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History of Politics

A Research Paper
Presented to
The class of Miss Rhoda Mae R. Navasquez
Southern Cotabato Academy, Inc.

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Subject
English IV

by Jeison L. Omandam
December 01, 2011

INTRODUCTION
Political history is the description and analysis of significant political occasions, movements, thoughts, and leaders. Typically it is developed around the nation states. It is distinguished from but relevant to other areas of history such as economic history, social history, and military history.
Usually, political history discusses events pertaining to nation-states and the political process in particular. As per Hegelian doctrine, Political History ‘is a perception of the state with a guiding force beyond the material benefits of its subjects: it meant that the state was the root factor of historical change’. This differs with one, for example, social history, which predominantly discusses the events and lifestyles of common folks, or people’s history, that is historical account from the view point of a lay person.
A study of political history typically centers on a single nation and its political change and aggrandizement. A few historians highlight the ever increasing drift toward confined specialization in political history over the course of recent decades: ‘wherein a college professor in the 1940s resorted to identify himself as a “historian”, by the 1950s “American historian” was the designation.’
Political history is, therefore, sometimes considered as more ‘traditional’ type of history, contrasting with so called more up-to-date approaches of other areas of history.

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Statement of the Problem
The research paper was conducted to point out the history of Politics and its origin.
Objectives
The research paper was conducted to point out history of Politics and aimed to: a. Explain the origin of Politics. b. Explain the different Variety of Politics.

Significance
The research paper will provide significant information on history of Politics.

Scope and Limitation
The research paper focuses only on history of Politics.

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HISTORY OF POLITICS
The political world history is the history of the different political bodies formed by the Human race over the course of their existence on Earth and on how these states demarcate their borders. The history of political thinking traces its origins in antiquity. Political history or the history of political thinking during human existence entails Medieval period and the Renaissance.
The Age of Enlightenment witnessed political institutions swelling from fundamental systems of monarchy and self-governance to the diverse democratic and communist systems that flourished in present Industrialied and the Modernized Era, in contrast, political systems have expanded from diffused frontier-type boundaries, to the fixed boundaries existing as of today (http://www.bighistory.net/history-of-politics/).
Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society. It consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of public affairs within a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics).

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The varieties of political experience
According to Aristotle, States are classified into monarchies, aristocracies, timocracies, democracies, oligarchies, and tyrannies. Due to an increase in knowledge of the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned. Generally speaking, no form of government could be considered the best if the best is considered to be the one that is most appropriate under the circumstances. All States are varieties of a single type, the sovereign State. All the Great Powers of the modern world rule on the principle of sovereignty. Sovereign power may be vested on an individual as in an autocratic government or it may be vested on a group as in a constitutional government. Constitutions are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. Although a Constitution is a written document, there is also an unwritten Constitution. The unwritten constitution is continually being written by the Legislative branch of government; this is just one of those cases in which the nature of the circumstances determines the form of government that is most appropriate. Nevertheless, the written constitution is essential. England did set the fashion of written constitutions during the Civil War but after the Restoration abandoned them to be taken up later by the American Colonies after their emancipation and then France after the Revolution and the rest of Europe including the European colonies.

Political party
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
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The left–right politics
The left–right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. The perspective of Left vs. Right is a binary interpretation of complex questions. Left-wing politics and right-wing politics are often presented as polar opposites, and although a particular individual or party may take a left-wing stance on one matter and a right-wing stance on another, the terms left and right are commonly used as if they described two globally opposed political families. In France, where the terms originated, the Left is called "the party of movement" and the Right "the party of order” Traditionally, the Left includes progressives, social liberals, social democrats, socialists, communists and some anarchists. The Right includes conservatives, plutocrats, reactionaries, capitalists, monarchists, nationalists and fascists. The terms left and right are often used to spin a particular point of view rather than as simple descriptors. In modern political rhetoric, those on the Left typically emphasize their support for working people and accuse the Right of supporting the interests of the upper class, whereas those on the Right usually emphasize their support for individualism and accuse the Left of supporting collectivism. As a result, arguments about the way the words should be used often displace arguments about policy by raising emotional prejudice against a preconceived notion of what the terms mean.
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The main factor dividing left and right in Western Europe is class. Those on the Left seek social justice through redistributive social and economic intervention by the state. Those on the Right defend private property and capitalism. But the nature of the conflict depends on existing social and political cleavages and on the level of economic development. Left-wing values include the belief in the power of human reason to achieve progress for the benefit of the human race, secularism, sovereignty exercised through the legislature, social justice, and mistrust of strong personal political leadership. To the Right, this is regularly seen as anti-clericalism, unrealistic social reform, doctrinaire socialism and class hatred. The Right are skeptical about the capacity of radical reforms to achieve human well-being while maintaining workplace competition. They believe in the established church both in itself and as an instrument of social cohesion, and believe in the need for strong political leadership to minimize social and political divisions. To the Left, this is seen as a selfish and reactionary opposition to social justice, a wish to impose doctrinaire religion on the population, and a tendency to authoritarianism and repression.
The differences between left and right have altered over time. The initial cleavage at the time of the French Revolution was between supporters of absolute monarchy (the Right) and those who wished to limit the king's authority (the Left). During the 19th century the cleavage was between monarchists and republicans. Following the establishment of the Third Republic in 1871, the cleavage was between supporters of a strong executive on the Right and supporters of the primacy of the legislature on the Left (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Left-Right_politics).
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Authoritarian-libertarian politics
Authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities", while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual and his property as sovereign. In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists, who argue for the total abolition of the state, while the purest authoritarians are totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society.
For instance, classical liberalism (also known as laissez-faire liberalism, or, in much of the world, simply liberalism) is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, free markets, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of John Locke, Adam Smith, David Hume, David Ricardo, Voltaire, Montesquieu and others. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.'" (http://depts.alverno.edu/dgp/GEC/Types%20of%20Government.html).

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Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation
The research paper was conducted to point out the Politics. The paper was conducted from November 11 to December 01, 2011. The specific objectives were: distinguishing, determining the history of Politics. Thus: * The political world history is the history of the different political bodies formed by the Human race over the course of their existence on Earth and on how these states demarcate their borders. The history of political thinking traces its origins in antiquity. Political history or the history of political thinking during human existence entails Medieval period and the Renaissance. * Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society. It consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of public affairs within a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. * Political history is, therefore, sometimes considered as more ‘traditional’ type of history, contrasting with so called more up-to-date approaches of other areas of history.

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Bibliography 1. (http://www.bighistory.net/history-of-politics/)

2. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics).

3. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Left-Right_politics).

4. (http://depts.alverno.edu/dgp/GEC/Types%20of%20Government.html)

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