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Factors That Affect the Academic Performance of the Students Staying at Pic Dormitory

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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction Student’s academic performance occupies a very important place in education as well as in the learning process. So to have better classroom performance and lower drop out incidence, many colleges require students to stay in school dormitories especially those students who live far from school like Cavite, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas etc. It is widely believed that living in campus dormitory can acquire some benefits in their academic performance. Large universities provide a number of academic services in dormitories such as tutoring and student organizations that encourage an environment conducive to learning.
Residence halls have served as an essential aspect of collegiate life since the early colonial colleges. Closely associated with the learning environment, early dorms housed faculty in the facilities to serve in the roles of counselors, supervisors, and educators. Historically, research on individual differences that bear on school success has focused on general intelligence. A century of empirical evidence has now unequivocally established that intelligence, defined as the “ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought” (Neisser et al., 1996 , p. 77) has a monotonic, positive relationship with school success (Gottfredson, 2004; Kuncel, Ones, & Sackett, 2010 ; Lubinski, 2009 ).

Studying in a Christian School is not that easy as well as living in their school dormitory. Many rule to be followed and kept. Students with diverse effects from the people around them and attitude towards their academic performance. The great question that still lingers, is a student’s academic success influenced by where he/she lives?

Theoretical Framework

PROCESS 1. Tabulation of the Data 2. Analysis and Interpretation of the Data A. Percentage Distribution B. Weighted Mean C. Likert’s Scale
OUTPUT
Determined the Factors that affect the Academic Performance of the Students staying at the PIC Dormitory during 2nd Semester 2012-2013 and 1st Semester 2013-2014
INPUT
Sited Factors that affect the Academic Performance of the Students staying at the PIC Dormitory 1. Family Factor; 2. Health Factor; 3. School Rules and Regulation Factor ; 4. School Amenities; 5. Teaching Method and Strategy; and 6. Study Habits Factor

Conceptual Framework

FIGURE 1. A Conceptual Paradigm that shows the factors that affect the academic performance of the students staying at the PIC dormitory Figure 1 illustrated the conceptual framework of the study. The “input” frame shows the Factors that affect the Academic Performance of the Students staying at the PIC Dormitory sited by the researchers: Family Factor; Health Factor; School Rules and Regulation Factor ; School Amenities; Teaching Method and Strategy and Study Habits Factor. The second frame is called the “process”. In this study, the processes involved were the Tabulation of the data, Analysis and Interpretation of the Data with the use of Percentage Distribution, Weighted Mean and Likert’s Scale. The third frame is the expected “output”. In this study, the product or the output will provide a summary of the determined Factors that affect the Academic Performance of the Students staying at the PIC Dormitory during 2nd Semester 2012-2013 and 1st Semester 2013-2014.
Statement of the Problem This study aims to quantify the factors that affect the academic performance of the students staying at the Philippine International College dormitory: Basis for the dormitory life enhancement. Specifically, it seeks to find out the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the profile of the correspondents in terms of: 2.1 Age; 2.2 Gender; 2.3 Civil Status; 2.4 Nationality; and 2.5 Major/ Course? 2. What are the academic performances of the correspondents during the term S.Y. 2012-13 (2nd Semester) and S.Y. 2013-14 (1st Semester)?

3. What are the factors that affects the class performance of correspondents in relation to: 4.6 Family Factor; 4.7 Health Factor; 4.8 School Rules and Regulation Factor ; 4.9 School Amenities; 4.10 Teaching Method and Strategy; and 4.11 Study Habits Factor? 4. Is there significant relationship between the correspondents’ academic performance and the condition of PIC dormitory?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the correspondents’ academic performance and the condition of PIC dormitory.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study focused on finding out the factors affecting the academic performance of Students staying at PIC dormitory from 2nd semester AY.2012-13 and 1st semester AY. 2013-14. Findings, conclusions, recommendations would apply only to the students staying at PIC dormitory.
Significance of the Study The outcomes of this study will benefits the following people:
STUDENTS: The result of the study will benefit them for further improvement in their style of studying and lifestyle at the PIC dormitory. And will motivate them to extend their territory for schoolwork.
TEACHERS: The teachers will be more aware about the student’s problem regarding their study and they will know how to deal with the student’s need.
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION: The findings of this study would encourage them to improve the school amenities.

Definition of terms
These are the terminologies used in the study.
PIC – Philippine International College
GPA – Grade Point Average
AY – Academic Year
Academic Performance – the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Academic Success – having a passing grades moreover excellent performance in your study.
Collegiate Life – university/college life
Learning Process –According to Skinner learning is a "process of progressive behavior adaptations". Munn has considered learning as "more or less permanent incremental modification of behavior which results from activity, special training or observations".
Kimble has similarly said", learning refers to a more or less permanent change in behavior which occurs as a result of practice". Crow and Crow defined learning as "the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitude ". According to Mc Connell learning is "the modification of behavior through experience".
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Conceptual literature

Family Factor
According to Bell (2002), parents devote a lot of resources to their children's education because they believe that good academic performance will provide a stable future for them.

Olayinka (2004) pointed out that the family is the bed rock of any society. Obayan (2003) reported that a stable and well developed childhood can be guaranteed by a stable family.

Kilgore; Snyder, and Lentz (2000) claimed that the family environment is the most powerful influence in determining a child's academic achievement. It is obvious that families have substantial influence on a child's academic performance. (http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1P3-2922990951/influence-of-family-background-on-the-academic-performance)
Health Factor According The Food Research and Action Center, “Student who eat breakfast are better able to learn, achieve higher test scores, are less likely to be absent from school and behave better in school”. (http://www.collegenanniesandtutors.com/blog/title/Health-and-Wellness-Do-they-affect-your-academic-performance)
According to Robert Murray, MD, Department of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University, “We can’t make kids smarter, but with improved nutrition and physical activity, we can put a better student in the chair”. Recess breaks aren’t only helpful for students who can’t sit still all day. Being physically active can increase the cognitive activity of a child’s brain. Whether your child is active during recess, physical education class, after school activities or at home, it may be able to increase their performance at school. Brain functions can be enhanced in order to improve children’s ability to learn. Research on the area of the brain that controls functions relative to thinking, concentration and acting (or not) on impulse — a network involving the prefrontal cortex — indicates that the school environment is key to the development of these areas.
A wide variety of research has demonstrated the positive correlation between health and learning, and that those two things are mutually reinforcing. There’s little disagreement that, whether we’re talking about improved nutrition or increased physical activity, students with health promoting behaviors perform better academically than those with poor health behaviors. Simply put, healthy students are better students.

School Rules and Regulation Factor

School Amenities
When the learning process is at the core of design priorities, there is a significant likelihood that the facility will positively influence performance (Blair, 1998). The correlation appears to be positive between facility design and learning.

Chan (1996) clarifies that poor learning facilities can foster negative attitudes just as exceptional designs may bolster achievement. The growth of brain-based research has provided a shot in the arm for facility design studies.

Caine and Caine (1990) make the point that brain-based research is not an independent movement in education, but an approach from which all learning research will benefit. The brain is a physiological system and can be stimulated, both positively and negatively, by its physical surroundings (Chan & Petrie, 1998). (THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL FACILITIES ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT, ATTENDANCE, BEHAVIOR, COMPLETION RATE AND TEACHER TURNOVER RATE IN SELECTED TEXAS HIGH SCHOOLS- ROBERT SCOTT MCGOWEN

Teaching Method and Strategy
Study Habits Factor Study habits affects academic performance in that it provides a better way for success in school. Good study habits will increase your study skills. In turn, your capacity for processing and organizing information is increased. (http://www.ask.com/question/study-habits-affects-academic-performance - www.slideshare.net/jennilynbalbalosa/final-na-final-thesis)
Research literature This contains the findings or conclusions or recommendations of other researcher. Undergraduate thesis, matters thesis, or doctoral dissertations may be used. Include also the author’s name and the year when the study was completed.

Synthesis After the presentation of research findings, conclusions, recommendations, there is a need to prepare a synthesis.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

Research Method

Respondents of the Study The overall number of Respondents was 42.

Research Instrument The researchers used written survey questionnaires that act as an instrument in the study.
Validation of the Instrument
Data Gathering Procedure The data for this research were collected using a survey questionnaire. The survey was created using suitable questions modified from individual questions formed by the researcher. The survey was comprised of 35 questions, which were related to the respondent’s demographic profile regarding the academic performance. In the questionnaire, Likert scale was used to determine if the respondent agreed or disagreed in a statement. Inorder to validate the questionnaire, the reasearchers conducted a reliability test and the questionnaires has been validated. After that, the researchers requested the GPA of all the dorm students and found out that only 42 students among 69 fulfilled the 2nd semester AY. 2012-13 and 1st semester AY. 2013-14. The written survey questionnaires were given to the 16 room leaders of PIC dormitory after a day of collecting all the information about their GPA. Followed by gathering the student’s availability of answering the given survey questionnaires. The researchers assured confidentiality of their survey sheets since the identities are not important. The researchers also understood that people’s consciousness may also affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave people the option of being anonymous. Participants were given time to respond and then the researchers collected the surveys the next day. All data were evaluated, calculated and put into table.

Statistical Treatment of Data Percentage Distribution. To determine the percentage of respondent’s demographic profile the Percentage Distribution as a descriptive statistics was used.
% = f x 100 n Where: % = Percentage F = Frequency N = No. of Respondents

Weighted Mean. To compute the respondent’s demographic profile, the Wieghted Mean was applied.
WM = ∑P / N Where: WM = Weighted Mean ∑P = Total Accumulative Point N = Total Number of Respondents Likert’s Scale. To interpret Weighted Mean, the following intervals and verbal interpretations on the Likert’s Scale Method were used: Intervals | Scale | Verbal Interpretations | 4.50 – 5.00 | 5 | Strongly Agree | 3.50 – 4.49 | 4 | Agree | 2.50 – 3.49 | 3 | Moderately Agree | 1.50 – 2.49 | 2 | Disagree | 1.00 – 1.49 | 1 | Strongly Disagree |

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the answer to the specific problems earlier raised in the study.

Problem 1. What are the profile of the correspondents in terms of Age, Gender, Civil Status, Nationality and Socio- Economic Status?

The table should be written as follows.

Table 1.1
Age of Respondents with Complete GPA
(from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14)

AGE | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | 15-18 | 4 | 10% | 19-22 | 30 | 70% | 23-26 | 4 | 10% | 27- ABOVE | 4 | 10% | TOTAL | 42 | 100% |

Table 1.1 shows the number of respondents living inside the dormitory with the complete GPA from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14. The ages range from 15-18 were the second least bracket wherein, they were only 6 respondents or 14%. More than half of the respondents, 66% or 28 respondents were on ages range from 19-22. And the range of ages from 23-26 and 27 above were the least number of respondents, which were either 10% or 4 respondents.
Table 1.2
Gender of the Respondents with Complete GPA
(from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14)

GENDER | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | MALE | 20 | 48% | FEMALE | 22 | 52% | TOTAL | 42 | 100% |

Table 1.3
Civil Status of Respondents with Complete GPA
(from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14)

CIVIL STATUS | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | SINGLE | 42 | 100% | MARRIED | 0 | 0% | SEPARATED | 0 | 0% | WIDOW | 0 | 0% | TOTAL | 42 | 100% |

The Table 1.3 explains how many respondents living in the dormitory are Single, Married, Separated and Widow. And it proves that 100% respondents were single.

Table 1.4
Nationality of Respondents with Complete GPA
(from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14)

NATIONALITY | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | FILIPINO | 36 | 86% | KOREAN | 0 | 0% | CHINESE | 2 | 4% | VIETNAMESE | 4 | 10% | TOTAL | 42 | 100% |

Table 1.4 explains that there were another nationality lives in PIC dormitory aside from Filipinos with 36 respondents, total of 86%. The Chinese nationality with 2 respondents or 4% and the Vietnamese have a quantity of 4 respondents or 10%.

Table 1.5
Course of Respondents with Complete GPA
(from 2nd semester 2012-13 and 1st semester 2013-14)

COURSE | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | ASIAN STUDIES | 11 | 26% | CHRISTIAN EDUCATION | 16 | 38% | PASTORAL STUDIES | 15 | 36% | TOTAL | 42 | 100% |

The table1.5 confirmed that the respondents who were students belong to the different courses of Philippine International College. These are Asian Studies, Christian Education and Pastoral Studies.

Problem 2. State here the second specific problem in question from. If there is a hypothesis to be tested / proven, place your justification in narrative form after interpreting the data on the table and the state whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected based on the result of the statistical treatment of the data affirmed by the corresponding critical ratio and degrees of freedom. Continue discussion until all the specific problems are answered and all the hypotheses have been tested.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter includes the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
Summary
If the summary, state the major problem and the specific problems raised in the study. Follow this up with the hypothesis tested in the study. Include also the method used, the research instrument, the respondents of the study, the statistical tools employed.
Findings
Place here the summary of answers to the specific problems as discussed in chapter 4. The section contains significant numbers/percentages and also the statistical values used in testing the hypotheses of the study Also state if the hypotheses were accepted or rejected.
Conclusions
After a careful analysis of the findings, enumerate here the conclusions drawn. These are usually general statements made based on the findings.

This part does not contain number/percentages or statistical values.

Recommendations After drawing the conclusions, enumerate here the recommendations or suggestion to be offered by the researcher. Remember that you based your recommendations from the findings and conclusions drawn in the study.

There is continuity as well as consistency of findings, conclusions and recommendations.

One important reminder also is to see to it that the study is guided/anchored from the start to the by the paradigm or conceptual theoretical framework used in the study.

BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books * Caine, R. N., & Caine, G. (1990). Understanding a brain-based approach to learning and teaching. Educational Leadership, 48(2), 66-70. * Hageman Chrispeels, Janet; Harris, Alma (2009). Improving Schools and Educational Systems American Council in education. New York: Routledge

B. Periodical and Other Materials C. Online Sources. * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_achievement * https://www.google.com.ph/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=TBrXUvzZEcK-_Qb1v4DoCQ#q=cognitive+theory+about+academic+performance+living+at+dormitory * http://www.preservearticles.com/201105206845/meaning-of-learning-process.html * www.iub.edu/~caepr/RePEc/PDF/2010/CAEPR2010-002.pdf‎ * http://www.indiana.edu/~caepr * http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CC8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpeople.bu.edu%2Ftpudlik%2Fwritings%2FDD.pdf&ei=HjTzUreTL4qKiQfSvYHgCA&usg=AFQjCNH_toTX8WNf27tT0IrQsFcchMDDeQ * http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&sqi=2&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mohamedrabeea.com%2Fbooks%2Fbook1_13905.pdf&ei=ljvzUs7iO4-ciQeKuYGoAg&usg=AFQjCNF5J5EptdphMxuv4kdetn7Z6Qzihg * http://triceratops.brynmawr.edu:8080/dspace/handle/10066/6865 * epository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/85819/McGowen.pdf?...‎ * https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-01-19-Wenglinsky.pdf * http://www.genyouthfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/The_Wellness_Impact_Report.pdf D. Theses and Dissertations

1. Published

* Murray, James (2010) Estimating the Effects of Dormitory Living on Student Performance. Dissertation Abstract International * Mendezabal, M.J. (2013) Study Habits and Attitudes: The Road to Academic Success. Dissertation Abstract Local * Paine, Dorothy E. (2007) An Exploration of Three Residence Hall Types and the Academic and Social Integration of First Year Students. Graduate School Theses and Dissertations. * Gasser, Ray Ph.D., Educational and Retention Benefits of Residence Hall Living: University of Idaho

2. Unpublished

* Salud, L,D,v. (1999). A quest for quality education through accreditation. Unpublish master’s thesis, EARIST, Manila.

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