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Factors Affecting Academic Performance Among College Students

In: English and Literature

Submitted By krishnadingding
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An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to
The Faculty of College of Education
Bucas Grande Foundation College
Socorro, Surigao del Norte

In Partial Fulfillment
Of The Requirements for the Degree
Major In English




English, the second language in Philippines plays an important role as a means of communication in many parts of the world, and is considered important in order to absorb and develop technology, art and culture and also to maintain good relationship with foreign country. English is also the tool to communicate and interact with foreign people and international audiences. English has been acknowledged as the medium of great deal of the world’s knowledge (Crystal, 1999). In this case, the educational institution plays an important role in supporting the teaching of English. In learning English, there are four language skills that have to be mastered by learner. According Ronny (2009), we have to learn at least four language skills: (1) listening (2) speaking (3) reading (4) writing. Every aspects on the process of teaching and learning, assessing students, giving instruction, even the books are in English. That is why the students are supposed to be master in English to make them easy to understand another lesson – in this case it is Mathematics. Students have to take the time to study English before they study another lesson.
Understanding the relationship between language and mathematics learning is crucial in designing mathematics and English instruction for students who are English Learners and/or math learners. Learning mathematics requires multiple and complex linguistic skills that second language learners may not have mastered. However, English language learners are faced with some common obstacles when learning math, they typically experience difficulty understanding and therefore solving word problems, and this difficulty increases in the later grades as the word problems becomes more linguistically and conceptually complex. Difficulty with grammar, syntax, and vocabulary lays both understanding math instruction and having the ability to engage in discussions about math.
Pressley (2000) proposed that even in traditional classrooms where there may be little oral discussion, learning mathematical language involved more than learning vocabulary: words have multiple meanings, meanings depend on situations, and learning to use mathematical language requires learning when to use different meanings. Vocabulary (along with decoding) is certainly an aspect of developing reading comprehension at the word level. However, vocabulary is not sufficient for becoming a competent reader. Reading comprehension involves skills beyond the word level, such as constructing meaning from text, using meta-cognitive strategies, and participating in academic language practices.
This study considers how English proficient learners impact their achievement in mathematics in Socorro National High School. Studies of bilingual students learning mathematics focused on word problems, especially translating word problems from English to mathematical symbols. Most of these studies characterized the challenges that bilingual students faced as acquiring vocabulary or struggling with the mathematics register. Recommendations for instruction for English learners that emphasize vocabulary and reading comprehension skills reflect this focus. In contrast, current research on mathematics learning emphasizes how students construct multiple meanings, negotiate meanings through interactions with peers and teachers, and participate in mathematical communication. Although research has explored mathematical communication as a central aspect of learning mathematics in monolingual classrooms, few studies have addressed mathematical communication in bilingual classrooms.
With this, the researchers want to determine whether there is a significant correlation between English proficiency and Mathematics achievement.

Review of Related Literature Current studies examined how well English proficiency predicted mathematics scores and how well gender, socio economic status (SES), and grade level moderated the influence English proficiency on mathematics scores. Multiple regression analyses provided strong evidence of English proficiency as a strong predictor of English language learners (ELLs’) mathematics scores. This finding is consistent with Abedi and Lord’s (2004) assertion that students who read English very well achieved higher mathematics scores or that students who excel in literacy skills achieve higher mathematics scores than students who do not (Beal et al., 2010).
Additional studies (Jordan et al., 2002; Zakaria & Aziz, 2011) affirmed that English proficiency precedes mathematics proficiency, especially when the language of instruction is English. Learning the language of instruction simultaneously with mathematics content complicates English language learners (ELLs’) academic learning experiences locally and nationwide. Although boys outperformed girls in the current study, gender had no significant predictive impact on mathematics scores. Previous research (Lindberg et al., 2011; Hyde, Fennema, & Lamon, 1990) confirmed that gender influences English language learners (ELLs’) mathematics performances from elementary through high school, sometimes favoring boys and sometimes favoring girls. A more exigent concern is the fact that gender underscores students’ attitudes toward mathematics that contributes to choices in pursuing careers (Cheryan & Plaut, 2010). Boys are more likely to continue studying mathematics beyond compulsory education (Chow & Salmela-Aro, 2011; Lindberg et al., 2011). This study offers insights to improving how English language learners are taught mathematics, and more importantly removing barriers that tend to favor boys more than girls. Female students’ lower mathematics performance in this study might be linked to a combination of factors that impact all female students nationwide, but the impact is more severe on ELL females who struggle with language acquisition.
Johns, Schmander, and Martens (2005) discussed the prevalence of gender stereotypes in the area of mathematics achievement, and how the persistence of these stereotypes serves to hinder females’ performance in mathematics. At the same time, many researchers (e.g., Hyde, Fennema, & Lamon, 1990; Mason, & Scrivani, 2004; Mevarech, Silber, & Fine, 1991; Rangappa, 1993, 1994) investigating the predictors of math achievement have found that females do not perform significantly different from their male counterparts. Interestingly, although the data analyses in the present study also did not reveal any significant gender-based differences in math achievement, significant differences in student’s math self-efficacy and teacher expectations across gender do exist in the present data. While researchers such as Johns et al. (2005) suggest that math stereotypes are problematic for female students, the data in the present study revealed that teachers’ expectations of female students were significantly higher relative to their expectations of male students. This sort of discrepancy suggests the need for additional research investigating the pervasiveness and potency of math-related gender stereotypes today.
According to Garcia (2003), classroom discussions about math have been shown to deepen students’ conceptual understanding. These discussions are a critical aspect of the development of language and content, providing a setting for English language learners to negotiate meaning in daily instructional interactions. However, if the language needed to engage in these discussions is not made explicit, English language learner is less likely to benefit from mathematical discussions and can fall further behind their peers. Student’s language competencies impact their mathematical performances in a number of different contexts including word problems. Thus, educational researcher also tend to agree that language proficiency for competency is one of the most important factors influencing English language learning students’ mathematics performance (Bernardo & Calleja, 2005; Clarkson, 2007).
Reading ability, as measured with the ELS-2002 reading assessment, significantly contributed to the prediction of student math achievement scores in both the first and final model of the regression analyses. The computer-assisted instruction factor, the student’s math-self efficacy factor, and the teacher’s expectations factor to the final model significantly improved the model fit of the prediction equation. There were no significant differences found when comparing the mean reading achievement scores for females, relative to males, and the correlation of reading to math achievement was very strong. These findings are consistent with the conclusions of Rangappa (1993), Bull and Johnston (1997), and Majumder (2003) which maintain that reading ability has a direct impact on student mathematics achievement.
Secada (1992) is of the view that a lack of understanding about the role of language in mathematics instruction has led either to unreasonably high expectations for English-language learners’ achievement in situations in which they receive no linguistic support or to lowered expectations that deny equal access to mathematical skills and reasoning. The relationship between language proficiency and mathematics achievement has been documented by researchers such as De Avila and Duncan (1981), who found that the low achievement in mathematics of English-language learners (ELL) can be attributed to low levels of English proficiency. The dilemma faced by the mathematics teacher of English-language learners is this: How should mathematics be taught to make a meaningful and powerful curriculum accessible to English-language learners?
The English language learners (ELL) may have problems with mathematics language because it uses technical terms including homonyms and synonyms. The English language structures such as word order and syntax are sometimes different than the student’s native language. In addition, the teacher may be using idioms, figurative language, and regional dialects that can confuse the English language learners (ELL). When translating words literally, without regard to language context, the semantics is sometimes lost. Examples include: many different English words that imply “add,” (e.g., plus, combine, and, sum, and increase by); words with multiple meanings like “fix” or “table:” and logical connectors (e.g., therefore, consequently, if, because, and however) used in mathematical problems. Lack of English language knowledge may also result in low self-confidence. Consequently, English language learners (ELLs) sometimes have reservations about participating and interacting in class, asking questions, attempting a task, showing work, and explaining answers, due to limited vocabulary and language proficiency. One challenge they face is unknown or misunderstood vocabulary. For example, they can become confused during discussion if the mathematics vocabulary has different meanings in everyday usage, as with even, odd, and function. They also may be confused if the same mathematical operation can be signaled with variety of mathematics terms, such as add, plus, sum, and combine. A word such as left-as in “how many are left?-can be confusing when the directional meaning of the word is mostly used in everyday English. The words sum and whole also can cause confusion because they have nonmathematical homonyms (some and hole). A second obstacle is with an incomplete understanding of syntax and grammar. For example, math questions are often embedded in language that makes the problems unclear or difficult to comprehend.
Consider the following problem: Samuel bought three bags of oranges with seven oranges in each bag. How many oranges did he buy?
This word problem uses both the past and present tens of the irregular verb to buy in one question, which may cause difficulty for an English language learner, depending on the student’s English language proficiency.
Consider the following problem:
Lisa gave a total of 12 treats to her cats. She gave her large cat 2 more treats that she gave her small cat. How many treat did she give to each cat?
Here the students need to understand or figure out the meanings of words such as total and treats. They also need to understand words that convey a mathematical relationship such as more…than. In addition, students need to infer that Lisa has only two cats.
The challenge for teachers is to focus on math concepts and the academic language that is specific to mathematics. Teachers must be cognizant of the linguistic demands of their lessons and how they will address those demands explicitly during instruction so that English language learners (ELLs) can fully participate.
According to Valdez and Figuroa (1994) “knowing a language and knowing how to use a language involves a mastery and control of a large number of independent components and element that interact with one another and that are affected by the nature of the situation in which communication takes place”. Besides English proficiency in relation to many variables, English success has been studied in correlation with some other subjects. For example; if a student is good at math, s\he tends to be successful in physics or chemistry. Starting from this point and based on observations, an interest in the possible relationship between success in English as a foreign language learning and mathematics emerged. Chipman(1988) and Secada(1992) states that language proficiency plays a role in mathematics achievement. However, English is not the only language studied in relation to Math success. There are also studies investigating the relationship between other languages as a second language and math success.
Much research has been done dealing with the relationship between language skills and success in mathematics. Therefore, this study is centered on the notion that overall language proficiency could have an effect on math success because the medium of instruction in some institution is English. For example, Maleki & Zangani (2007)pointed out that having difficulties fully grasping the contents and concepts of the course given in the largest language, which is English, seems to be one of the most serious problems that students face in their particular course of study. This might be due to their weaknesses in general English, which may have a drastic impact on their academic success.
Many educators share the misconception that because it uses symbols, mathematics is not associated with any language or culture and are ideal for facilitating the transition of recent immigrant students into English instruction (Garrison 1997). To the contrary, language plays an important role in learning mathematics. Teachers use language to explain mathematical concepts and carry out math procedures. While solving problems in mathematics, we often use specialized technical vocabulary (addition, subtraction, addened, sum). And researchers of mathematical learning have found that students can deepen their understanding of mathematics by using language to communicate and reflect on their ideas and cement their understandings. Classroom talk can cause misconceptions to surface, helping teachers recognize what students do and do not understand. When students talk about their mathematical thinking, it can help them improve their ability to reason logically (Chapin and Jhonson 2006). Research in multilingual settings has identified language as a vehicle for mathematics learning as important areas of investigation (Gorgorió & Planas, 2001). Research on bilingualism and mathematics learning (see Secada, 1992, for a review) shows a significant relationship between language and mathematics learning.
Douglas (2000) proposes a model in which strategic competence mediates between background knowledge and linguistic competence. Strategic competence has two parts: meta-cognitive strategies and communication strategies. Communication strategies are those that bring relevant content knowledge to the linguistic task at the right time in the right way. This can easily be re-interpreted as bringing relevant linguistic knowledge to the mathematical task.
A register is a set of meanings that is appropriate to a particular function of language, together with the words and structures which express these meanings. We can refer to the “mathematics register,” in the sense of the meanings that belong to the language of mathematics (the mathematical use of natural language, that is: not mathematics itself), and that a language must express if it is being used for mathematical purposes.
A register is a language variety associated with a particular situation of use. Common examples of registers include legal talk and baby talk. The notion of register includes not only lexical items but also phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics as well as non-linguistic behavior. The notion of register thus involves aspects of the situation. From this perspective, since there are multiple meanings for the same term, students who are learning mathematics are learning to use these different meanings appropriately in different situations.
In today’s mathematics classrooms, students must deal with communication demands (oral and written) that require participation in mathematical practices such as explaining solution processing making and describing conjectures, proving conclusions and presenting arguments and justifications. These processes are in addition to those related to acquiring technical vocabulary, developing comprehension skills necessary to read and understand various mathematics texts, or in solving ‘word’ problems (Moschkovich, 2002).

Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to determine the level of correlation between English and mathematical learning achievement by grade 10 students in Socorro National High School in school year 2015-2016.
Specifically, the study will answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents with regards to: 2.1 Age; 2.2 Sex; 2. What is the level of learning performance among grade 10 students in terms of:
2.1Test in English
2.2 GPA Math & English 3. Is there significant relationship between the learning achievement of the grade 10 students between math and English?

Ho1: Is there significant relationship between the learning performance of mathematics and English among fourth year students?
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the learning performance of mathematics and English among fourth year students?

Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be significant in the field of English and mathematics subject in secondary schools. The structure that could be established as a result of this study would also be practical in determining the problems in the field of other subjects. Specifically this will bring benefit to the following: School administrators. The findings of this study would provide the ministry of education with some useful information which would make them appreciate the need to work out effective means of providing vocabulary skills in assessing students to achieve learning proficiency of English and mathematics subjects for secondary schools in Socorro. English\mathematics teachers. The development of this study helped teachers to increase their awareness, and to give them strategies, to support students in their learning performance. The findings of this research would provide English and mathematics teachers with some useful information that would help them see the need for effective utilization of appropriate strategy in the teaching-learning process. Students. Students would also benefit from the findings of the study as to help them determine and increase their awareness of the factors affecting English and mathematics proficiency or low achievement. Future researchers. This study will serve as a valuable reference for further investigations that will enable future researchers to enhance their enthusiasm and interest in the different dimensions of research work.

Scope and Limitation
This study was undertaken to better understand the relationship between English subject and mathematics learning for both groups of students. We will be interested in exploring the extent of any difficulties in learning mathematics attributable to low proficiency in English language. The participants of the study will be the grade 10 students of the Socorro National high school. This will be conducted by the researchers during the school year 2015-2016.

Conceptual Framework
Several studies have indicated that the language problem is one of the major factors contributing toward the poor performance of many students in mathematics; especially those who are bilingual and multilingual (Secada, 1992; Barton & Barton, 2003). However, there have been few studies dealing purely with the potential relationship between success in English as a foreign language and mathematics.
Since the production of mathematical knowledge, for example, involves participation and negotiation of meaning within a community of practice, it then means that the use of language as a communicative tool is integral to the process of mathematical enquiry (Siegel & Borasi, 1994). For the socio-cultural view of learning, therefore, language is essential for participation in a community of practice. The use of this term in this study resonates with the understanding of this term as defined by Kilpatrick, Swafford & Findell (2001) Essien & Setati. Language allows meanings to be constantly negotiated and renegotiated by members of a mathematics community – except for the mathematics register which has a fixed meaning across contexts (Brown et al; Cole and Engestrom, in Chernobilsky et al, 2004).
The framework of the study is illustrated in the schematic diagram of the study (Figure 1). The profile of the respondents will be determined in terms of age and sex. Age and sex are taken into consideration due to their varying perception based on their level of maturity and gender. The second and the third box reflect the learning proficiency in English and learning achievement in Mathematics.

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study

Learning achievement in Mathematics

* Teacher-made test * GPA
Learning Achievement in English * Teacher- made test * GPA

Chapter II
Research Design
This study is classified into descriptive research and for more specific, the researcher used correlation study. It will be used to indicate and determine the relationship between two pairs of scores. It attempts to investigate correlation between two variables –language proficiency in English and mathematics achievement. Respondents and Sampling Design
The respondents of the study were all sections of grade 10 students of Socorro National High School. This study is classified as stratified random sampling wherein all grade 10 students with their grades in English and Mathematics subject was the respondents of the study.

Data Gathering Procedure A letter was sent to the school principal to ask authorization to allow the researchers to conduct the study. Upon the approval, the researchers personally gathered the respondent’s 9th grade grade points average (GPA’s) in English and math subject of the grade 10 students in Socorro National High School and conduct their questioners twice. After data was being collected, the researchers tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted for evaluation.

Statistical Analysis
With the hypothesis being advanced, the following statistical treatments was being employed:
Frequency and Percentage Count. These tools will be used to determine the participants’ profile cited in problem 1.
Mean and Standard Deviation. These tools will be used to determine the perceived effects of using equipment and materials in teaching in terms of acquisition of knowledge, enhancement of skills and technological advancement.
Correlation. These tool will be used to determine the relationship between the two variables.

r value was then analyzed in reference to correlation interpretation below An r from 0 – 0.19 weak correlation | An r from 0.20 – 0.41 slight correlation | An r from 0.41 - 0.60 moderate correlation | An r from 0.61 – 0.80 strong correlation | An r from 0.81 – 1.0 very strong correlation |



The study assesses the correlation analysis between English proficiency and mathematics achievement among grade 10 students in Socorro National High School.
Specifically, the study will answer the following questions:
Problem no.1 Distribution of Participants as to age and sex. Profile | Variables | Frequency | Percentage | Age | 18 years old | 34 | 13 % | | 17 years old | 72 | 28% | | 16 years old | 90 | 35% | | 15 years old | 62 | 24% | | Total | 258 | 100% | Sex | Male | 122 | 47% | | Female | 136 | 53% | | Total | 80 | 100% |

In Table no.1 The age of the respondents among the Grade 10 students have divided into 4 categories. The dominant percentage at age of 16 rose up to 35%, while the second of the highest percentage is at the age of 17 which have 28%. For the age of 15 it rose up to 24% followed by the 13% of the total number of the students who are at age of 18. The dominant number in terms of sex deviation as presented in the table above is the female. It has 53% among the 258 respondents. The male percentage got only 47%.
2. What is the level of learning achievement among grade 10 students in terms of;
2.1 Test in English ACTIVITY 1 | Scores | Level | Frequency | Percentage | 16-20 | High Proficient | 6 | 2% | 11-15 | Proficient | 130 | 50% | 6-10 | Low Proficient | 112 | 44% | 1-5 | Very Low Proficient | 10 | 4% | Total | | 258 | 100% |

ACTIVITY 2 | Scores | Level | Frequency | Percentage | 16-20 | High Proficient | 9 | 3% | 15-Nov | Proficient | 143 | 55% | 10-Jun | Low Proficient | 102 | 40% | 5-Jan | Very Low Proficient | 4 | 2% | Total | | 258 | 100% |

2.2 GPA English & Math GPA in English | LEVEL | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | 91-95 | Advanced | 15 | 6% | 86-90 | Proficient | 89 | 34% | 81-85 | Approaching to proficient | 83 | 32% | 76-80 | Beginning | 41 | 16% | 70-75 | Developing | 30 | 12% | TOTAL | | 258 | 100% |

In Table no. 2, the GPA of the respondents in English during Grade 9 is presented. The students who have 70-75 got a percentage of 12%. The students who have 76-80 reached out up to 16% followed by 81-85 got a percentage of 32%. The dominant percentage is for those who got 86-90 that rose up to 34%. And the remaining, 91-95 took a percentage of 6%.

GPA in Math | LEVEL | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | 91-95 | Advanced | 3 | 1% | 86-90 | Proficient | 41 | 16% | 81-85 | Approaching to proficient | 108 | 42% | 76-80 | Beginning | 67 | 26% | 70-75 | Developing | 39 | 15% | TOTAL | | 258 | 100% |

In Table no. 3 most of the grade 10 students in Socorro National High School have GPA in Mathematics between 70-75 (15%), followed by GPA between 76-80 (26%), GPA between 81-85 (42%), GPA between 86-90 (16%), and GPA between 91-95 (1%).

3. Is there significant relationship between the learning performance of mathematics and English proficiency among grade 10 students?

Table 3.1 GPA in English and Math

Variable | Pearson r value | Provable value | Findings | GPA in English | 0.63871 | 5.64E-31 | There is strong relationship | GPA in Math | | | |

Pearson r correlation showed that in general, average English proficiency is strongly related to the learning performance of mathematics (r=0.63871, p=5.6397E-31). This includes the grades of the low and proficient learners. This means that based on the general scores of the respondents, students performed in math because most of them have background in English.

Table 3.2 Test in English Variable | Pearson r value | Provable value | Findings | avtivity_1 | 0.17918 | 0.003883 | There is a weak relationship | activity_2 | | | |

Chapter IV
Summary, conclusions and recommendations
This chapter deals with the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.

This study deals with the correlation analysis of English proficiency to the mathematics performance of the students of Socorro National High School, the existing profile of the students, English proficiency and mathematics performance were the primary concerns of this study. The research design employed in the study was descriptive design. The participants of the study were two hundred fifty eight Grade 10 students enrolled in the academic year 2015. The instrument used was a researcher-made questionnaire which was validated by the expert. The statistical tools were Frequency and Percentage Count and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient.
1. Based on the data of this study, the dominant age of Grade 10 students were 17 below (35%), there were more females (53%) than males (47%).
2. Based on the student’s GPA in English and math, there was a significant relationship found between English proficiency and the mathematics performance of the students of grade 10 since the correlation value obtained 0.6 which denoted a moderate relationship. Though there is significance, the ratings of their grade are based on the over-all performance of their English and math subject. meaning, there are other factors that contributes their grades.
3. The level of learning performance of the grade 10 respondents of both English vocabulary and Math comprehension is low or slightly proficient wherein 56% of the respondents in English proficiency and 57% respondents of mathematics comprehension were under this level. This means that most of the respondents have slight proficiency in English basic enough to perform math comprehension test.
4. Results revealed that respondents with 86 above grades which belongs to the proficient and highly proficient learners in English has no significant relationship to the learning performance of mathematics (r=0.4821, p=2.5189E-07<0.05). It means that English proficiency is not the only factor that affects learners in performing mathematics achievement.

1. Based on the interpretation of the data, there is no significant relationship between English proficiency and mathematics achievement. Therefore, in this study we accept the null hypothesis and rejected the alternative.
2. Students who have arithmetic ability can perform well in math regardless of their proficiency in English.
3. The student’s GPA in English and math, results a significant relationship between English proficiency and mathematics performance (r=0.63871, p=5.6397E-31) of the students of grade 10 since the correlation value obtained 0.6 which reveals that there is a moderate relationship. However the ratings of their grade are based on the over-all performance of English and math subject. It means that there are other factors that contribute the grades of the students. Furthermore, proficiency in English is not the only criteria of their grades.
4. Since the GPA of English and Math results a moderate correlation, it could be concluded that learners still need knowledge in English basic enough to perform math since most of them are under the level of approaching to proficient or proficient learners. Although there is a moderate level of correlation between the two variables (GPA in English and math), it is not enough evidence to jump into conclusions that being able to do Mathematics causes you to be able to do English or vice versa. There may be other variables, such as intelligence/mental ability, which cause the relationship between the two variables.
On the basis of the findings obtained in the study, the following recommendations were made: 1. Since the result of English vocabulary and math comprehension is weak. Researchers suggest giving more emphasis on English subject in order for students to have more understanding in English language in the sense that it is the medium of instruction in math subject
2. Grade 10 English teachers should attend seminars and workshops to develop their competency in effective teaching vocabulary and comprehension to the students.

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Bucas Grande Foundation College
Taruc, Socorro Surigao del Norte

August 20, 2015
Socorro National High School
Socorro, Surigao del Norte


Good day! We, Crisna D. Dingding and Jesiryl V. Piedad, Fourth Year college student of Bucas Grande Foundation College, conducting a research study entitled “CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AND MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT OF THE GRADE 10 STUDENTS AT SOCORRO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL S.Y 2015-201” in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor in Secondary Education.

In line with this, we would like to request permission from your good office to allow us to gather the grades in English and Mathematics of the grade 10 students. Thank you so much for your kind assistance.

Respectfully yours, CRISNA D. DINGDING Researcher


Approved by: PEDRITO G. CUBILLANES School Principal IV Survey Questionnaire of the Participants Socorro National High School Brgy. Taruc, Socorro, Surigao del Norte

Name: _________________ Age: ______
Grade in Math last year: _____ Sex: (F) ____ (M) ____
Grade in English last year: _____ Activity 1

Test-I- Choose the appropriate word in the sentence.

1. The ________ union president differs from the past union president on employee reform issues. a. talkative b. accomplished c. artificial d. incumbent 2. The suit had a/an ________ odor, as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. a. aged b. scented c. musty d. decrepit 3. We knew everything about the newest member of our group; she was very ________. a. expressive b. secretive c. reserved d. artistic 4. If your drinking water is not ________, it could cause serious health problems. a. valid b. quenchable c. impure d. potable 5. After running an early 5K race, Simone ________ devoured a hearty breakfast. a. dynamically b. voraciously c. generously d. beneficially

Test-I-B: Choose the answer choice that does NOT express a correct, complete sentence. (GRAMMAR)

6. a. Manuel wanted to complete all of his courses so he could get his degree.
b. She couldn’t believe the premise of the story.
c. The train leaving the station.
d. no mistakes

7. a. At the end of the day, they hoped to be finished with all tasks.
b. When will you teach me how to cook like you do?
c. I can’t wait Janet can’t either.
d. no mistakes

8. a. The medieval literature class was very interesting.
b. The children in the park, including all of the girls on the swings.
c. Christina is an excellent elementary school teacher.
d. no mistakes

9. a. Sandra Day O’Connor was the first woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
b. We visited the presidential library of Lyndon B. Johnson.
c. I saw Dr. Sultana because Dr. Das was on vacation.
d. no mistakes

10. a. What is the best route to Philadelphia?
b. The artichokes cost more than the asparagus does.
c. Turn off the television it’s time for dinner!
d. no mistakes

Test-I-C: Choose the correct synonyms

11. A synonym for vast is a. attentive. b. immense. c. steady. d. slight. 12. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. adamant. b. available. c. cheerful. d. b. eager. 13. A synonym for adequate is a. sufficient. b. mediocre. c. proficient. d. average. 14. A synonym for comply is a. subdue. b. entertain. c. flatter. d. obey. 15. An synonym for uniform is a. dissembling. b. diverse. c. bizarre. d. Slovenly
Test-I-D: In each of the following questions, choose the correctly spelled word.

16. It is my ________ that municipal employees handle their jobs with great professionalism.
a. beleif
b. bilief
c. belief
d. beleaf
17. The accounting firm was ________ for fraudulent practices.
a. prosecuted
b. prossecuted
c. prosecutted
d. prosecuited
18. Every ________ has to be handled differently.
a. sittuation
b. situation
c. situachun
d. sitiation
19. It was a ________day for the department’s annual picnic.
a. superb
b. supperb
c. supurb
d. sepurb
20. To be elected ________, candidates must have a solid background in law enforcement.
a. sherrif
b. sherriff
c. sherif
d. sheriff


1. A salesman sold twice as much pears in the afternoon than in the morning. If he sold 360 kilograms of pears that day, how many kilograms did he sell in the morning and how many in the afternoon? a. 120, 240 c. 120, 250 b. 125, 110 d. 125, 120 2. The distance between two towns is 380 km. At the same moment, a passenger car and a truck start moving towards each other from different towns. They meet 4 hours later. If the car drives 5 km/hr faster than the truck, what are their speeds? a. 45 km/hr, 50 km hr c. 35 km/ hr, 45 km/hr b. 50 km /hr, 35 km/ hr d. 65 km/hr, 65 km/hr 3. There are 24 students in a seventh grade class. They decided to plant birches and roses at the school's backyard. While each girl planted 3 roses, every three boys planted 1 birch. By the end of the day they planted 24 plants. How many birches and roses were planted? a. 6 roses, 10 birches c. 10 roses, 18 birches b. 18 roses, 6 birches d. 18 roses, 6 birches 4. Mary, Peter, and Lucy were picking chestnuts. Mary picked twice as much chestnuts than Peter. Boris picked 2 kg more than Peter. Together the three of them picked 26 kg of chestnuts. How much is the total kilograms that they pick? a. 15 c. 23 b. 26 d. 27 5. The distance between towns A and B is 300 km. One train departs from town A and another train departs from town B, both leaving at the same moment of time and heading towards each other. We know that one of them is 10 km/hr faster than the other. Find the speeds of both trains if 2 hours after their departure the distance between them is 40 km. 6. A student chose a number, multiplied it by 2, then subtracted 138 from the result and got 102. What was the number he chose? a. 240 c. 100 b. 120 d. 130 7. To deliver an order on time, a company has to make 25 parts a day. After making 25 parts per day for 3 days, the company started to produce 5 more parts per day, and by the last day of work 100 more parts than planned were produced. Find how many parts the company made. a. 10 c. 23 b. 15 d.25 8. A woodworker normally makes a certain number of parts in 24 days. But he was able to increase his productivity by 5 parts per day, and so he not only finished the job in only 22 days but also he made 80 extra parts. How many parts does the woodworker normally makes per day? a. 10 c. 25 b. 20 d. 15 9. Sophia finished 23 of a book. She calculated that she finished 90 more pages than she has yet to read. How long is her book? a. 100 c. 190 b. 265 d. 270 10. A farming field can be ploughed by 6 tractors in 4 days. When 6 tractors work together, each of them ploughs 120 hectares a day. If two of the tractors were moved to another field, then the remaining 4 tractors could plough the same field in 5 days. How many hectares a day would one tractor plough then? a. 110 c. 144 b. 135 d. 140 11. I chose a number and divide it by 5. Then I subtracted 154 from the result and got 6. What was the number I chose? a. 500 c. 650 b. 800 d. 700 12. Susan drives from city A to city B. After two hours of driving she noticed that she covered 80 km and calculated that, if she continued driving at the same speed, she would end up been 15 minutes late. So she increased her speed by 10 km/hr and she arrived at city B 36 minutes earlier than she planned.
Find the distance between cities A and B. a. 250 c. 245 b. 230 d. 200 13. In a certain college, 40% of the senior class students is taking Physics, 30% is taking calculus and 10% is taking both. If 40 students are enrolled in the senior class, how many students are taking neither Physics nor calculus? a. 16 c. 14 b. 15 d. 13 14. Find the cost of making 154 copies at $0.07 per page. a. 10.78 c. 11.78 b. 10.76 d. 11.76 15. In a state lottery, 8 people divided a prize of $20,510.40. how much was each person share? a. $2563.80 c. $4536.80 b. $2463.80 d. $2445.65 16. One number is 8 more than another number. The sum of the two numbers is 114. Find the numbers. a. 63, 51 c. 56, 53 b. 53,61 d. 45,54 17. A carpenter cuts a board of 72 inches long into pieces. One piece is twicw as long as the other. Find the total lengths of the piece. a. 56 c. 67 b. 72 d. 75 18. If it takes 16 yards of material to make 3 costumes of a certain size, how much material will be needed to make 8 costumes of that same size? a. 42.3 yards c. 42.6 ounce b. 42.6 yard d. 42.6 litter 19. An automobile travels 176 miles on 8 gallons of gasoline. How far can it go on a tank full of gasoline if the tank holds 14 gallons? a. 250 miles c. 360 miles b. 355 miles d. 400 miles 20. During the month of November, it snowed on six occasions. The amounts were 2.1 in., 1.87 in., 0.3 in., 0.95 in., and 1.95 in. Find the total amount of snow during November. a. 9.3 in c. 8.37 in b. 7.39 in d. 6 in

Survey Questionnaire of the Participants Socorro National High School Brgy. Taruc, Socorro, Surigao del Norte

Name: _________________ Age: ______
Grade in Math last year: _____ Sex: (F) ____ (M) ____
Grade in English last year: _____ Activity 2

Test I.A Directions: Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

1. Every morning I go to the window and open the curtains to let in the
a. fresh air b. light c. darkness d. afternoon sun
2. Ali bought a computer that stopped working within a month, so he
a. broke it b. found it c. returned it d. stored it.
3. During class, one of the students tried to answer a question without raising his hand, so the teacher didn't
a. call on him b. reach him c. call him up d. raise his finger
4. Vanessa has an old cell phone that she doesn't want to _________ any more.
a. sell b. call c. new d. use
5. The best way to keep your plants healthy is to keep them watered and provide them with plenty of
a. roots b. oxygen c. sunlight d. room to flower

Test I.B: Circle the letter of the phrase that best explains the boldfaced word.

6. If you are looking for solitude, you are probably in need of ______.
a. good reading material that will keep you amused
b. a secluded place where you can have peace and quiet
c. a low calorie but nutritious meal
d. a crowded dance floor where you can show off your moves
7. If you purchase a biennial magazine subscription as a gift, you can expect that ______.
a. the magazine will probably go out of business in a few months
b. the price will go up when it is time for renewal
c. the recipient will receive the magazine twice a year
d. the recipient will receive the magazine for two years

8. Clothes that constrict your body during hot weather are not advisable because they ______.
a. bind or squeeze
b. are too big
c. are too colorful
d. absorb too much perspiration
9. People who lose themselves in reverie are said to be ______.
a. unaware of responsibility
b. unbalanced and overly emotional
c. daydreamers
d. gluttons for punishment
10. Bilingual books are helpful to someone learning a new language because they ______.
a. are written in two languages
b. have study questions that cover all the material
c. have exciting plots and believable characters
d. follow a magazine format with many pictures and little writing

Test I.C: Circle the letter of the word that has the same meaning as the boldfaced word or phrase.
11. sequence of events
a. torsion b. chronology c. traction d. brink
12. disgraceful
a. infamous b. interlaced c. intermittent d. protracted
13. muffled
a. precipitous b. protracted c. muted d. interlaced
14. question
a. retort b. obliterate c. interject d. interrogate
15. extended
a. subtle b. muted c. protracted d. infamous

Test I.D: Pick up the correct word inside the box.

anachronism euthanasia hypodermic psychopathanthropomorphic genealogy periphery traumaticdehydration hierarchy |

1. Phery is a Greek root meaning “carry.” Peri- is a Greek prefix meaning “around.” Periphery probably means
2. Trauma is a Greek root meaning “wound.” Traumatic probably means
3. Chronos is a Greek root meaning “time.” Ana- is a Greek prefix meaning “back.” A Greek suffix that creates a noun is -ism. Anachronism probably means .
4. Thanatos or thana is a Greek root meaning “death.” Eu- is a Greek prefix meaning “good” or “well.”
Euthanasia probably means .
5. Genea is a Greek root meaning “race” or “ancestors.” A Greek root meaning “word” or “knowledge of” is.


1. Joel repacks a 60 kg of sack into small packs of 750g. How many small packs can be made?
a. 80 b. 90 c. 45 d. 50 2. If a car travels 96 miles on 8 liters of gas, how far can the car travel on a full tank of gas that holds 20 liters?
a. 240 b.235 c. 245 d. 230 3. An employee earning P 9000 a month will receive a 15% increase next month. How much will his/her new salary be?
A. P 10,580 b. P10,560 c. P 11,000 d. P11,001 4. Kheza is 16 years old than Jerra. If their age is combined, th total is 5. How old is Jerra?
a.18 b. 20 c.21 d. 28 5. The product of 2 whole numbers is 36, and their ratio is 1:4. Which of these is the smaller number?
a. 2 b. 3 c. 5 d. 4 6. The first day of June is Thursday. What will it be on June 30.
a. Thursday b. Friday c. Monday d. Tuesday 7. In a certain school, the ratio of boys to girls is 3:7. If there are 150 boys and girls in the school, how many boys are there?
a.35 b.40 c.45 d.20 8. If a certain job can be finished by 18 workers in 26 days. How many workers are needed to finish the job 12 days?
a. 46 b.32 c.39 d.35 9. A senior class of 50 girls and 70 boys sponsored a dance. If 40% of the girls and 50% of the boys attended the dance approximately what percent attended?
a.50 b. 45 c.43 d.46 10. Kara brought $23 with her when she went shopping. She spent $3.27 for lunch and $14.98 on a shirt. How much money does she have left?
a.3.45 b.4.25 c.4.46 d.4.75 11. Millie purchased six bottles of soda at $1.15 each. How much did she pay?
a. 4.8 b.3.78 c.5.90 d.6.9 12. Luis runs at a rate of 11.7 feet per second. How far does he run in 5 seconds?
a. 56.8 ft b.45 ft c.50 ft d.58.5 ft 13. Bikes are on sale for 30% off the original price. What percent of the original price will the costumer pay if he gets the bikes at the sale price?
a.50% b.55% c.65% d.70% 14. The 6% sales tax on a basket was $0.72. What was the price of the basket?
a.$12 b.$15 c.$20 d.$10 15. A factory that is working at 90% capacity is shipping 450 cars per week. If the factory works at 100% capacity, how many cars can it ship per week?
a. 400 b.500 c.450 d.550 16. Tami’s new printer can print 13.5 pages a minute. How many pages can it print in 4 minutes?
a. 50 b.51 c.54 d.55 17. Mary made 54 copies at the local office supply store. The copies cost $0.06 each. What was the total cost of the copies?
a. 3.24 b.3.22 c. 3.20 d.3.23 18. Rebbecca is 12.5% taller than Debbie. Debbie is 64 inches tall. How tall is Rebbeca?
a. 8 inches b. 42 inches c. 57 inches d.72 inches 19. A printer that sells for $190 is on sale for 15% off. What is the sale price of the printer?
a. $161.50 b. $172.00 c.$140.50 d.$155.50 20. Kyra receives a 5% commission on every car she sells. She received a $1,325 commission on the last car she told. What was the cost of the car?
a.$26,500 b.$6.25 c.$27,825 d.$1,250

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Factors Affecting Academic Performance of First Year College Students of the Divine Word College of Bangued First Semester 2010-2011

...FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FIRST YEAR COLLEGE STUDENTS OF THE DIVINE WORD COLLEGE OF BANGUED FIRST SEMESTER 2010-2011 Mary B. Gallardo,MST-Math, Alfreinell S. Castillo, BSC, Jessie T. Sibayan, AB, Marianito T. Taeza, AB, and G. Regil D.Valera, BSCE Registrar’s Office, Divine Word College of Bangued June 1, 2011. The objective of this study was to examine factors such as age, gender, high school graduated from, and Grade Point Average (GPA) in fourth year and to identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students based on academic performance. A survey was made from the available data at the Registrar’s Office. The researchers looked into the records of the first year students of the degree programs namely: Bachelor of Elementary Education (N= 37), Bachelor of Secondary Education (N= 20), Bachelor in Business Administration (N= 53), Bachelor of Science in Nursing (N= 30), and Bachelor of Science in Accountancy (N= 35) a total of 175 subjects. In this particular research, age, school graduated from and gender did not affect academic performance in college among the first year BEEd, BSEd, BSBA, BSAc and BSN students of the Divine Word College of Bangued during the first semester 2010-2011. Academic performance was significantly associated with the grade point average in high school. Introduction. Learning is a lifetime process. Continues learning equips an individual as a student with a larger tapestry of knowledge,......

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