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Express Scripts

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Submitted By rosalind01
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Introduction
The name El Salvador when taken literally is Spanish for the Republic of The Savior. It Central America’s most densely populated as well as the smallest country. Although San Salvador serves as the capital city, San Miguel and Santa Ana are other important commercial and cultural centers (Ramon, and Valdes, 2000). The main language is Spanish. Therefore, as a company, Express Script can do well by having initial operations in one of the three centers. Also hiring Spanish-speaking workers can help.
Cultural attitudes toward women and children
Children are taught early and expected to behave respectfully towards their elders. This involves use of respectful terms of address and also in greetings. In addition, they should obey and comply with requests or orders from the adults. Once children reach six or seven years, they can be reprimanded or hit if they do not comply with requests made by adults, answer back or complain. Parents also use shaming method to discipline their children (Mahler, 1995). To do this, they complain loudly about the guilty child to another child or adult when the child is within earshot. Shaming is usually used if the child has not completed the assigned chores, is dressed improperly or has performed poorly in schoolwork. This is important for Express Script employees from other countries who might find this strange. Women are also expected to respect men and should not under any circumstances raise voice to them. In addition, they must serve food on demand.
Education level of workers in the country
There is compulsory basic education until the kid reaches 13 years of age. Unfortunately, there are many children aged between 6 and 16 years who do not attend school in the poorest families. Nine out of ten children among the richest families go to school with a quarter studying up to university level (Ramon, and Valdes, 2000). Poor families are in many cases unable to pay school fees or give their children other necessities. Sadly, the war ravaged the main universities, and they are yet to recover (Berryman, 1994). However, there are several private colleges, which offer technical and professional degrees. Therefore, Express Script may suffer from skilled labor shortages in some departments.
Values and attitudes
On the aspect of attitudes and values, a younger person should respect those older than him/her. In addition, people of lower status should respect those whose status is higher than theirs. This entails using respectful titles before people’s names as well as the formal “you” (“Usted”). Greeting other people is necessary after entering a store, in small communities and towns, or when passing someone on the streets. Failure to great a person is considered unkind and offensive.
Religious customs
Due to its Hispanic roots, El Salvador has over generations had strong roots in the Roman Catholic Church. Majority of Salvadorans are Roman Catholics (52%) and hence the church roots are strong across the nation’s society and culture. Observation of church services is important especially for women and church ceremonies like confirmation and baptisms are important family affairs (Berryman, 1994).
However, from the 1990s El Salvador took a secular direction when compared with its other neighbors in Central America. The birth control programs, which started in 1960s, were met with less resistance here compared to other Latin American Countries (Berryman, 1994). This means that the citizens here can be ready to embrace new drugs by Express Scripts. Protestants make up 27% of the population while other faiths such as Mormonism, Judaists and Jehovah Witnesses make up around 9%. The other 11% is composed of people who not affiliated to any religious group such as agnostics and atheists.
Physical environment
El Salvador’s size is 8,260 square miles and it is located between Honduras and Guatemala. Hills and mountains have separated this country into the central plateaus and valleys, northern mountains and the southern coastal belt. As a result of this regional segmentation, there are slight variations in culture depending upon the crops, which are planted in each region. Cane and coffee which is grown on the coast give the rural populations wage earning opportunities while beans planted in the central valleys are used for both sale and private consumption (Ramon, and Valdes, 2000).

Labor conditions
El Salvador offers a number of heath and safety standards that were put in place with the Ministry of Labor. “In many cases [employees] are not given suitable safety equipment that is necessary to protect their health in different risk areas; including: masks, gloves, respirators for using chemicals, belts for carrying heavy materials, etc.” (Monterrosa). Working conditions has also become a major problem for the “environment” where they work for the majority of the time (Monterrosa). The most common type of “physical” effect would be heat by “external sources (sunlight) and internal sources (overcrowding, poor ventilation, machine radiation etc.). These conditions can cause “stress, exhaustion, and illness” among the workers, such as “pulmonary fibrosis or other health problems” and prevent adequate workflow (Monterrosa). El Salvador also tends to have an “excess dust” issue that comes with poor ventilation, which tends to “accumulate on walls, ceilings, machines and personnel” in the work place (Monterrosa). In order for our company to offer efficient working conditions, a good ventilation system would be priority as well as maintaining cool temperatures at all times during the work day. Another aspect to consider for providing efficient working conditions would be to match the “distribution of working positions in relation to the tasks of each worker” (Monterrosa). If our employees are over worked, we can lose “production time” as well as quality of work. “Muscle fatigue” can be very common is our employees are working more than necessary. Over the years, the Ministry of Labor has over looked these issues, and so if we bring our company to El Salvador, it is our job to provide and maintain great working conditions for our employees, and with that possibly assist other work places around comply as well in order to improve working conditions overall in El Salvador.

Labor safety and fairness
El Salvador protects their employees within their labor codes. Article 29 of the Labor Code lists employers’ obligations, including “Giving workers due consideration, and refraining from physically or verbally mistreating them. “This obligation is obvious: no employer has the right to take advantage of their hierarchically superior position and the workers’ need for employment. Article 53 of the Labor Code recognizes that such abuse is a reason for workers to be able to terminate their work contract while giving the employer the responsibility for such action. It states: The worker will have the right to end the work contract, holding the employer responsible, for the following causes: If the employer, in the workplace, commits acts against the worker or group of workers, or against all company personnel, acts that gravely hurt their dignity, feelings, or moral principles; For verbal or physical mistreatment by the employer or head of the company or establishment against the worker or against his partner, descendants, or brothers, when the employer is aware of the family relationship” (word press, 2011).
Labor laws El salvador was recently added to the child labor laws list, as they continue to use these measures despite the international standards (Fox News, 2010). According to the newly added laws, the “Salvadorian Constitution prohibits the employment of children under the age of 14” (ILAB). Seeing as though there are many poor communities, the government also granted children the age of 12, with “special permission”, to work in order to ensure their family’s survival. For the children that are between 14-18, the rules that apply are that they cannot “work more than 6 hours per day and not for more than 36 hours per week” (ILAB). The labor code also states that “persons under 18” are not allowed to work in “hazardous” conditions (ILAB). These labor laws, along with those stated in the fairness section of this paper, both provide appropriate guidelines in order for Express Scripts to thrive in El Salvador.

Availability of workers Due to the lack of education, stated previously, Express Scripts may experience a shortage of workers in specific skill sets. El Salvador has a lot of unemployment in certain field of work like, management, mechanics, business administrators, sale representatives and more (Word press, 2011). “Professional jobs, including elementary school teaching, require a university education and are limited mainly to the middle and upper classes. Clerical or technical jobs usually require a high school diploma, which is received by only a small percentage of the population. Semi-skilled jobs such as construction and plumbing generally require a period of apprenticeship but not of formal study. Access to education corresponds to the possession of wealth, and poor families are often limited to unskilled positions in industry, agriculture, and small businesses” (everyculture.com). In order to bring in more employees, our company would have to create efficient training programs for those that show promise (work ethic, bilingual, trustworthy etc.…). With a reliable training program and the financial help to get them into extra skill specific courses outside of work, Express Scripts could work along side the government to commit to helping those poor communities afford schooling for themselves and their children. By doing so, our company would be increasing the number of qualified, efficient workers in the community.

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