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Explain the Issues of Reliability and Validity in the Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

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Explain the issues of reliability and validity in the classification and diagnosis of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health condition in which causes a range of psychological symptoms. There are two types of symptoms a person with schizophrenia may experience; positive symptoms and negative symptoms.

One example of a positive symptom might be a delusion. A delusion is when a sufferer has an extreme sense that unreal event or belief is real, due to distortions of reasoning. In addition to this the sufferer may also have hallucinations, which are also an example of a positive symptom. A hallucination is often described as a visual or auditory distortion, for example “hearing voices”.
Alogia is an example of a negative symptom. Alogia is the inability of a sufferer to speak fluently. A final example of a negative symptom is social withdrawal. If a person has social withdrawal they will try to avoid any interactions with other people.

Schizophrenia can be diagnosed by classification, in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). The DSM assumes that all mental disorders are distinct from each other, and that patients can be categorised with a disorder based on their having particular symptoms. However, diagnosing abnormality is not as straightforward as this approach suggests. For example the DSM categorises Schizophrenia into five different types; disorganised, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. Because of this it is crucial that the diagnosis of Schizophrenia is reliable and valid.

Reliability is defined as a measure of whether replications of a test would produce similar results. If replications do produce similar findings then the data is reliable. For example if an individual was diagnosed with Schizophrenia by one psychiatrist you would expect another psychiatrist to also diagnose the same...

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