Free Essay

Extracting Oil from an Avocado

In: Science

Submitted By chantalzalamea
Words 1676
Pages 7
Extracting Oil from an Avocado

Hyunji Lee
Aisha Bada
Faye Aquino
Dongwon Lee
Nicole Bulawan
Chantal Zalamea
Chelceed Viernes
2I

Mrs. Pedernal

Biology Research II
High School Department
Colegio San Agustin, Makati

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Avocado oil is the edible oil pressed from the fleshy pulp of avocados. Avocado oil can be used for both cooking and cosmetic purposes.It is considered to be a useful and natural substance, but it is expensive. Its unusually high smoking point and aromatic flavor make it suitable for both high temperature frying and grilling, as well as an emulsifying salad oil. Nutritionally, avocado oil ranks comparably to olive oil with its low cholesterol level.

The researchers observed that avocado is a relatively expensive fruit, purchasing avocado oil from your local market can cost a significant amount. The researchers realized that the reason of it being expensive is because it has a very desirable quality as food oil. It has outstanding benefits to people when it comes health. With that realization, the researchers decided to conduct an experiment about extracting oil from avocados.

Statement of the Problem

This research aims to find a way to extract oil from an avocado. It wishes to find natural oil from avocados. It aims to know the answer to the following questions:

1. Would avocado be able to produce oil? 2. How would oil be extracted from avocados? 3. Would the avocado oil be beneficial?

after performing the experiment.
Hypothesis

Avocado would be able to produce oil. The experiment of extracting oil from an avocado would be possible if we use filtration to extract the oil from the avocado, and the produced oil would be possible to be used as natural and affordable alternative oil, but it would not be as effective as that of the professionally made avocado oil.

Significance of the Study

Avocado oil is beneficial, because it controls and modifies blood cholesterol, prevents cancer, promotes faster healing and better skin quality and it moisturizes the hair and skin. This research would be able to help people since it provides information about the benefits of avocado oil. This research helps in finding a way to help improve one’s health and skin.

Avocado oil has the ability to protect our cardiovascular system. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA), the omega-3 fatty acid in avocados, has been found to suppress tumor growth in breast and colon cancers. Vitamin A, D and E are all involved in skin cell growth and regeneration. Avocado oil is a great source of lecithin. Lecithin forms a protective covering on your hair follicles and your skin’s surface, effectively preventing the loss of moisture.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The researchers would be trying to find out how to extract oil from an avocado; however, this does not guarantee the same product as seen from your local market. They will conduct an experiment, using filtration to extract the oil from the flesh of the avocado. The aim of the research is to develop natural oil from an avocado. This is to see if the produced avocado oil would be of benefit to mankind.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Review of Related Literature and Related Studies

History

In the past avocados used to have a reputation for inducing sexual prowess. It wasn’t consumed by people who want to protect their image from slanderous assault. The Aztecs used the avocado as sex stimulant. During the Spanish conquest avocados we’re grown from Northern Mexico.
The nutritional value of avocado impelled Americans to distribute this to eastern hemisphere where the climate permitted it’s culture. It was introduced to Indonesia, Philippines, Hawaii and Brazil. However, only little was recorded about early introductions for avocado in South Africa.
In 1518 Martin Fernandez de Enciso was the first to publish a record that describes a avocado in a book. In 1550 The Spanish name, Aguacate , was first used by Pedro de Cieza de Leon in hi journal. He noted that the avocado grew in Panama, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. As early as 1854 Francisco Salazar gives evidence that the avocado was already known in the market. In 1833 Judge Henry Perrine planted the first avocado tree in Florida. In 1895 Young Charles Delmonico introduced New York to the alligator pear or avocado. It was also mentioned in his book, The Epicurean.

Significance of an Avocado

Avocado is considered as the aristocrat of all the tropical fruits. The creamy, yellowish-green flesh of an Avocado, which has the consistency of butter, is rich in butter, iron, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin B. Avocado also has the highest protein content of any fruit in the world. Avocado is shaped like a pear and has a skin resembling that of an alligator from which it derives the name alligator pear.
Food writer Gaylord Hauser once said of it: "In this single delectable fruit are combined the protein of meat, the fat of butter (but much more wholesome!), the vitamins and minerals of green vegetables, the flavor of nuts, a six course dinner ". And a cereal pioneer John H. Kellogg maintained that "of all edible fruits, it stands pre-eminent as a source of concentrated nutriment adapted to human use. For purity, wholesomeness, ease of digestibility, and adaptation to human needs, it has few rivals and none that can fill its place."
In a lot of countries, fruit is often wasted and left to rot after dropping from the tree. The oil content of the fruit flesh is 15 to 30 percent but increases to 70 to 75 percent after drying. Avocado fruit continues to ripen even after having been picked from an Avocado tree.

Nutritional Facts of Avocados

Avocado oil is allowed to be served in many variations. The most commonly found one being with vinaigrette. It can also be added to other dishes to give a certain zest. It can be cubed with chicken or turkey salad, mashed to provide a topping for baked potatoes and a creamy texture to a salad dressing.
High avocado intake has been shown to have an effect on blood serum cholesterol levels. Specifically, after a seven day diet rich in avocados, hypercholesterolemia patients showed a 17% decrease in total serum cholesterol levels. These subjects also showed a 22% decrease in both LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglyceride levels and 11% increase in HDL (good cholesterol) levels. About 75% of an avocado's calories come from fat, most of which is monounsaturated fat. Avocados also have 60% more potassium than bananas. They are rich in B vitamins, as well as vitamin E and vitamin K.[19] They have the highest fiber content of any fruit - including 75% insoluble and 25% soluble fiber. A fatty triol (fatty alcohol) with one double bond, avocadene (16-heptadecene-1,2,4-triol), is found in avocado.

Avocado is a very dense fruit, packed with nutrients. It is especially rich in Vitamin A. It also contains plenty of Vitamin B, especially niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, 9 essential amino acids, and a mountain of potassium. The Avocado has shown to benefit circulation, lower cholesterol, and dilate blood vessels. It also has three times the amount of glutathione than in any other fruit.

Significance of Avocado Oil

Avocado oils are very aromatic and has multiple uses in cosmetics and culinary activities. Like olive oil, avocado oil is predominantly monounsaturated, a property which is thought to confer distinct health benefits. The avocado as a refined cooking oil has additional advantages. (Swisher, 2010).

Benefits of Avocado Oil

The oil of the avocado is known to be beneficial for the skin. It is used extensively for skin care products by the cosmetics industry in the manufacture of soaps, facial cream, and moisturizers.
Avocado oil is generally produced from fruit rejected by the fresh-fruit trade market. The cosmetic-grade oil is often produced from poor-quality rejected fruit, with the crude being subsequently refined, bleached and deodorized. The RBD oil is pale yellow with little avocado or taste, and is highly valued for its beneficial effects on the skin. Since avocado oil is easily absorbed by the skin, it results into extremely soft and hydrated facial skin. Avocado oil is also helpful for acne problems. One of the reasons for all of these skin benefits may be the way it seems to help increase collagen production within the layers of the dermis. Collagen is the connective protein that binds our skin together and youthful skin has high levels of it.
Avocado oil is also high in sterolins, which are reputed to reduce age spots, help heal sun damage and scars. Sterolins helps soften the skin.
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

Research and find out how to extract oil from an avocado
Flowchart

Buy the ingredients needed to conduct the experiment

Start conducting the experiment

Cut the avocados in half and remove the seeds

Take off the flesh of the avocado and put it in the blender

Add the coconut cream into the blender together with the avocado

After which put the mixture into a pot and wait until it is boiling

Blend the mixture until the consistency is like a wet paste.

Let the avocados cool down, then put the avocado in a fine cloth

Start extracting the oil by filtrating the avocado

Put the extracted oil in a bottle.

Variables 1. Avocado 2. Coconut Cream

References

Miller, C (2010). How The Hass Avocado Came To Be
Stradley, L (2011). All About The Avocados: History of The Hass Avocado
California Avocado Society (2010). What Kind of Fruit is the Avocado?
Gustone, F (2011). Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses http://www.thefloweringgarden.com/avocado.htm Barry,P.C (2011). Avocado: The Early Roots of Avocado History
California Avocado Society (2011). Avocado Fun Facts
Moritz, A (2010). Timeless Secrets of Health and Rejuvenation http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&d=HASHb95cc34701509b4015a0f6.6&c=fnl2.2&sib=1&dt=&ec=&et=&p.a=b&p.s=ClassifierBrowse&p.sa= Swisher, (2010).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Dried Leaves as Charcoal

...of plastic wastes materials for the production of plywood substitute II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Marang (Artocarpus ordorotissimus) peelings as hardiflex – like Ethyl alcohol from ripe banana peelings Rat killer extract from tuble roots Fuel briquettes from dried banana leaves and waste papers Coconut sheath substitute of abaca fiber Commercial glue from Talisay resin Butter derive from marang (Artocarpus odoratissima) seed Marang seeds as alternative source for commercial flour 02 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. V. Compendium of investigatory studies Basic geological concepts Maps and compass Rocks and fire Fungus Puccinia graminis as mycoherbicide 03 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. Sea cucumber (Cucumaria miniamata) as a potential source of leather Fiberglass from Apitong sap (Dipterocarpus grandiflorus) Rat killer extract from tuble roots Tetrodotoxin from bile of puffer (Sphoeroides maculates) as a potential source of stem borer pesticide V. VI. VII. VIII. Glue out of cigarette filer and acetone Roof sealant out of Styrofoam and gasoline Radical pesticide from garongin Chaetomorpha aerea a potential source of biogas 04 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Sawdust as an alternative source for corkboard Woodcraft from banana peduncle Lumber from carabao manure Herbal leaves produced herbal ointment The wonder of Cobong plant Cyperus Esculenta Cassaw-dustenta as decorative Newsaw – Casco as Décor The potential of black......

Words: 5133 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Investigatory Project

...of plastic wastes materials for the production of plywood substitute II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Marang (Artocarpus ordorotissimus) peelings as hardiflex – like Ethyl alcohol from ripe banana peelings Rat killer extract from tuble roots Fuel briquettes from dried banana leaves and waste papers Coconut sheath substitute of abaca fiber Commercial glue from Talisay resin Butter derive from marang (Artocarpus odoratissima) seed Marang seeds as alternative source for commercial flour 02 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. V. Compendium of investigatory studies Basic geological concepts Maps and compass Rocks and fire Fungus Puccinia graminis as mycoherbicide 03 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. Sea cucumber (Cucumaria miniamata) as a potential source of leather Fiberglass from Apitong sap (Dipterocarpus grandiflorus) Rat killer extract from tuble roots Tetrodotoxin from bile of puffer (Sphoeroides maculates) as a potential source of stem borer pesticide V. VI. VII. VIII. Glue out of cigarette filer and acetone Roof sealant out of Styrofoam and gasoline Radical pesticide from garongin Chaetomorpha aerea a potential source of biogas 04 Investigatory projects I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. Sawdust as an alternative source for corkboard Woodcraft from banana peduncle Lumber from carabao manure Herbal leaves produced herbal ointment The wonder of Cobong plant Cyperus Esculenta Cassaw-dustenta as decorative Newsaw – Casco as Décor The potential of black......

Words: 5133 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Hostel Management System

...Vitamin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A bottle of high potency B-complex vitamin supplement pills. A vitamin (US /ˈvaɪtəmɪn/ and UK /ˈvɪtəmɪn/) is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts.[1] An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people.[2] By convention, the term vitamin includes neither other essential nutrients, such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids (which are needed in amounts greater than are vitamins) nor the great number of other nutrients that promote health, and are required less often to maintain the health of the organism.[3] Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present. Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic......

Words: 4230 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Bangladesh Garments Export

...garment exports boom despite disasters Published July 09, 2013 AFP * In this photograph taken on June 23, 2010, Bangladeshi women sew clothes in a garment factory in Ashulia. Output from Bangladesh's accident-prone garment sector has increased in June, with demand from foreign retailers still growing despite the country's factory disaster in April. (AFP/File) DHAKA (AFP) –  Output from Bangladesh's accident-prone garment sector increased in June, data showed Tuesday, with demand from foreign retailers still growing despite the country's factory disaster in April. At least 1,129 people were killed when the Rana Plaza factory complex collapsed outside the capital Dhaka in April, sparking demonstrations against Western brands and prompting some retailers to threaten to cancel orders. Government data released on Tuesday showed that the country's total exports -- 80 percent of which come from the garment sector -- soared by 16 percent year-on-year in June to $2.7 billion, following an increase of 15 percent in May. "The disasters didn't have much impact. They are scattered incidents," head of the government's Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) Shuvhashish Bose told AFP, referring to the Rana Plaza tragedy and other factory fires that have killed another 130 workers since November. Total exports from Bangladesh, the second-biggest clothing manufacturer in the world after China, grew by 11 percent to a record $27.02 billion in the 2012-13 financial year to June. "The......

Words: 18334 - Pages: 74

Premium Essay

Student

...Instructor’s Manual to accompany Economics Sixteenth Edition Campbell R. McConnell University of Nebraska Stanley L. Brue Pacific Lutheran University Prepared by Randy Grant Linfield College Instructor’s Manual to accompany ECONOMICS Campbell R. McConnell and Stanley L. Brue Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright  2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with ECONOMICS provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Text printer code/Cover printer code 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 ISBN 0-07-288477-0 www.mhhe.com The Nature and Method of Economics CHAPTER ONE THE NATURE AND METHOD OF ECONOMICS CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter begins with a discussion of the meaning and importance of economics. In this first chapter, however, we will not plunge into problems and issues; instead we consider some important preliminaries. We first look at the economic perspective—how economists think about problems. Next, we state some of the benefits of studying economics. Then, we examine the specific...

Words: 58518 - Pages: 235

Premium Essay

Exsm

...Dear nutrition student, Thank you for inquiring about my RD/DTR study guide. And yes, there is no catch, the study guide is COMPLETELY FREE! All I ask for is some feedback. So feel free to shoot me any questions/comments! A little background: This study guide is the culmination of years of my own research. And after careful thought, I put into the study guide what I feel are the most important concepts you need to know for the RD/DTR exam. If you notice, I spent much time teaching you in detail the concepts you need to know, not just “spitting” you questions with little or no explanation. I believe this is important. I know you might be thinking “oh, how am I going to absorb and learn all this material?” I say, just read and answer the questions at your own pace. Simply test yourself and of course take some breaks along the way. Just take it one concept at a time. After you have mastered one concept, then move on to the next. I know if you study whole-heartedly what I have outlined in this study guide, you are sure to pass! GOOD LUCK! YOU CAN DO IT! ϑ Your nutrition friend, -Jonathan Brown, B.S, DTR THE “NO FLUFF” RD/DTR STUDY GUIDE *Updated as of July 2011 The “NO FLUFF” RD/DTR STUDY GUIDE Tips for taking the RD/DTR exam 1. PERIODICALLY CHECK THE CLOCK TO MAKE SURE YOU’RE GOOD ON TIME! If you wish, get a basic digital watch with a timer......

Words: 20721 - Pages: 83

Premium Essay

Cure Your Tooth

...Association Introduction 100% Real Dental Healing Testimonials Leroy from Utah Ms. Steuernol from Alberta , Canada Mike from Ashland , Oregon Pioneering Tooth Cavity Remineralization CHAPTER 1 DENTISTRY'S INABILITY TO CURE CAVITIES Reaffirm Your Choice to Cure Your Cavities The Real Cause of Cavities Remembering Your Connection Fear of the Dentist How Conventional Dentistry Works Micro-organisms Conventional Dentistry’s Losing Battle Against Bacteria The Failure of Conventional Dentistry Chapter 1 References CHAPTER 2 DENTIST WESTON PRICE DISCOVERS THE CURE Lack of Nutrition is the Cause of Physical Degeneration The Healthy People of the Loetschental Valley, Switzerland Modern Swiss were Losing Their Health The Healthy People of the Outer Hebrides Gaelics on Modern Foods are Losing Their Health Genetics and Tooth Decay Aborigines of Australia Nutritive Values of Diets Compared Fat-soluble Vitamins and Activators Mantesh Why Tooth Decay with Modern Civilization? Weston Price's Tooth Decay Curing Protocol Dr. Price's Protocol Summarized Chapter 2 References CHAPTER 3 MAKE YOUR TEETH STRONG WITH FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS How Teeth Remineralize 101 Hormones and Tooth Decay Cholesterol The Miracle of Vitamin D Vital Fat-Soluble Vitamin A Cod Liver Oil Heals Cavities Weston Price’s Activator X More Fat-Soluble Vitamin Sources: Bone Marrow, Brain, Kidneys, and Glands Organs from the Water Fat-soluble Vitamin Summary Chapter 3......

Words: 66501 - Pages: 267

Free Essay

Brain

...is intended to supplement, not replace, the advice of a trained health professional. If you know or suspect that you have a health problem, you should consult a health professional. The author and publisher specifically disclaim any liability, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, that is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of this book. Copyright © 2015 by David Perlmutter, MD All rights reserved. In accordance with the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, the scanning, uploading, and electronic sharing of any part of this book without the permission of the publisher constitute unlawful piracy and theft of the author’s intellectual property. If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior written permission must be obtained by contacting the publisher at permissions@hbgusa.com. Thank you for your support of the author’s rights. Little, Brown and Company Hachette Book Group 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104 littlebrown.com First Edition: April 2015 Little, Brown and Company is a division of Hachette Book Group, Inc. The Little, Brown name and logo are trademarks of Hachette Book Group, Inc. The publisher is not responsible for websites (or their content) that are not owned by the publisher. The Hachette Speakers Bureau...

Words: 16935 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Premium Essay

Impact of Trade on Egypt

...ATR Project SUBMITTED TO USAID/Cairo Ministry of Foreign Trade SUBMITTED BY Nathan Associates UNDER CONTRACT NO. PCE-I-00-98-00016-00 Task Order 827 2 April 2004 Contents Executive Summary Egypt’s Economy in Relation to the Global Marketplace Trade Policy and the International Trade Regime Impact of Trade Regime Changes on Subsectors Conclusions Next Steps 1. Introduction 2. Egypt’s Economy and Its Place in the Global Arena Egyptian Economy Today Structure of the Economy Labor force, Employment and Unemployment Macroeconomy and Balance of Payments Trade Patterns Macroeconomic and Trade Policy Reform Current Challenges Distinguishing Characteristics of Egypt’s Economy Water Resources and Growing Population Pressure Oil and Natural Gas Geographical Location Egyptian Culture Higher Education Socialism and Its Aftermath Egypt’s Comparative Advantage in the Global Economy Changing Global Economy Egypt’s Economy in Relation to Three Waves of Globalization Revealed Competitive Advantage Analysis v vi viii xi xiv xvi 1 5 5 5 7 8 10 12 13 14 14 16 16 16 17 18 19 19 22 25 II 3. Trade Policy and the International Trade Regime Current Trade Regime in Egypt Tariff Structure Non-tariff Barriers to Trade Multilateral, Regional, and Bilateral Agreements Multilateral Agreements Regional Agreements Bilateral Agreements Trade Regimes of Major Trading Partners Economic Impacts of Trade Agreements Anticipated Economic Effects of Trade Agreements Developing Country......

Words: 75620 - Pages: 303

Premium Essay

Strategic Management

...LCI Design Cover Designer: LCI Design Cover Art: Svetoslav Iliev/Shutterstock.com Permission Specialist: Brooks Hill-Whilton Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Senior Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Integra Printer/Binder: RRD/Willard Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color Text Font: 10/12, Times LT Std Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please...

Words: 154599 - Pages: 619

Free Essay

Mikki

...УДК 811.11136(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ-2я73 И89 Все права защищены. Никакая часть данной книги не может переиздаваться или распространяться в любой форме и любыми средствами, электронными или механическими, включая фотокопирование, звукозапись, любые запоминающие устройства и системы поиска информации, без письменного разрешения правообладателя. Серийное оформление А. М. Драгового Истомина, Е. А. И 89 Английская грамматика = English Grammar / Е. А. Истомина, А. С. Саакян. — 5-е изд., испр. и доп. — М.: Айрис-пресс, 2007. — 272 с. — (Высшее образование). ISBN 978-5-8112-2292-6 Пособие содержит базовый теоретический и практический курс грамматики современного английского языка для студентов первого и второго курсов факультетов иностранных языков. Данное учебное пособие является составной частью комплекта учебников «Практический курс английского языка» под редакцией профессора В. Д. Аракина. ББК81.2Англ-2я73 УДК811.Ш'36(075.8) ISBN978-5-8112-2292-6 © Истомина Е. А., Саакян А. С, 1980 © Айрис-пресс, 2007 СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Предисловие ....................................................................................................................... 7 Part I THEORY SYNTAX .............................................................................................................................. 8 I. Types of Sentences according to the Aim of Communication............................................ II. Types of Sentences according to Their......

Words: 106737 - Pages: 427

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Marketing Manager: Anne Fahlgren Marketing Assistant: Melinda Jensen Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Project Manager: Becca Richter Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Creative Director: Jon Christiana Senior Art Director: Blair Brown Text and Cover Designer: Blair Brown Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Bindery: Courier/Kendalville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville Text Font: Palatino Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft® and Windows® are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, One Lake Street,...

Words: 160652 - Pages: 643

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Marketing Manager: Anne Fahlgren Marketing Assistant: Melinda Jensen Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Project Manager: Becca Richter Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Creative Director: Jon Christiana Senior Art Director: Blair Brown Text and Cover Designer: Blair Brown Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Bindery: Courier/Kendalville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville Text Font: Palatino Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft® and Windows® are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, One Lake Street,...

Words: 160652 - Pages: 643

Premium Essay

Marketing Real People, Real Choices

...Marketing Manager: Anne Fahlgren Marketing Assistant: Melinda Jensen Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Project Manager: Becca Richter Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Creative Director: Jon Christiana Senior Art Director: Blair Brown Text and Cover Designer: Blair Brown Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Bindery: Courier/Kendalville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville Text Font: Palatino Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Microsoft® and Windows® are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.A. and other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.,...

Words: 227255 - Pages: 910