a. Describe how expert systems perform inference [4 marks]
Inferencing is the reasoning process of AI. It takes place in the brain of an AI process.
The brain of an expert system is the inference engine that provides a methodology for reasoning about information in the knowledge base. Inference can be performed using semantics networks,
production rules, and logic statements.
b. Describe generic categories of Expert Systems applications [16 marks]
Diagnosis. These are mainly used in the medical field to recommend remedies to illnesses, trouble-shoot electronic or mechanical problems or as debugging tools.
Repair. Expert systems that define repair strategies are also very common. As well as diagnosing the problem they can suggest a plan for the repair of the item. The repair plan typically contains a scheduling structure and some control structure to validate the repair process. Such systems have been employed in the automotive repair field and similar areas.
Instruction. They are mainly used in the training of pilots . Instructional expert systems have been used for individualised training or instruction in a particular field. The system presents material in an order determined by its evaluation of the user’s ability and current knowledge and monitor’s the progress of the student, altering the sequence depending on this progress.
Interpretation. Interpretive expert systems have the ability to analyse data to determine its significance or usefulness. The knowledge base often contains models of real world situations which it compares to its data. These are often used in exploration for mineral, gas and oil deposits as well as in surveillance, image analysis and speech understanding.
Predictive expert systems are used as a method to “guess” at the possible outcomes of observed situations, usually providing a probability factor.…...