Free Essay

Explain How a Follower of Natural Law Theory Might Approach the Issue Surrounding Abortion.

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By valexjo98
Words 2221
Pages 9
a) Explain how a follower of Natural Law theory might approach the issue surrounding abortion.

The Natural Law Theory has developed over time since the era of the ancient Greeks, and it is not necessarily based on one single theory. Natural law is the belief that God has created the universe to work in certain ways. The structure of Natural Law is not accidental; it is deliberate and has important implications to the human race (this can also be used to argue the existence of God in the teleological argument). Humans have a duty to conform to Natural Law. If they do not conform it is morally bad.

St Thomas Aquinas linked his idea of Natural Law with Aristotle’s view that people have a specific nature, purpose and function. Aristotle said that not only does everything have a purpose, but also it achieves supreme good when it fulfill its purpose. Aristotle stated that the supreme good for humans is to achieve happiness, which can be related to mill’s utilitarianism where our aim is to gain happiness by avoiding pain and gaining pleasure, but Aristotle did not follow the consequentialist nature of utilitarianism. Aristotle said we were to achieve the final goal by living a life of reason based on what we experience, and this follows the deontological nature of Kantian ethics. Aquinas said that humans beings have an essential rational nature given by God in order for us to live and flourish, even without God reason can discover laws that lead to human flourishing, this is why it is also accepted by atheist. Aquinas also said that Natural Law is universal and should be used to judge laws of particular societies.

In this theory we have primary precepts and secondary precepts. Primary precepts are fundamental principles revealed to us by God. Aquinas applied these to everyone without exception. The primary precepts are; the preservation of life; reproduction; the nurture and education of the young; living peacefully in society; to worship God. These precepts are always true and there is no exception. Then we have secondary precepts, which are dependent on our own judgment of what we would do in a certain situation, and are open to faulty reasoning. Secondary precepts require the use of reasoning and experience. You must use the secondary precepts to keep the primary precepts in order for humanity to flourish. If we were to look at the primary precept of the preservation of life, abortion for example would not be acceptable.

Natural Law does not consider unknown consequences but it is the action itself in which is wrong. When we look at abortion and look at the situations through Natural Law, we realize that we should never take part in abortion. Just like Christianity, Natural Law looks at human life as though it is sacred, so in cases of rape and incest, the mother will have to give birth to the child. Another one of the primary precept to Natural Law is to protect the innocent. The unborn child will have no choice in the matter so therefore it must be protected.

When the mother’s life is at risk we can look at this through different angels within Natural Law. Abortion would not be an option if the fetus were to be harmed so the choice would be for the mother to pass and the child to be born as we are protecting the innocent in this case. Utilitarians would agree because they will measure someone’s life through the hedonic calculus and the more years a person has to live, the more good he could achieve, even though this is based entirely on prediction. However, if we were looking at an ectopic pregnancy, both the mother and the fetus will die. If we were to look at the double effect, there is still a way in which to save the mother. Abortion is still considered an evil act, so that is not an option to keep in mind but there is another way. If we look at the situation where our motive is to save the mother, a rightful act would be to cut the fallopian tube, the act is just as it is not technically an abortion, and we have preserved the life of the mother.

It is important in Natural Law that we do not let our desire or our emotions come into play (just like is Kantian ethics), and we need to based our decisions on pure reason. When it is life threatening to the mother, the mother must choose to let her child live or to stay alive and not let her feeling towards her family or her life goals get in the way of preserving and protecting her innocent child’s potential life. If you were to agree to have an abortion you may see it as a clean choice as you will have the chance to have another child and be able to live a longer life, but this is not real good. This is known as apparent good. Another example of apparent Good can be committing adultery, you may see it as good, as no one is getting hurt and there is only pleasure to gain as long as your spouse does not find out, but it is not real good as you are betraying your partner and if they were to figure out that you are having an affair all that can come from that is pain and suffering. In the case of abortion the real good would be to allow the child to be born as you are conforming to two of the primary precepts.

If we are to go down a virtuous path when it comes to abortion, we must take caution, circumspection, foresight, ingenuity, memory, passivity, reason and understanding and all of this will fall under duty. As a follower of Natural Law your duty is to follow the primary precepts, and in the case of abortion we must preserve human life and protect the innocent so the virtuous path would be to not commit abortion.

Overall Natural Law does not agree with abortion. As followers of Natural Law are to preserve life and protect the innocent, abortion is not an option. In ectopic pregnancy if our motive is to preserve the mothers life it is right to cut the fallopian tube and it is not technically and abortion. The main thing in is to follow the primary precepts, which will lead human life to flourish.

b) Natural Law has no serious weaknesses. Discuss.

Natural Law has a large number of strengths and weaknesses. One of the main strengths must be its universal application. Natural Law will give you the basic moral approach to living a good life no matter the culture or society as the purpose of morality to humans is the fulfillment of our natures. This will connect all monotheistic religions. Consequently, major monotheistic religions have similar view on complex matters such as abortion and euthanasia due to Aquinas’ Natural Law. The universal application strength can also be supported through Kant’s categorical imperative, where we must act as if the action we are to commit would be acceptable if all humans are to do the same. Jesus’ Golden rule also supports the strength along with J.S Mill’s although an atheist, he agreed that Jesus’ Golden rule is the kernel to morality.

What we could say that would go against this strength is that there is no common human nature, there is no common culture, and there is no common approach to complex matters such as abortion and euthanasia. This would destroy its universal application as different cultures may interpret nature is different ways such as in the Amazonian tribe the Suruwahá. They would bury a disabled child alive, as they believe it has no soul. This of course goes against Aquinas’ Natural Law as he states that all life is precious and we must protect the innocent. Kia Neilsen supports the argument that there is no single human nature common to all societies by saying that for example; some of us may have changeable natures such as not all men born on this earth may be heterosexual.

Another strength of Natural Law can be that it does not dictate what you should do in certain situations. The primary precepts are general but must be followed; you still have the choice to act on your own accord as long as you follow the primary precepts. We can argue that Natural Law does not allow us free will. This is because Natural Law forbids certain acts such as Abortion. If we look at ectopic pregnancy, we need to find a way around it to commit abortion without actually naming it an abortion, if we were to cut the fallopian tube, people will still see it as an abortion due to the fetus dying through man intervention.

In order for Natural Law to work we must identify what is good. According to G.R Moore this goes against the naturalistic fallacy. He argues that the notion of goodness is unanalyzable and unnatural so it cannot be defined by any reference to nature. Aquinas argues the humans are social animals and it is part of our nature to want to live peacefully in the company of others. As caring for others in a righteous act and is in our nature it must be good. Moore will then say ‘ you cannot derive an ought from an is’ which means that even though we may be naturally inclined to care for other does not mean we ought to.

Karl Barth thinks that Natural Law depends too much on reason and that humans cannot be trusted as their nature can be corrupt. He also states that we do not depend enough on the grace of God and the revelation in the Bible. This criticism can be put down, as Natural Law is the moral law in which God has built into our nature. Followers of Natural Law do depend on authority; they depend on God for guidance and to influence us in our moral behavior. Karl Barth may be looking too much at the Kantian influence on Natural Law and religion ethics. Yes, follower of Natural Law and religious ethics are to base their actions on pure reason, but we also take into consideration the known consequences that can be achieved. Kant says that we do not need an authority figure where as in Natural Law and religion ethics says we do. Our authority Figure in Natural Law is God, he has given us the moral Laws. Karl Barth may be concerned with the secondary precepts where we use reason to justify our actions, but there is nothing to be concerned about as long as our actions justify the primary precepts and we are to commit real good.

Peter Vardy argues that the general moral laws in Natural Law are too broad to apply to specific personal situations. We can argue against this criticism by saying that although it can be a challenge to narrow the broadness of the law, it can still be applied as long as the primary precepts are followed. If we take the question ‘ should more money be spent on schools rather than on hospitals?’ it seems that Natural Law will not be ale to justify either side. This question concerns two of the primary precepts, the preservation of life, and protection of the innocent. In school we educate our children to protect them from falling into debt, or peer pressure, to gain qualifications in order to achieve a stable job, which can protect them from a bad life and welcome in a good life. In hospitals we save the life of young children and pensioners in order to preserve their life. As no primary precept is worth more than the other, the answer would be to spend equal amount of money in both areas.

Some scholars argue that Natural Law may not work as they think it is that you must follow what come naturally to you. If you are in a situation where anger arises and your instincts tell you to conform your anger with violence, you must do so as it comes naturally to you, this of course does not justify goodness. What Aquinas may say to revive his theory is that Natural Law is not about what comes to us naturally but nature interpreted by human reason.

Overall I do not think there is a serious weakness to Natural Law. Most criticisms can be answered rationally. The main criticism that I think is the strongest must be the taking away of free will. Free will is a gift given to us from God, it would be wrong to say that we are forbidden to commit acts such as abortion or active euthanasia. Natural Law is a happy balance between deontological and teleological theories as it looks at known consequences and pure reason. I agree with Aquinas’ Natural Law, I think if we are to live a just life as humans, the primary precepts are essential. My response to the argument of free will is that although it is forbidden to commit abortion, there is nothing physically stopping us to proceed with the action so the essence of free will is still there.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Not an Essay

... Candidates select and demonstrate clearly relevant knowledge and understanding through the use of evidence, examples and correct language and terminology appropriate to the topics and course of study. Part A (Assessment Objective 1 / AO1) Candidates select accurate and relevant material. They explain clearly relevant features or key ideas, supported by examples or sources of evidence. They use accurately a range of technical language and terminology. They show evidence of being familiar with issues raised by relevant scholars, and a variety of views, where appropriate. Part B (Assessment Objective 2 / AO2) Candidates critically evaluate and justify a point of view through the use of evidence and reasoned argument. They construct coherent and well-organised argument supported by examples or sources of evidence. Identify strengths and weaknesses of the argument and use accurate and fluent expression. GRADE C Candidates demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding through use of evidence, examples and some use of correct language and terminology. Part A (Assessment Objective 1 / AO1) Candidates select some accurate and relevant material. They explain some relevant features or key ideas, supported by examples or sources of evidence. They use mostly accurate a technical language and terminology. They show evidence of a variety of views, where appropriate. Part B (Assessment Objective 2 / AO2) Candidates demonstrate organisation and......

Words: 13036 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

Philosophy

... | |It prevents us making God too much like humans |In practice, a list of what God is not does not tell us much (eg he is not | |It is respectful towards God |heavy, he is not bad, he is not human, he is not stupid etc) | |It acknowledges that humans cannot fully understand God – he will always be a |Religious people, and Holy Books, usually speak of God in the positive way eg | |mystery |‘The mighty one, God, our Lord....’ (Psalms) | | |How can we say what God is not if we can’t understand what he is? | Analogy Aquinas argues that the best way to speak of God is to use analogy. He rejects univocal language as being limiting and equivocal language as not actually telling us anything about God. However, he argues that we can uses analogy to compare language used about humans with language used about God. This is because he believes that humans were made by God, and they were made in the image of God – so there is a valid connection between them. So for Aquinas, language about God is not meant literally, though it is cognitive. He suggests two types of analogy: 1. The analogy of Attribution. Human attributes (qualities) are a reflection of the...

Words: 22600 - Pages: 91

Premium Essay

Homework

...and Janina Budziszewski, long departed, not forgotten The mind of man is the product of live Law; it thinks by law, it dwells in the midst of law, it gathers from law its growth; with law, therefore, can it alone work to any result. —George MacDonald CONTENTS PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION A New Phase of an Old Tradition ix PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Whom This Book Is For xix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxiii INTRODUCTION The Moral Common Ground 3 I THE LOST WORLD Things We Can’t Not Know 1 2 What It Is That We Can’t Not Know 3 Could We Get By Knowing Less? II EXPLAINING THE LOST WORLD 4 The First and Second Witnesses 5 The Third and Fourth Witnesses 6 Some Objections vii 19 29 54 83 93 116 viii WHAT WE CAN’T NOT KNOW III HOW THE LOST WORLD WAS LOST 7 Denial 8 Eclipse 149 173 IV RECOVERING THE LOST WORLD 9 The Public Relations of Moral Wrong 10 The Public Relations of Moral Right 11 Possible Futures 199 214 230 APPENDIX 1 appendix 2 appendix 3 appendix 4 Notes Index APPENDICES Decalogue as a Summary of the Natural The Law The Noahide Commandments as a Summary of the Natural Law Isaiah, David, and Paul on the Natural Law An Example of Enmity to Nature: The Redefinition of Pregnancy as a Disease 237 241 243 250 253 269 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION A New Phase of an Old Tradition How what we hold in common is related to what we do not hold in common. During the eight......

Words: 89540 - Pages: 359

Premium Essay

Methods of Enron

...Source: CHRYSSIDES, GEORGE D. and KALER, JOHN H. (1993). An Introduction to Business Ethics. London: Chapman and Hall. Pages 79−106, 143‒146. [The text is derived from a publisher’s proof, and may differ slightly from the finished book. If quoting, it is best to cite the relevant WOLF page.] CHAPTER THREE ETHICAL THEORY In the previous chapter we looked at the role of values in business and considered how business ethics was becoming part of the professionalization of business. But what exactly are ethical judgments, and how do we justify them? At first appearance this may seem a needless difficulty. After all, is it not obvious what is happening when we make ethical decisions? Do we not do so almost every day of our lives in fact? It is one thing to engage in an activity, but often quite another to state what exactly is going on when we do it. For example, someone may have a tremendous gift for selling goods to people, but may not necessarily be aware, until he or she is taught, exactly what is going on when a successful marketing strategy is put into operation. One can instinctively put into operation the classical ‘three Ps’ of marketing (attention to Product, Price and Packaging), but yet be unaware, until this is pointed out, that these are the key features of selling. In a similar way, we can make moral judgments, but yet find some difficulty in explaining exactly what is taken place when we do so. In the case of ethical judgments, the situation......

Words: 12860 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Feminism and Ideology

... * Globalisation and belief systems, including fundamentalism * Postmodernity: end of meta-narratives, ‘spiritual shopping’ * Secularisation: problems of definition and measurement; aspects of secularisation such as disengagement, rationalisation, rise of pluralism/diversity, desacralisation, disenchantment, individuation * Arguments and evidence for and against secularisation eg attendance and membership; believing without belonging; the secularisation cycle theory and compensators (Stark and Bainbridge); UK compared with other countries (eg USA) and global significance of religion today. Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian religious traditions * Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony * Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic contexts of science; theory and observation; falsification; paradigms * Theories of religion: Functionalist, Marxist, neo-Marxist and feminist. The exam format: 1 Read Item A below and answer parts (a) and (b) that follow. Item A For some people religion is an important part of their lives. It can provide contact with others as well as participation in the local community. However, in 1999, almost half of all adults aged 18 and over in Great Britain who said they belonged to a......

Words: 23270 - Pages: 94

Premium Essay

Beliefs in Society

...global context * Globalisation and belief systems, including fundamentalism * Postmodernity: end of meta-narratives, ‘spiritual shopping’ * Secularisation: problems of definition and measurement; aspects of secularisation such as disengagement, rationalisation, rise of pluralism/diversity, desacralisation, disenchantment, individuation * Arguments and evidence for and against secularisation eg attendance and membership; believing without belonging; the secularisation cycle theory and compensators (Stark and Bainbridge); UK compared with other countries (eg USA) and global significance of religion today. Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian religious traditions * Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony * Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic contexts of science; theory and observation; falsification; paradigms * Theories of religion: Functionalist, Marxist, neo-Marxist and feminist. The exam format: 1 Read Item A below and answer parts (a) and (b) that follow. Item A For some people religion is an important part of their lives. It can provide contact with others as well as participation in the local community. However, in 1999, almost half of all adults aged 18 and over in Great Britain who said they belonged to a religion or were......

Words: 23270 - Pages: 94

Premium Essay

Moral

...Chapter 7 : Moral Issues 7. 1 The Environment 7. 2 Life 7. 3 Rearmament and War 7. 4 Business Ethics 7. 5 Sexuality and the Family 7. 6 Discrimination 7. 7 Freedom of Information 7. 8 Science and Technology Chapter Overview This chapter will discuss the contemporary moral issues. There are eight main sub-headings and examined in turn. Students may not only learn about moral facts, principles and theories, but also some important moral issues so that they will kept in phase with current issues in facing the challenge out there. This chapter also encourages students to ...

Words: 28274 - Pages: 114

Premium Essay

Religion and Ethics in Our Modern Society

...must be done consciously – therefore dreaming is not normal. B. How does a human conduct Emerge ? A human conduct can be a result of the following: 1. It comes when empowered or inspired by an ideal external person. Who could be a parent, Pastor. Moral is personified by a moral condition. 2. When compelled internal to act in certain ways through conscience. C. Through reference to some authority. – what they have taught us or read. For example, Christians refer to the Bible. d. As a result of yielding to temptations or prompt convictions from the Holy Spirit. Chapter 3 Speculative Moral Theories This chapter takes a close look at speculative moral theories developed by several scholars with the intention of explaining human conduct and activities. Some of these theories have no biblical base and most of them contradict what the Bible teaches on human conduct. Some speculative moral theories have been used in political setting by dictators to satisfy their interests while some in economic and religious settings as shall be described below. The next pages of this chapter look closely at each theory with special interest given to both views, strengths and weaknesses and sometime the individual who advocated the theory. Among these theories there are some ethical issues of concern advocated in our contemporary society. 1. Consequentialism also known as Telelogical This is speculative moral theory that says human beings do things that produces more good. Its......

Words: 39235 - Pages: 157

Premium Essay

Q&a Jurisprudence

... R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers  Jurisprudence 2011–2012 Each Routledge Q&A contains approximately 50 questions on topics commonly found on exam papers, with answer plans and comprehensive suggested answers. Each book also offers valuable advice as to how to approach and tackle exam questions and how to focus your revision effectively. New Aim Higher and Common  Pitfalls boxes will also help you to identify how to go that little bit further in order to get the very best marks and highlight areas of confusion. And now there are further opportunities to hone and perfect your exam technique online. New editions publishing in 2011: Civil Liberties & Human Rights Commercial Law Company Law Constitutional & Administrative Law Contract Law Criminal Law Employment Law English Legal System Routledge Q&A series Equity & Trusts European Union Law Evidence Family Law Jurisprudence Land Law Medical Law Torts For a full listing, visit http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/revision R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers Jurisprudence 2011–2012 David Brooke Senior Lecturer in Law and Module Leader in Jurisprudence at Leeds Metropolitan University Fifth edition published 2011 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library,......

Words: 105136 - Pages: 421

Free Essay

The Thief of Time

...with Procrastination, 206 Chrisoula Andreou 13 Resisting Procrastination: Kantian Autonomy and the Role of the Will, 216 Mark D. White 14 Procrastination and the Extended Will, 233 Joseph Heath & Joel Anderson 15 Procrastination and the Law, 253 Manuel A. Utset Bibliography, 275 Index, 293 x Notes on the Contributors George Ainslie is a behavioral economist who has used several different methods to explore the basic determinants of choice. His modeling of higher mental processes from the motivated interaction of simple reward-seeking interests has been published in journals of psychology, philosophy, economics, and law; in many book chapters; and in two books: Picoeconomics: The Strategic Interaction of Successive Motivational States within the Person (1992) and Breakdown of Will (2001). Ainslie is a research psychiatrist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Coatesville, Pennsylvania. Joel Anderson studied philosophy at Princeton, Northwestern, and Frankfurt Universities and taught at Washington University in St. Louis for nine years before becoming a research lecturer in 2004 at the philosophy department of Utrecht University in the Netherlands. He specializes in moral psychology and social theory and focuses especially on issues of autonomy, agency, mutual recognition, and normativity. He coedited, with John Christman, Autonomy and the Challenges to Liberalism (2005) and is currently writing a book entitled Scaffolded Autonomy: The Construction, Impairment,......

Words: 125542 - Pages: 503

Premium Essay

Philosophy and Design

...Light, Steven A. Moore, and Pieter E. Vermaas Part I Engineering Design ix 1 Design, Use, and the Physical and Intentional Aspects of Technical Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maarten Franssen Designing is the Construction of Use Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wybo Houkes The Designer Fallacy and Technological Imagination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don Ihde Technological Design as an Evolutionary Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philip Brey Deciding on Ethical Issues in Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anke Van Gorp and Ibo Van de Poel Morality in Design: Design Ethics and the Morality of Technological Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter-Paul Verbeek 21 37 51 61 77 91 Thinking about Design: Critical Theory of Technology and the Design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Patrick Feng and Andrew Feenberg v vi Contents Design Culture and Acceptable Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Kiyotaka Naoe Alienability, Rivalry, and Exclusion Cost: Three Institutional Factors for Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Paul B. Thompson Part II Emerging Engineering Design Friends by Design: A Design Philosophy for Personal Robotics......

Words: 165744 - Pages: 663

Premium Essay

Politics, Theology

...major new book by a prominent academic and an active politician. It ranges widely across the disciplines of theology, political theory and philosophy and poses acute questions about the basic moral foundations of liberal societies. Lord Plant focuses on the role that religious belief can and ought to play in argument about public policy in a pluralistic society. He examines the potential political implications of Christian belief and the ways in which it may be deployed in political debate. The book is a contribution to the modern debate about the moral pluralism of western liberal societies, discussing the place of religious belief in the formation of policy and asking what sorts of issues in modern society might be the legitimate objects of a Christian social and political concern. Raymond Plant has written an important study of the relationship between religion and politics which will be of value to students, academics, politicians, church professionals, policy makers and all concerned with the moral fabric of contemporary life. r ay m on d pl an t is Professor of European Political Thought at the University of Southampton and a Member of the House of Lords. He was a Home affairs spokesperson for the Labour Party from 1992 to 1996, and Master of St Catherine's College, Oxford, from 1994 to 2000. Lord Plant's main publications are Social and Moral Theory in Casework (1970), Community and Ideology: An Essay in Applied Moral Philosophy (1974), Hegel (1974), Political......

Words: 144283 - Pages: 578

Premium Essay

Muscle Binds

...“come” (p.7) Idiomatic expressions (p.8) Physical complains (p.18) Text How are your genes? (p. 19) span (n.), life span determine (v.), genetically/culturally/biologically determined, to determine + whether/why/who/what Text of the sample composition (p.30) benefit (v.), to benefit from, benefit (n.), to reap/receive benefit from, beneficial (adj.) test-tube (n.), test-tube baby controversy (n.), to create/cause/spark/stir controversy, controversial (adj.) affect (v.) hostility (n.), hostile (adj.) interfere (v.), interfere in/with abuse (v.), abuse (n.) ban (v.), ban (n.), ban on smth. One Man’s Meat is Another Man’s Poison Talking points A. How do you rate the following suggestions as ways of ensuring physical fitness? Rank them starting with those you consider to be most effective. Be prepared to justify your choice by explaining how the suggestions may or may not help you. * grow your own vegetables * avoid “junk” food * sell your TV * stop smoking * buy an exercise bike * take vitamin pills * move to the countryside * refuse to use lifts * walk to work Did you consider selling your TV to be an effective way of keeping fit? B. How do you understand the term “couch potato”? Reading A Read this advice. “It's high time you hung up your trainers and exercised your mind and not your body.” Explain what this advice means. Who might it be given to? Is it sensible advice? B Read the following......

Words: 9264 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

English Help

...2 What Is Critical Thinking? 16 Mind, Brain, or Both? 17 Critical Thinking Defined 18 Characteristics of Critical Thinkers 20 The Role of Intuition 22 Basic Activities in Critical Thinking 24 Critical Thinking and Writing 24 Critical Thinking and Discussion 25 Avoiding Plagiarism 27 Chapter 3 What Is Truth? 32 Where Does It All Begin? 33 Imperfect Perception 34 v vi CONTENTS Imperfect Memory 35 Deficient Information 35 Even the Wisest Can Err 36 Truth Is Discovered, Not Created 37 Understanding Cause and Effect 38 Chapter 4 What Does It Mean to Know? 47 Requirements of Knowing 47 Testing Your Own Knowledge 48 How We Come to Know 50 Why Knowing Is Difficult 51 A Cautionary Tale 53 Is Faith a Form of Knowledge? 54 Obstacles to Knowledge 55 Chapter 5 How Good Are Your Opinions? 59 Opinions Can Be Mistaken 61 Opinions on Moral Issues 61 Even Experts Can Be Wrong 63 Kinds of Errors 65 Informed Versus Uninformed Opinion Forming Opinions Responsibly 67 Chapter 6 What Is Evidence? 72 65 Kinds of Evidence 73 Evaluating Evidence 79 What Constitutes Sufficient Evidence? Chapter 7 What Is Argument? 83 80 The Parts of an Argument 84 Evaluating Arguments 85 More Difficult Arguments 87 PART TWO Chapter 8 The Pitfalls 93 94 The Basic Problem: “Mine Is Better” Egocentric People 95 Ethnocentric People 96 Controlling “Mine-Is-Better” Thinking Chapter 9 Errors of Perspective 102 97 Poverty of Aspect 102 CONTENTS vii Unwarranted......

Words: 102651 - Pages: 411

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...Q1) What is Ethical analysis and discuss its Application: in Corporate Decision making? Ethics is unique among disciplines in that practitioners often cannot agree on a common definition of their topic. Ethics Scoreboard can't solve that problem, which is many centuries old. Here it attempts to put forth definitions that explain what words mean when they are used on this website.] Values: Those qualities of behavior, thought, and character that society regards as being intrinsically good, having desirable results, and worthy of emulation by others. Morals: Modes of conduct that are taught and accepted as embodying principles of right and good. Morality: A system of determining right and wrong that is established by some authority, such as a church, an organization, a society, or a government. Ethics: The process of determining right and wrong conduct. Ethical System: A specific formula for distinguishing right from wrong. Unethical: An action or conduct which violates the principles of one or more ethical systems, or which is counter to an accepted ethical value, such as honesty. Non-ethical considerations: Powerful human motivations that are not based on right or wrong, but on considerations of survival and well-being, such as health, security, love, wealth, or self esteem. Concepts Non-Ethical Considerations: Defined above, non-ethical considerations are important because they are often the powerful impediments to ethical conduct, and the cause of many......

Words: 25626 - Pages: 103