Premium Essay

Explain the Main Differences Between the Utilitarianism of Bentham and That of Mill. (25)

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By zverna
Words 756
Pages 4
The theory of Utilitarianism takes its name from the Latin word ‘utilis’, meaning ‘useful’. It was first developed by Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher and legal theorist of the 18th century. Bentham sought to produce a modern and rational approach to morality which would suit the changing society of the industrial age. Utilitarianism basically says that happiness is the key to life’s conquest, and happiness that is the determination of right or wrong. So if an action’s consequence causes happiness, then the action is right, if it causes pain, or destroys happiness then the action is wrong.Utilitarianism may be regarded as a relativist, consequentialist and teleological system of ethics, giving no fixed moral rules and judging an action by its consequences or end result. Jeremy Bentham, and his disciple John Stuart Mill have become recognised as the two greatest sponsors of Utilitarianism. Bentham is known for his popularisation of the more traditional version of the theory, known as Act Utilitarianism. Although a student of Bentham, Mill could see problems in what he was being taught and so began to develop his own views in his own version called Rule Utilitarianism.
Bentham’s main philosophy of Act Utilitarianism is to create the “greatest good for the greatest number”. So for example, if you are in a situation where lying would bring about the greatest good then, you should lie. Utilitarians support the view that it is the value of the consequences of the particular act that count, so if breaking the law would lead to the greatest good for the majority then it would be the correct act to follow. Bentham argued that one should maximise happiness for the majority, a view which is known as the ‘Utility Principle’. Happiness was thus equated with moral goodness. This idea further identifies Bentham as a ‘psychological hedonist’, since he regarded humans as being...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Explain the Difference Between Bentham's Act Utilitarianism and Mill's Rule Utilitarianism (25)

...Explain the differences between Bentham’s and Mill’s Utilitarianism (25): Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory as the consequence of an action or rule is the main principle to judge whether an action is right or wrong. Act Utilitarianism is a teleological theory which was designed by Bentham, states that the act which produces the most pleasure was the most desirable act. Rule Utilitarianism is a deontological theory which was designed by Mill, states that that the act which produces the best act is the most desirable act - – “The greatest happiness for the greatest number”. The principle of utility states that actions are right if they promote pleasure but are wrong if they bring pain – “The greatest good [pleasure]for the greatest number.” Bentham believed that all pleasures are equal. However, Mill disagreed and stated that there were lower and higher pleasures. Firstly, Bentham stated that “quantity of pleasure being equal, push-pin (a simple child’s game) is as good as poetry” – he believed that all pleasures were the same. For example, the pleasure received from listening to music would be considered to be the same as the pleasure someone may gain from murdering someone. Mill disagreed with this. He believed that pleasures are split into two categories – higher and lower pleasures. Higher pleasures were satisfaction of the mind such as listening to classical music, and lower pleasures were pleasures of the body such as eating. He reasoned that......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phi 208 Week 2 Quiz 85% Grade

...------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Grading Summary These are the automatically computed results of your exam. Grades for essay questions, and comments from your instructor, are in the "Details" section below. | Date Taken: | 1/30/2015 | Time Spent: | 3 h , 16 secs | Points Received: | 17 / 20  (85%) | Number of Attempts: | 1 | | Question Type: | # Of Questions: | # Correct: | Multiple Choice | 20 | 17 | | | Grade Details - All Questions | Question 1. | Question : | What is Peter Singer’s point about performing vivisection on mentally disabled human infants? | |   | Student Answer: | x | That if we say that it would be wrong to perform experiments on such humans but not on non-humans then we are showing bias based upon species alone |   | | | That a good speciesist would not perform experiments on any being |   | | | That we should test upon mentally disabled human infants because the results would be more reliable than tests on animals |   | | | That anyone who would consider testing on a human infant is a monster |   | Instructor Explanation: | The answer can be found on p. 6 of Peter Singer’s “All Animals are Equal.” | | |   | Points Received: | 1 of 1 |   | Comments: | | | | Question 2. | Question : | Peter Singer’s “basic principles of equality” applied to animals means: | |   | Student Answer: | | Animals should be given all the same rights as human beings....

Words: 1923 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Leadership

...selected: directive leadership, self-leadership, authentic leadership, transactional leadership, shared leadership, charismatic leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership. Five western ethical theories (philosophical egoism, utilitarianism, Kantianism, ethics of virtue, ethics of responsibility) are analyzed to see to what extent their basic concepts could be connected to one or the other leadership approach. Findings – A given ethical theory (such as philosophical egoism) could be suitable to the components of various leadership approaches. Ethical leadership does not imply that a given leadership approach is reflecting only one ethical theory. Rather, ethical leadership implies that for different reasons, various leadership approaches could agree with the same ethical theory. This is what we could call the “moral flexibility of leadership approaches”. Research limitations/implications – This study focuses on western ethical theories. A similar study should be undertaken for Eastern ethical theories coming from Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, or Daoism. Practical implications – Some dualisms (such as Kantianism-transformational leadership, philosophical egoism-transactional leadership) do not reflect the philosophical connections between ethical theories and leadership approaches. Thus, the notion of ethical leadership would have to be redefined. In doing so, the paper reveals how a given ethical theory could be used by...

Words: 11184 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Q&a Jurisprudence

...R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers  Jurisprudence 2011–2012 Each Routledge Q&A contains approximately 50 questions on topics commonly found on exam papers, with answer plans and comprehensive suggested answers. Each book also offers valuable advice as to how to approach and tackle exam questions and how to focus your revision effectively. New Aim Higher and Common  Pitfalls boxes will also help you to identify how to go that little bit further in order to get the very best marks and highlight areas of confusion. And now there are further opportunities to hone and perfect your exam technique online. New editions publishing in 2011: Civil Liberties & Human Rights Commercial Law Company Law Constitutional & Administrative Law Contract Law Criminal Law Employment Law English Legal System Routledge Q&A series Equity & Trusts European Union Law Evidence Family Law Jurisprudence Land Law Medical Law Torts For a full listing, visit http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/revision R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers Jurisprudence 2011–2012 David Brooke Senior Lecturer in Law and Module Leader in Jurisprudence at Leeds Metropolitan University Fifth edition published 2011 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library,......

Words: 105136 - Pages: 421

Premium Essay

Classical School of Criminology

...1. Define and discuss the classical school of criminology? In particular, address the contributions of Beccaria and Bentham to the debate about punishment and the impact of these contributions in modern corrections? * Perceptual Research on General Deterrence: A Critical Review * Kirk R. Williams and Richard Hawkins * Law & Society Review, Vol. 20, No. 4 (1986), pp. 545-572 * Published by: Wiley on behalf of the Law and Society Association * Article DOI: 10.2307/3053466 * Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/stable/3053466 2. .) In all societies certain kinds of behaviour are either encouraged or discouraged by a set of social rules, from mild discouragers such as frowns of disapproval to applause of approval. Behaviours that infringe upon the happiness of others or their property or the general wellbeing of those within the community were discouraged with stronger means such as verbal abuse, beatings and banishment. (Allen and Simonsen, 1998) 3. Theorists such as von Hentig of the early 1900’s proposed that Bentham’s theory of deterrence was invalid due to the fact that the pleasure of committing a crime is a “near object” whereas the consequence of crime imposed by the legal system is a “long-distance danger” and is unable to counteract the immediate rewards of crime. (Paternoster, 2010, p773) HOW MUCH DO WE REALLY KNOW ABOUT CRIMINAL DETERRENCE? Paternoster, Raymond Journal of Criminal Law......

Words: 6215 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Business Ethics by Shaw Test Bank

...BUSINESS ETHICS BY SHAW TEST BANK A+ Graded Tutorial Available At: http://hwsoloutions.com/?product=business-ethics-by-shaw-test-bank Visit Our website: http://hwsoloutions.com/ Product Description PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Business Ethics by Shaw Test Bank, Business Ethics by Shaw – Test Bank A+ Graded Chapter 1—The Nature of Morality MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes moral standards from other sorts of standards? a. moral standards are purely optional b. moral standards take priority over other standards, including self-interest c. moral standards cannot be justified by reasons d. moral standards must be set or validated by some authoritative body 2. Choose the statement that gives the most accurate description of etiquette: a. the rules of etiquette are a fundamental branch of morality b. conformity with the rules of etiquette is sufficient for moral conduct c. etiquette refers to a special code of social behavior or courtesy d. the rules of etiquette are backed by statutory law 3. Our relationship with the law is best described by which of the following? a. To a significant extent, law codifies a society’s customs, norms, and moral values. b. The law is a completely adequate guide to the moral standards that we should follow. c. The law makes all immoral conduct illegal. d. Violating the law is always immoral. 4. Which of the following is not one of the four basic kinds of law? a. statutes b.......

Words: 21479 - Pages: 86

Free Essay

Nietzsche's

...philologist and a professor of Greek at the University of Basle. He was the author of many works that talked about religion, morality, culture, philosophy, science using a unique style and radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth. In his writings, Nietzsche called for revision of all values; he rejected organized religion attacking Christianity and other religious institutions as contributors to what he called “slave morality”. He was, also, equally critical of democratic institutions whose singular vision and courage, according to him, produce a “master morality” and he called the rule by mass mediocrity. Nietzsche also believed that European materialism have led to decadence and decline. He died on August 25, 1900. In his works, he voiced the sentiments of radical moralists. He was deeply critical of his own times and he called for a revision of all values. The major enemy for him was the church and he attacked Christianity and all religions because he believed that they formed a slave mentality. He wrote his books with such force that he said he writes with his own blood. He was reflecting the cynicism of the 19th century. His famous question was: “Is man a mistake of God or vice versa?” He also claimed that man is not developing into something...

Words: 5211 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Legal, Ethical & Social Values on Having Animals in Captivity

...Nova Southeastern University Wayne Huizenga Graduate School of Business & Entrepreneurship Assignment for Course: MGT 5015 – Legal, Ethical, & Social Values In Business Submitted to: Stephen Muffler Submitted by: Juan Cochesa N01566041 350 NE 24th St APT 509 Miami, FL 33137 305 799 0736 Date of Submission: 03 / 16 / 2014 Title of Assignment: Legal, Ethical & Social Values on Having Animals In Captivity CERTIFICATION OF AUTHORSHIP: I certify that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledge and disclosed in the paper. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas of words, whether quoted directly or paraphrased. I also certify that this paper was prepared by me specifically for this course. Student Signature: ___________________________ ******************************************* Instructor’s Grade on Assignment: Instructor’s Comments: I. Introduction II. Legal Section A. Licensing Requirements B. Accommodation C. Nutrition D. Sanitation and Disease Control E. Veterinary Care F. General Welfare G. Safety and Security H. Operations III. Ethics Section A. Utilitarian Ethical Analysis B. Kantian Ethical Analysis C. Aristotelian Ethical Analysis IV. Social Responsibility Section V. Conclusion VI. References ABSTRACT Animals are one of the most......

Words: 7273 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Ethical Theory Development

...Effective Communication Table of Contents Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………..4 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………5 Chapter One: History of Ethical Theory Development Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….…6 Definition of Ethics Business Ethics and Individual Ethics: Is There a Difference?…………………….…..7 Virtue Ethics…………………………………………………………………………............9 Practical Wisdom……………………………………………………………….14 Eudaimonia……………………………………………………………………...15 Kantian Ethics……………………………………………………………………16 Ethical Egoism…………………………………………………………………………….....18 Consequentialist Ethics.……………………………………………………………………..21 Chapter Two: Corporate Social Responsibility Introduction 27 Corporate Social Responsibility 27 Summary 34 Chapter Three: The National Football League’s Blackout Policy is Unethical Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….…35 The History of the NFL Blackout Policy: The Legal Test…………………………………..37 The Economic Test: Do Blackouts Have a Positive Economic Benefit?...............................39 The Philanthropic Test……………………………………………………………………….43 The Ethics Test………………………………………………………………………………47 Summary……………………………………………………………………………………..51 Chapter Four: Effective Communication Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….....50 Effective Communication Defined………………………………………………………..…50 This Student’s Display of Effective Communication…………………………………….....51 Written......

Words: 19601 - Pages: 79

Premium Essay

Good Life

...mTELECOURSE STUDY GUIDE FOR The Examined Life FOURTH EDITION author J. P. White Chair, Department of Philosophy Santa Barbara City College contributing author Manuel Velasquez Professor of Philosophy Santa Clara University This Telecourse Study Guide for The Examined Life is part of a collegelevel introduction to philosophy telecourse developed in conjunction with the video series The Examined Life, and the text Philosophy: A Text with Readings, tenth edition, by Manuel Velasquez, The Charles Dirksen Professor, Santa Clara University. The television series The Examined Life was designed and produced by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, Netherlands Educational Broadcasting Corporation (TELEAC/NOT), and Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company (UR) Copyright © 2007, 2005, 2002, 1999 by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, 150 E. Colorado Blvd., Suite 300, Pasadena, California 91105-1937. ISBN: 0-495-10302-0 Contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Lesson One — What is Philosophy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 78103 - Pages: 313

Free Essay

Khanh

... UK Abstract: The relative absence of debate about ethical issues within the area of human resource management is addressed. IT is argued that ethics is not about taking statements of morality at face value; it is a critical and challenging tool. The discussion starts with what should be familiar terrain: ethical arguments that uphold a managerialist position, such as ethical individualism, utilitarianism, and "Rawlsian" justice. Other theories are then introduced that broaden the field of ethical concern in an endeavor to be more socially inclusive: stakeholding and discourse theory. Copyright Eclipse Group Ltd. 2000 Full Text: Until very recently the field of business ethics was not preoccupied with issues relating to the ethical management of employees. Apart from the development of ethical awareness among managers (Snell, 1993; Maclagan, 1998) and the ethical dimension of change management processes (Mayon White, 1994; McKendall, 1993), there has been little debate around the ethical basis of much HR policy and practice. The main debates in business...

Words: 9380 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Essential Thinkers

...A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 First American paperback edition published in 2006 by Enchanted Lion Books, 45 Main Street, Suite 519, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Copyright © 2002 Philip Stokes/Arcturus Publishing Limted 26/27 Bickels Yard, 151-153 Bermondsey Street, London SE1 3HA Glossary © 2003 Enchanted Lion Books All Rights Reserved. The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier hardcover edtion of this title for which a CIP record is on file. ISBN-13: 978-1-59270-046-2 ISBN-10: 1-59270-046-2 Printed in China Edited by Paul Whittle Cover and book design by Alex Ingr A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 Philip Stokes A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 ENCHANTED LION BOOKS New York Contents The Presocratics Thales of Miletus . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Pythagoras of Samos . . . . . 10 Xenophanes of Colophon 12 Heraclitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Scholastics St Anselm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 St Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . 50 John Duns Scotus . . . . . . . . . 52 William of Occam . . . . . . . . . 54 The Liberals Adam Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Mary Wollstonecraft . . . . 108 Thomas Paine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Jeremy Bentham . . . . . . . . . 112 John Stuart Mill . . . . . . . . . . 114 Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . 116 The Eleatics Parmenides of Elea . . . . . . . 16 Zeno of Elea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Age of Science Nicolaus Copernicus . . . . . . 56 Niccolò......

Words: 73655 - Pages: 295

Premium Essay

Politics, Theology

...pluralistic society. He examines the potential political implications of Christian belief and the ways in which it may be deployed in political debate. The book is a contribution to the modern debate about the moral pluralism of western liberal societies, discussing the place of religious belief in the formation of policy and asking what sorts of issues in modern society might be the legitimate objects of a Christian social and political concern. Raymond Plant has written an important study of the relationship between religion and politics which will be of value to students, academics, politicians, church professionals, policy makers and all concerned with the moral fabric of contemporary life. r ay m on d pl an t is Professor of European Political Thought at the University of Southampton and a Member of the House of Lords. He was a Home affairs spokesperson for the Labour Party from 1992 to 1996, and Master of St Catherine's College, Oxford, from 1994 to 2000. Lord Plant's main publications are Social and Moral Theory in Casework (1970), Community and Ideology: An Essay in Applied Moral Philosophy (1974), Hegel (1974), Political Philosophy and Social Welfare (with H. Lesser and P. TaylorGooby, 1979), Philosophy, Politics and Citizenship (with A. Vincent, 1983), Hegel: Second Edition (1983) and Modern Political Thought (1994). POLITICS, THEOLOGY AND HISTORY R AY M O N D P L A N T University of Southampton...

Words: 144283 - Pages: 578

Premium Essay

Leadership Ethics

...TURUN YLIOPISTON JULKAISUJA ANNALES UNIVERSITATIS TURKUENSIS SARJA - SER. B OSA - TOM. 348 HUMANIORA Essays on Business and Leadership Ethics Tuomo Takala TURUN YLIOPISTO UNIVERSITY OF TURKU Turku 2012 ISBN 978-951-29-5010-2 (PRINT) ISBN 978-951-29-5011-9 (PDF) ISSN 0082-6987 Painosalama Oy – Turku, Finland 2012 A note from the writer I was born in 1955 and am a professor of management and leadership at the University of Jyväskylä, with a solid academic track record. My main academic work has been research in the area of business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on my research I have written around a hundred publications, of which about fifty can be seen as scientifically significant, in one way or another. I started as a business leadership major at the University of Jyväskylä in 1977. General studies sparked my interest in philosophy, and in time I became more and more interested in it. I graduated as a Master of Economics in 1982, at which point I had already done Advanced studies in Philosophy. Nevertheless, I did my postgraduate studies in economics and began to study corporate societal responsibility in 1983. At the same time I continued my studies in philosophy and graduated as a M.Sc (Philosophy) in 1986, the same year when I finished my licentiate’s work on societal responsibility for the Business Studies program in the University of Jyväskylä (Ph.D in Economics 1991). At that time, I was already also......

Words: 22290 - Pages: 90

Free Essay

Review of Law in Context

...NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION: USE ONLY IN COMPLIANCE WITH COPYRIGHT: DAVID RISSTROM AN INTERPRETATION OF LAW IN CONTEXT Bottomley, S., Gunningham, N. and Parker, S., 1991, Law in Context, The Federation Press, Leichhardt. { } = additional material from lectures. ( ) = my comments. (See ‘x’) refers to book page number. A short (somewhat boring) message from the summary executioner before you dive in; These notes are an interpretation of the book Law in Context and the lectures given as part of the 1991 Course. They are not a satisfactory substitution for reading the text. You are only likely to get the maximum value out of this summary by reading it in conjunction with the text. The question of ‘the law in whose context’ may be worth keeping in mind as you read. This is an interpretation seen through my eyes, not yours. My comments are not unbiased, as it is as equally unlikely that yours may be. So my ‘advice’ is consider what is said here and in the book considering the need to understand the ‘mechanics’ that help make sense of the more involved themes that develop in the book as you progress through Law in Context. The observations, important in their own right, may be particularly useful for seeing how their often ubiquitous expression is taken as ‘normal’ in the areas of wider society, such as in discussions of economics and power. It is unlikely that you will find any ‘right answers’ from this summary, but I do hope it helps you in......

Words: 51747 - Pages: 207