Premium Essay

Factors Affecting Luxury Item Expenditure Among University Students of the American University in Cairo

In: Social Issues

Submitted By yabugharieb
Words 4992
Pages 20
Luxury items Expenditure
Expenditure

Running Head: Luxury items Expenditure

Factors affecting Luxury Items Expenditure among
University Students of The American University in Cairo

Yousef Abu Gharieb
RHET 201

1

Luxury items Expenditure
Expenditure

To My Parents whom without, I wouldn’t be the man I am today. 2

Luxury items Expenditure

Acknowledgment

Expenditure

I would like to greatly thank Sara Azlw for her full support in writing this paper. I would also like to show my gratitude to Dr. Fikry Boutros who has been a constantly motivating me while writing this paper and wouldn’t have gotten far if it wasn’t for his support.

3

Luxury items Expenditure

Table of Contents

Expenditure

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ....................................................................................................................3
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................5
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................6
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: ...................................................................................................................... 6
RESEARCH QUESTION: .............................................................................................................................. 7
HYPOTHESIS: .......................................................................................................................................... 7
LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................8
METHODOLOGY......................................................................................................................... 15
ETHICAL...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Subsidies Food

...On Bread and Circuses: Food Subsidy Reform and Popular Opposition in Egypt Ram Sachs Advisor: Professor Lisa Blaydes Center for International Security and Cooperation Stanford University May 21, 2012 ii Abstract In January 1977, Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat faced tremendous public protest after implementing relatively small changes to the country’s food subsidy regime. In contrast, during the 1980s, and more aggressively in the 1990s, the government of Hosni Mubarak implemented more consequential reductions to subsidies on core food items while avoiding popular protest on a similar scale. I argue that the Mubarak regime engaged in covert price increases, distribution controls, temporary policy reversals, and repression, which allowed it to successfully reduce food subsidies without igniting regime-threatening public opposition during this period. Following the January 2011 revolution, further reform efforts are unlikely as the transitional democratic politics and the increased number of political participants will block change in the short term. iii iv Acknowledgements This thesis has served to unite my academic experience at Stanford. Four years of preparation, and the past year of writing, have produced this exploration of food, politics, and the Middle East. The CISAC Honors Program has provided a fantastic interdisciplinary home for this pursuit. I am thankful to Professors Blacker and Crenshaw for their guidance in this yearlong process.......

Words: 24159 - Pages: 97

Premium Essay

Economics Magazine: S.G.T.B. Khalsa College

...THE YEAR THAT WAS(2011-12) In a year marked by mass protests, the awakening that swept the Arab world stood out. The Arab spring was sparked by rallies in Tunisia that followed the self-immolation in late 2010 of a young market worker angered by police harassment. He died in hospital in January, prompting thousands to take to the streets in sometimes violent clashes that forced the long-time president, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, to flee to Saudi Arabia. Emboldened by the outcome in Tunisia, protesters soon rose up in other Arab countries. Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians filled the centre of Cairo and camped in Tahrir Square to call for Hosni Mubarak to step down. After three decades in power, Mr Mubarak withstood only three weeks of strife. Although frail, he eventually stood trial (due to resume soon) for the deaths that occurred when his security forces tried to quash the protests. Elsewhere, Yemen’s president fled in June and eventually signed a transition deal to end his 33-year reign; Saudi troops helped to put down unrest in Bahrain; and reform was embraced in Morocco and Jordan. But the Arab spring was met with stiff resistance in Syria, where protests were brutally put down by Bashar Assad’s regime, resulting in over 7,000 deaths so far. In Libya Muammar Qaddafi caused a civil war after he tried to crush an opposition movement that spread from Benghazi. NATO aircraft enforced a no-fly zone, endorsed by the Arab League, in support of the rebels. After a summer of......

Words: 25883 - Pages: 104

Premium Essay

Marketing Real People, Real Choices

...c MARKETING 7E People real Choices This page intentionally left blank MARKETING 7E People real Choices Michael R. SAINT JOSEPH S SOLOMON ’ U OLLINS NIVERSITY Greg W. MARSHALL R C STUART OLLEGE Elnora W. THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA UPSTATE Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Editor in Chief: Eric Svendsen Acquisitions Editor: Melissa Sabella Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Editorial Project Manager: Kierra Bloom Editorial Assistant: Elisabeth Scarpa Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Anne Fahlgren Marketing Assistant: Melinda Jensen Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Project Manager: Becca Richter Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Creative Director: Jon Christiana Senior Art Director: Blair Brown Text and Cover Designer: Blair Brown Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Bindery: Courier/Kendalville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville Text Font: Palatino Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this......

Words: 227255 - Pages: 910

Premium Essay

Strategic Analysis for Etihad Airlines

...ETIHAD AIRWAYS Assignment I Contents INTRODUCTION 2 BACKGROUND 3 ETIHAD’S CORE VALUES 4 COMMITMENT 4 VISION AND MISSION 5 HISTORY 6 LOYALTY PROGRAM 6 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE 9 FINANCIAL POSITION 9 FINANCING ACTIVITIES 11 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 11 GENERAL ENVIRONMENT 12 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 41 INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 44 1. Porter's 5 forces model 44 COMPETITOR ANALYSIS 65 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 68 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 90 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 92 IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTS THAT ETIHAD NEEDS TO BE AWARE OF: 108 ARE THE VISIONS AND MISSIONS CLEAR AND MEASURABLE? 110 REFERENCES 111 INTRODUCTION Strategic management is the comprehensive collection of ongoing activities and processes that organizations use to systematically coordinate and align resources and actions with mission, vision and strategy throughout an organization. Strategic management activities transform the static plan into a system that provides strategic performance feedback to decision making and enables the plan to evolve and grow as requirements and other circumstances change (Dess, Gregory G., G.T. Lumpkin and Marilyn L. Taylor, 2005). Our group decided to work upon Etihad Airways, the flag carrier airline for United Arab Emirates. The name ‘Etihad’ is derived from an Arabic word which means ‘union’. In addition to its main activity of passenger transportation, Etihad controls Etihad cargo and holidays. Aside from that, they have stakes in many other......

Words: 32010 - Pages: 129

Premium Essay

Debating the Merits of Globalization

...GLOBALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: Changing International Structures, Adaptive Strategies, and the Impact on Institutions This page intentionally left blank GLOBALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: Changing International Structures, Adaptive Strategies, and the Impact on Institutions Report of the AACSB International Globalization of Management Education Task Force AACSB International – The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business 777 South Harbour Island Boulevard Suite 750 Tampa, Florida 33602-5730 USA Tel: + 1-813-769-6500 Fax: + 1-813-769-6559 www.aacsb.edu United Kingdom  North America  Japan India  Malaysia  China Emerald Group Publishing Limited Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK First edition 2011 Copyright r 2011 AACSB International. Reprints and permission service Contact: booksandseries@emeraldinsight.com No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the copyright holder or a license permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the text, illustrations or advertisements. The opinions expressed in these chapters are not necessarily those of the Editor or the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in......

Words: 133204 - Pages: 533

Premium Essay

Accounting

...Seventh Edition Accounting for Decision Making and Control Jerold L. Zimmerman University of Rochester To: Conner, Easton, and Jillian ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING AND CONTROL, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN MHID 978-0-07-813672-6 0-07-813672-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President of EDP: Sesha Bolisetty Editorial Director: Stewart Mattson Sponsoring Editor: Dick Hercher Marketing Manager: Sankha Basu Editorial Coordinator: Rebecca Mann Project Manager: Erin Melloy Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rolwes Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Production Supervisor: Sue Culbertson Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan......

Words: 209552 - Pages: 839

Premium Essay

Accounting for Decision Making and Control

...Seventh Edition Accounting for Decision Making and Control Jerold L. Zimmerman University of Rochester To: Conner, Easton, and Jillian ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING AND CONTROL, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN MHID 978-0-07-813672-6 0-07-813672-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President of EDP: Sesha Bolisetty Editorial Director: Stewart Mattson Sponsoring Editor: Dick Hercher Marketing Manager: Sankha Basu Editorial Coordinator: Rebecca Mann Project Manager: Erin Melloy Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rolwes Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Production Supervisor: Sue Culbertson Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan......

Words: 209552 - Pages: 839

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited by Michael Adas for the American Historical Association TEMPLE UNIVERSITY PRESS PHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael...

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Premium Essay

Tets

...Rimmer, author of The Harrad Experiment: "A magnificent job ... Must reading." John Diebold: "For those who want to understand the social and psychological implications of the technological revolution, this is an incomparable book." WALL STREET JOURNAL: "Explosive ... Brilliantly formulated." LONDON DAILY EXPRESS: "Alvin Toffler has sent something of a shock-wave through Western society." LE FIGARO: "The best study of our times that I know ... Of all the books that I have read in the last 20 years, it is by far the one that has taught me the most." THE TIMES OF INDIA: "To the elite ... who often get committed to age-old institutions or material goals alone, let Toffler's FUTURE SHOCK be a lesson and a warning." MANCHESTER GUARDIAN: "An American book that will ... reshape our thinking even more radically than Galbraith's did in the 1950s ... The book is more than a book, and it will do more than send reviewers raving ... It is a spectacular outcrop of a formidable, organized intellectual effort ... For the first time in history scientists are marrying the insights of artists, poets, dramatists, and novelists to statistical analysis and operational research. The two cultures have met and are being merged. Alvin Toffler is one of the first exhilarating, liberating results." CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR: "Packed with ideas, explanations, constructive suggestions ... Revealing, exciting, encouraging, brilliant."...

Words: 159732 - Pages: 639

Premium Essay

Myypaper

...Salvatore fdedi.tex V2 - 11/10/2012 9:37 A.M. Page iv International Economics Eleventh Edition Dominick Salvatore Fordham University VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER EXECUTIVE EDITOR OPERATIONS MANAGER CONTENT EDITOR SENIOR EDITORIAL ASSISTANT CONTENT MANAGER SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF MARKETING MARKETING MANAGER LEAD PRODUCT DESIGNER SENIOR MEDIA SPECIALIST DESIGN DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER COVER PHOTO CREDIT George Hoffman Joel Hollenbeck Yana Mermel Jennifer Manias Erica Horowitz Lucille Buonocore Sujin Hong Amy Scholz Jesse Cruz Allison Morris Elena Santa Maria Harry Nolan Madelyn Lesure ©lightkey/iStockphoto This book was set in 10/12 Times Roman by Laserwords and printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley-JC. The cover was printed by R. R. Donnelley-JC. Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed......

Words: 236413 - Pages: 946

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SIXTHEDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SERIES Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21 st Century, Sixth Edition Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Robert T. Moran, Ph.D., Sarah V. Moran, M.A. Managing Cultural Diversity in Technical Professions Lionel Laroche, Ph.D Uniting North American Business—NAFTA Best Practices Jeffrey D. Abbot and Robert T. Moran, Ph.D. Eurodiversity: A Business Guide to Managing Differences George Simons, D.M. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations Marios I. Katsioulodes Ph.D. Competing Globally: Mastering Cross-Cultural Management and Negotiations Farid Elashmawi, Ph.D. Succeeding in Business in Eastern and Central Europe—A Guide to Cultures, Markets, and Practices Woodrow H. Sears, Ed.D. and Audrone Tamulionyte-Lentz, M.S. Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook Gary M. Wederspahn, M.A. SIXTH EDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES GLOBAL LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES ST FOR THE 21 CENTURY 25TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION PHILIP R. HARRIS, PH.D. ROBERT T. MORAN, PH.D. SARAH V. MORAN, M.A. JUDITH SOCCORSY Editorial Coordinator Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in......

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Premium Essay

Julius Ceasar

...OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY OUTLINE OF OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY C O N T E N T S CHAPTER 1 Early America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CHAPTER 2 The Colonial Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CHAPTER 3 The Road to Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 CHAPTER 4 The Formation of a National Government . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 CHAPTER 5 Westward Expansion and Regional Differences . . . . . . . 110 CHAPTER 6 Sectional Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHAPTER 7 The Civil War and Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER 8 Growth and Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 CHAPTER 9 Discontent and Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 CHAPTER 10 War, Prosperity, and Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 CHAPTER 11 The New Deal and World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 CHAPTER 12 Postwar America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 CHAPTER 13 Decades of Change: 1960-1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 CHAPTER 14 The New Conservatism and a New World Order . . . . . . 304 CHAPTER 15 Bridge to the 21st Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 PICTURE PROFILES Becoming a Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 104976 - Pages: 420

Free Essay

Ferrari

...Annual Report At 31 December 2013 108th financial year Annual Report At 31 December 2013 All our reports are available at http://2013interactivereports.fiatspa.com Go to the online version of the Fiat Annual Reports to learn more about the Group's financial performance, sustainable development and other corporate information. | | Download our app www.fiatspa.com/mobileapp 3 General Meeting An Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders will be held at 11 a.m. on 31 March 2014 (single call) at Centro Congressi Lingotto, Via Nizza 280, Turin to vote on the following: Agenda 1. Motion for Approval of the Statutory Financial Statements and Allocation of 2013 Net Result 2. Compensation and Own Shares: a) Compensation Policy pursuant to Article 123-ter of Legislative Decree 58/98 b) Authorization for the Purchase and Disposal of Own Shares Attendance and Representation Shareholders are entitled to attend the Meeting if they hold the right to vote at the close of business on the record date of 20 March 2014 and the Company has received the relevant confirmation of entitlement from an authorized intermediary. As provided by law, shareholders entitled to attend the Meeting may also be represented by proxy. The Company has appointed Computershare S.p.A. (Via Nizza 262/73, Turin) as the Designated Representative, pursuant to Article 135-undecies of Legislative Decree 58/98, upon whom shareholders may confer proxy and instruct to vote on all or some of the motions on the......

Words: 153121 - Pages: 613

Free Essay

Islamic Finance

...Profit-Sharing and Risk Edited by Munawar Iqbal Islamic Development Bank, Saudi Arabia David T. Llewellyn Loughborough University, UK Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK • Northampton, MA, USA In association with: International Association of Islamic Economics Islamic Development Bank The Islamic Foundation © Dr Munawar Iqbal and Professor David T. Llewellyn 2002 (on behalf of the Steering Committee for the Fourth International Conference on Islamic Economics and Banking held at Loughborough University, UK, August 13–15, 2000) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing Limited Glensanda House Montpellier Parade Cheltenham Glos GL50 1UA UK Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. 136 West Street Suite 202 Northampton Massachusetts 01060 USA A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Islamic Banking and Finance: New Perspectives on Profit-Sharing and Risk / edited by Munawar Iqbal, David T. Llewellyn p. cm. “Some of the papers were presented at the Fourth International Conference on Islamic Economics and Banking, held at Loughborough University, UK, 13–15 August 2000” —Pref. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Banks and......

Words: 106697 - Pages: 427