in conducting experiments with human subjects, design elements affecting the accuracy of the experiment, and questions of methodology. The information below addresses each of these concerns and describes how experiments can become a valuable tool for organizations to plan for the future. Question 9.4 – Ethical Problems in Conducting Experiments with Human Subjects After choosing the experimental design, the researcher must then select and assign participants for the study. According to Cooper and Schindler (2014), participants selected for an experiment should be members of the population in which the researcher wishes to make interpretations about. When choosing to conduct experiments with humans as the main subjects, researchers should be aware of various ethical concerns that may arise. When ethical problems are debated in the research design process, most people often think first about defending the rights of the participant. Whether observations are taken from an interview, survey, or an experiment, the participant has many rights that need to be protected during the research process. As discussed in the text, research must be designed in a......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Minnesota Experiment on Starvation

...The Minnesota Experiment on Starvation As World War II waged on around the world, millions of people all across Europe went without food; many on the brink of starvation. Either the hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children targeted for extermination due to purely race; or the brave soldiers dedicating their lives for the righteous cause of freeing them. In the center of the fight, rations were tough to come by for soldiers and even harder for refugees and prisoners. As the people fled Europe and the soldiers returned home to the states, the malnutrition and state of starvation was apparent. The demand was at an all time high for the fastest, most effective way to nurse millions back to health. Dr. Ancel Keys, who ran the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota; took note of the epidemic and was eager to help. Keys’ in depth interest in nutrition and already being well regarded for developing the combat rations carried by American troops- wanted to help find a solution. Keys idea in mind was to perform a yearlong starvation study divided into three parts: a pre experiment; three month period, where the food intake of the participants would be monitored and regulated at normal levels. Then followed by a six month starvation period with strictly controlled food portions kept at a bare minimum. Finally followed by the last three crucial months of re-introducing food at different levels to determine the best method. Keys knew finding men to...

Words: 1941 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Natural Science Experiment

... There is a noticeable drop in not only distance but also torque when temperatures drop below 15 degrees Celsius. The following experiment will address the issue of temperature variation and the effect it has on the speed and distance travelled of an electric Rickshaw. The results of this study can be used in the design of electric battery storage and insulation. Literature Review There are numerous tips to improve electric vehicle performance, namely altering the way the vehicle is used. There is little language in the way of battery insulation, which will be the method used in this experiment. Of note, SAE International (2011) concluded that tested energy consumption varies based on driving ability and duties performed by the vehicle, such as heating and advanced audio systems. Electric vehicle performance is dictated not just by temperature, but deteriorates substantially based off of nonessential features. Official reports on the charging and battery efficiency of the EV during the test period to present a total plug-to-wheel EV efficiency when operated over both regulated and real world drive cycles (Cenex 2012). For this experiment, the vehicle will be operated under normal conditions, then the temperature of the battery will be altered using towels and a rubber water bottle. The vehicle to be used during the experiments provides basic...

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Paper Towel Experiment

...on paper towels” (Wilbert, 2003). The reason why Americans prefer paper towels than cloth towels is because they can be thrown away, unfortunately “sending 3000 tons of paper towels to landfills each day” (Wilbert, 2003). Imagine how many trees were cut down to meet consumer needs. According to the Business and the Environment, “270,000,000 trees are flushed down or thrown into the garbage” (2006). As a teacher, I want to teach my students to be more eco-friendly and to save money. Students have a tendency to overuse paper towels and waste not only money spent on paper towels, but also trees that were cut down to make paper towels. I want to show them how much paper towels they really need by doing an experiment of which paper towel absorbs water the most. Also, this experiment will show them that the most absorbent paper towel will hold enough water without over using it in a minor spill. Hypothesis: Bounty paper towels will absorb more volume of water, then other brands of paper towels in a time frame on one minute. Variables: Independent Variable: Three different types of 27.9x22.3 cm paper towel sheets will be tested Dependent Variable: Experimental Design 3 Measure 100 ml of water absorbed in paper towel for 1 minute Controlled Variables: Amount of time that each paper towel will be placed in the water Amount of water put on each paper towel Controlled how I measured the water...

Words: 2721 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

This Lab Experiment

...Discussion: This lab experiment consisted in locating the metacentric point in order to test the buoyancy stability of a lab pontoon under certain circumstances. The metacenter is the point of intersection of the buoyant force and the center of gravity. In order to verify the stability conditions of an immersed body is necessary to locate its metacentric point. One of the conditions is that when the center of buoyancy and center of gravity are coincident, the body is stable. In this experiment the center of gravity was higher than the center of buoyancy causing a slight tilt when changing the position of mass, although it became unstable as the experiment carried on, it still was stable enough to produce a moment to counter the action as the metacenter increases. When the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy, the location of metacentric Height is lower. In our experiment everytime there was a change on the position of mass that would increase the angle of tilt, the metacentric height and the position of mass would move to more than 0.05 m ,thus the metacentric height would be increase, however the possibility for the pontoon to tip would also increase significantly. ● Conclusion: The apparatus remained stable throughout the experiment. Data recorded for the metacentric point was obtained from theoretical and experimental formulas using two different centers of gravity, 0.075 m and 0.125 m. Although the position of mass changed with each trial...

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Experiment

...The Experiment (2010) The Experiment is a thriller based upon a psychological study, ‘’Stanford Prison Experiment’’ conducted in 1971, where men are chosen to participate in the roles of guards and prisoners. Paul T. Scheuring, who also wrote the screenplay, directed the movie. The Experiment is a remake of the German movie Das Experiment (2001) both of which are loosely based on the novel Das Experiment – Black Box (1999) by German writer and actor Mario Giordano. Besides writing the book Giordano wrote the screenplay for Das Experiment. The movie is about an experiment that goes wrong. We follow Travis, a regular guy who gets fired and therefore says yes to participate in an experiment in exchange of money. For about a week he is being tested with a lot of others men. In this experiment-center he is asked about his past, his present and his future. So is everyone else. He then has to sit in a tiny, dark room with a slideshow of gruesome pictures and video clips. Thereafter 26 men are selected to be participate and are taken to the prison where they are given the roles of guards and prisoners. Here the participants are given five rules. Guards were informed that those prisoners who break the rules must be punished commensurately. The experiment is on for about six days until the prisoners finally tries to escape which leads to a big fight between the guards and the prisoners. Finally the red lights come on, the gates open and the experiment is over. The......

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Paper Towel Experiment

...needs. A more expensive product may actually be more cost effective if you can use less of it than a brand that costs less. Literature Review Many experiments have been conducted to test the strength and absorbency of paper towels. While the steps of the experiment vary from test to test, all of experiments are testing the same two factors; how much water can each paper towel brand absorb and how strong are each of the paper towels. Below I have reviewed the process and results from three experiments that are similar to the one I will be using. In the first experiment, the tester uses five brands of paper towels to test for absorbency, using paper towels of the same size to ensure the accuracy of the results. He draws a two inch circle in the center of a sheet of paper towel from each brand represented and placing the paper towel in an embroidery hoop to maintain stability. He then drops fifteen drops of water into the center of the circle draw on the paper towel, repeating the process for each brand, and measures the amount of time it takes the paper towel to wick the moisture outside of the circle. This test concludes that Bounty has the greatest absorbency. The next experiment tests for both absorbency and strength. As in the first test, several different brands of paper towels were used. In this experiment, to test the absorbency, the tester takes a sheet of each of the towels an inserts it into a glass with two ounces of water and leaves each sit......

Words: 1419 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Marketing Experiment

...Design a Marketing Experiment Sample Report Introduction This report has the purpose to develop a marketing experiment for an energy drink by a Peruvian Beverage Company. The campaign is a tv advertising campaign focus on the pros to drink this kind of beverage when need an extra boost for athletes. With the common concerned about healthy problems caused due to their use, benefits from their carbs content become in an important point. This experiment will be a before-after design experiment. Experiment Design In this experiment, the independent variable is increased advertising in the form of a tv adevertising campaign while the dependent variable observed here is sales. The experiment will be run in Miraflores, a district in Lima (peruvian capital city). The control market observed will be San Isidro (Lima’s district as well). The test and control markets were selected caused their similarities (population and socioeconomic status). Miraflores and San Isidro, both have a population around 60,000. Since both districts will be exposed to the experiment, the sample size would be big enough to be statistically significant. Since it s a before-after design experiment, sales will be captured for control and test markets for a 3 month average from Jan –March. The experiment will be run for the next three months from April to June. The variations or changes in sales while doing the experiment will be then used to calculate the lift in sales. Anticipated......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2