Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By harryzhangjw
Words 1011
Pages 5
Questions for Fair value accounting case 1. What is fair value accounting, what are its advantages and disadvantages 2. How is it different from historical cost accounting 3. What are level 1, 2, 3 assets 4. Give a simple example of level 1, 2, 3 assets 5. Suggest 3 ways to improve reporting fair value assets.
-------------------------------------------------

QUESTION 1:

Fair value accounting is method of accounting the value of assets, liabilities and shareholders’ equity in rational and unbiased manner by taking into consideration several objective and subjective factors. The objective factors include but are not limited to acquisition/ production/ distribution costs, replacement costs, or costs of close substitutes, actual utility at a given level of development of social productive capability supply versus demand. Certain subjective factors include risk characteristics, cost of and return on capital, perceived utility, etc.

Advantages of fair value accounting: 1. Timeliness: The valuation reflects the most up-to-date and market value as of reporting date. The impact of fair value measurements—whether positive or negative on a company—is the result of market forces. 2. Transparency: Investors benefit when companies disclose their views on the impact of market illiquidity in their financial reporting. Investors and other users have greater insight into management’s views as to ultimate settlement amounts. 3. Relevancy: the valuation is the most relevant at the date and time of reporting.

Caveats of fair value accounting: 1. Reliability in illiquid markets: for assets or liabilities which are illiquid, the lack of appropriate models to determine fair value may result in unnecessary arguments and economic costs. 2. Facilitating unnecessary euphoria, which may arguably contribute to the company/ asset’s...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting

...The concept of Fair Value Fair value is defined as “the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction”. Prior to the introduction of Fair Value Accounting (FVA), accounting was carried out on a historical cost basis. However there were many limitations of Historical Cost accounting (HCA). HCA assumes money holds a constant purchasing power. It ignores specific price-level change, general price-level change and fluctuations in exchange rates. During inflationary periods, HCA can become irrelevant and can lead to an erosion of operating capacity. IASB framework states “the objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. It also states “financial statements also show the results of stewardship of management, or accountability of management for the resources entrusted to it”. FVA is superior to historical cost accounting for these purposes. FVA is dominant in numerous IFRS’s and IAS’s. The IASB have yet to finalise an IFRS on fair value measurement, but it is expected it will have been completed by early 2011. Furthermore, the IASB is developing extra educational material to accompany the publication of the IFRS on fair value measurement. This material will give a description on the thought process for the measurement of assets,......

Words: 3059 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting and the Gfc

...world economy. Speculation was rife that accounting standards, in particular, fair value accounting was the prime reason for this significant meltdown. “This sparked a fierce debate with some experts believing that fair value accounting was primary cause of the crisis whilst others considered that it exacerbated it. On the other side of the debate were those commentators that believed that fair value accounting was successful in acting as an early warning system and effectively prevented more calamitous consequences.” (Pabuccu, 2011) In response to this speculation, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) immediately took action to review this matter and implement the necessary changes to address the uncertainty surrounding Fair Value accounting. Body Due to the economic significance of the crisis, financial commentators around the world analysed the situation, made comment, pointed the finger; and laid blame for this event. Due to the speculation, a ferocious debate commenced, with many of them believing that fair-value accounting was the primary cause of this event. Bubbles and Busts have occurred throughout history and are closely linked to the periods preceding a financial crisis. According to McMahon (2011), “fair-value accounting amplifies business cycles and seems to significantly contribute to bubbles and busts.” In her opinion fair-value accounting is largely to blame for the global......

Words: 1804 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Benefits and Challenges..Fair Value Accounting

...| BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING | ACCT 525-22936 Current Issues in Accounting | Professor Kabani | Robert Larison | 10/20/2013 | In this paper I look at the benefits and challenges that are likely to follow the migration into the use of Fair Value Accounting. Perhaps, there is no issue today that carries with it as much controversy as does “FVA”. | BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING INTRODUCTION I do not think any topic in accounting has gathered as much interest as has the subject of “Fair Value Accounting” “FVA”. Heightened by the financial crisis of recent years “FVA” has received enormous attention by both academia and the business community alike. Rarely do “conspiracy theorists” make their way into the humdrum subject matter of accounting, but when it comes to the issue of “FVA” accounting, almost anything and everything has been postulated. The most widely held belief is that the move to “FVA” is to blame for the financial crisis of 2007. (Sorkin, 2008.) I have evaluated “FVA” and the transition from “historical value accounting “HVA”. In particular, I have researched the evolution within the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) as it pertains to “FVA”. I have also reviewed the move toward the establishment of one set of standards for worldwide accounting as evidenced by the “convergence” project. With that in mind, we only need to look to the International Accounting Standards Board and its IFRS to get a...

Words: 2522 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting Under Financial Crisis

...61) Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583, USA Fair value accounting under financial crisis HE Cai-xia1, ZHANG Chi2 (1. School of Accounting, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China; 2. School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430073, China) Abstract: The recent financial crisis has led to a vigorous debate about the pros and cons of fair-value accounting (FVA). This debate presents a major challenge for FVA going forward and standard setters’ push to extend FVA into other areas. In this article, we highlight three important issues as an attempt to make sense of the debate. First, much of the controversy results from confusion about what is new and different about FVA. Second, while there are legitimate concerns about marking to market (or pure FVA) in times of financial crisis, it is less clear that these problems apply to FVA as stipulated by the accounting standards, be it IFRS or U.S. GAAP. Third, historical cost accounting (HCA) is unlikely to be the remedy. There are a number of concerns about HCA as well and these problems could be larger than those with FVA. Key words: fair value accounting; historical cost accounting; financial crisis 1. Introduction The recent financial crisis has turned the spotlight on fair-value accounting (FVA) and led to a major policy debate involving among others the U.S. Congress, the European Commission as well banking and accounting regulators around......

Words: 2462 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Trade Off Between Fair Value Accounting and Historical Cost Accounting

...3. Trade off between fair value accounting and historical cost accounting a) Relevance: Financial information is relevant when it influences the economic decisions of users, Fair value reporting is more relevant as it will allow users of financial statements to obtain a truer and fairer view of the company's real financial situation since it reflects the prevailing economic conditions and the changes in them. In contrast, historical cost accounting shows the conditions that existed when the transaction took place and any possible changes in the price do not appear until the asset is realized. b) Reliability: This relates to the degree of assurance capable of being obtained through verification that information faithfully represents what it purports to represent. Historical cost is considered more reliable as fair value requires estimations. FASB has expand the disclosures and framework for all companies to enhance the reliability of fair value accounting. However the drawbacks of the FV accounting is still holds as many of the valuations incorporates many subjective input data and assumptions. c) Decision usefulness: In general, financial information is considered to be useful if it enhances one's ability to make investment and credit decisions. (i) For investors: Investors will need to broaden their knowledge of fair value measurement methodologies to effectively analyze a company's financial statements and make a sound comparison. Given that institutions may use......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Analysis of Biological Assets Valuation Method with Fair Value Accounting and Historical Cost Accounting in Plantation Subsector of Indonesian Agricultural Industry in the Period of 2007-2012

...ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSETS VALUATION WITH FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING METHOD IN PLANTATION SUBSECTOR OF INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY IN THE PERIOD OF 2007-2012 Karina Putri Ramadhani1 and Indra Pratama2 1 Thesis Writer, Swiss German University 2 Thesis Advisor, Swiss German University Abstract The analysis of biological assets valuation with fair value accounting and historical cost accounting method in plantation subsector of Indonesian agricultural industry, in the period of 2007-2012, tries to evaluate the relevance of historical cost towards the fair value of biological assets. It also tries to look for empirical evidence on the differences in calculations on biological assets between FVA and HCA toward company’s EBIT, net income, and potential tax liabilities. The research tests 5 companies within the plantation subsector in agricultural industry listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI). This study shows that there is a strong correlation between all variables tested. Among all statistical tests conducted, all hypotheses are rejected. This study concludes that the historical value of biological assets does not represent its real fair market value, or irrelevant. Also, the change in biological assets valuation from historical cost to fair value accounting would significantly affect the company’s EBIT, tax expense, and net income. Keywords: Fair Value, Historical Cost, Agricultural Industry, Plantation, Fair Market, EBIT, Tax Expenses, Net......

Words: 3520 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting

...93–118 Did Fair-Value Accounting Contribute to the Financial Crisis? Christian Laux and Christian Leuz I n its pure form, fair-value accounting involves reporting assets and liabilities on the balance sheet at fair value and recognizing changes in fair value as gains and losses in the income statement. When market prices are used to determine fair value, fair-value accounting is also called mark-to-market accounting. Some critics argue that fair-value accounting exacerbated the severity of the 2008 financial crisis. The main allegations are that fair-value accounting contributes to excessive leverage in boom periods and leads to excessive write-downs in busts. The write-downs due to falling market prices deplete bank capital and set off a downward spiral, as banks are forced to sell assets at “fire sale” prices, which in turn can lead to contagion as prices from asset fire sales of one bank become relevant for other banks. These arguments are often taken at face value, but evidence on problems created by fair-value accounting is rarely provided. We discuss these arguments and examine descriptive and empirical evidence that sheds light on the role of fair-value accounting for U.S. banks in the crisis. While large losses can clearly cause problems for banks and other financial institutions, the relevant question for our article is whether reporting these losses under fair-value accounting created additional problems. Similarly, it is clear that determining fair values......

Words: 14541 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting in Crisis

...Fair value accounting and financial stability The recent financial crisis gave boost for intense policy discussion over fair value accounting among US Congress, the European Commission, and banking and accounting regulators all over the world. Critics state that fair value accounting had significant impact on the financial crisis and over exaggerated its force for financial institutions around the world. On the other hand, there those who oppose that fair value accounting was just a measurement tool of measuring assets. Currently both Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) escalated their efforts towards establishment of a single source of guidance for all fair value measurements and clarification of the definition of fair value and related guidance. The IASB is aiming to complete all phases of replacement of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement by IFRS 9 Financial Instruments by 30 June 2011, which would apply to financial statements for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. In this essay I will provide different opinions for fair value accounting and whether those arguments give potential for further research. First, the essay will provide genesis of fair value accounting and reviews researches dedicated to this issue. Second, the paper will comment on FVA role in the financial crisis and its contribution to it. Third, the essay will analyze historical cost accounting and show......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting and Ethics

...Fair Value Accounting and Ethics Presented by: Unit 6: AC504 04.12.2011 Executive Summary Over the past 15 years fair value accounting has been building in popularity. It is now widely used by International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and US GAAP. It is thought that adapting to fair value accounting will make financial statements more relevant and reliable. Currently the majority of assets are recorded under historical cost. Under historical cost the asset is recorded under the price it was purchased at and then depreciated over its useful life. However, this concept has proven to be not as reliable since it does not take into account changing appreciation and depreciation of the asset. Under IFRS and fair value the asset must be annually checked for impairment making it more reliable and relevant. Over 120 countries currently use IFRS (AICPA, 2011). It is anticipated that more countries will begin encouraging it as global competition becomes more prevalent. The SEC is also allowing companies that trade stock within the US to report under IFRS. This is largely due to IFRS sharing many common principles with US GAAP. The main difference is that GAAP provides specific guidelines in how to report, while IFRS is principle based. This allows creators to adapt the standards in a way that would better fit their industry and needs. In order for fair value accounting to be successful, an ethical culture must be established. First a code......

Words: 2591 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Fair Value Accounting Tiers

...the bid of ask in the market place. Family Finance Co. (FFC) decided to best way to value the security was using the income approach using observable inputs and to try to minimizes the use of unobservable inputs. These inputs included the implied rate of return in which the market was active, current market spreads, increased liquidity risk premiums, market information about same or similar CDO’s, analysis reports, current interest rates and information of underlined collateral. Also they look at two brokers non-binding prices based on proprietary models that use hypothetical assumptions. The security is not identical to any traded security in an active market. Therefore it is not a level one security. This security is not observable because the comparable securities that use to be compared to are no longer traded in an active market due to the decrease in volume in the market as well as increase in volatility. Therefore, this security falls under a level 3 according to FAS157. Instrument 2. Mortgage-Backed Security Section 1 • The market for the comparable is active, but the market for the security they own is not. The market for the comparable had a decline in volume. • The market for the comparable was somewhat active, but the security they owned was not. The market for the comparable had a decline in volume. • Because they did not observe any market transactions to value these securities, they valued them with a...

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Risk Model

...Assignment 2015 1. The measurement concepts in relation to historical cost and fair value accounting. IASB framework defines that measurement is the process to determine the monetary amount of the financial statements’ elements are to be recognized and carried on the balance sheet and income statements ( IASB Framework 2010). 1.1 Historical cost Historical cost is an accounting method about the original nominal monetary value of an economic item at the time of transaction (IFRS). Under this method, assets and liabilities listed on the balance sheet with the value at their purchase or acquisition, rather than the current market value. According to the historical cost principle, most assets or liabilities are recorded at historical cost on the balance sheet even if there is a significantly change in the value over a period. Hence the balance sheet value of the items may differ from the real value and this value is never adjusted by the changing of market and economy. For example, 10units of one item were purchased for $10 each. The price of this item today is $11 per unit. Therefore the inventory should appear on the balance sheet at $100 and not at $110. 1.2 Fair Value According to IFRS13, fair value is regarded as a scientifically true measurement concept. To be more specific, fair value is a market-based measurement; it is not an entity specific measurement. In other words, fair value is the price that the company will be received to sell assets or......

Words: 2425 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Fair Value Measurement

...FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND CHALLENGES (PART 1) (by Tuam Kwok Choon and Ng Kean Kok) INTRODUCTION Since the promulgation of fair value accounting by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the subject matter has been hotly debated by industry players and professionals of the accounting fraternity the world over. Many problems and pitfalls have been highlighted on the "mark-to-market" premise. For example, David Gwilliam and Richard H.G. Jackson (2008) noted that Enron "was able to 'monetize' physical assets so as to bring them within the remit of mark to market accounting", suggesting misuse of fair value measurement. Fair value is said to be superior to other forms of measurement because it is easily understood by investors and stakeholders. It is also timely, neutral, representationally faithful, reliable, relevant, comparable and consistent. Fair value reporting is deemed to be more transparent and investor-confident. However equally important is that fair value measurement is subject to constraints such as human judgment, the location and condition of the asset/liability being measured, the determination of market, the most advantageous market value as against the entity's perspective, transaction price presumption (exit price verses entry price in different markets), the bid-ask spread of financial instsruments, and transportation cost exclusion, to name a few. Brief definition of fair value: Defined as, “The price that would be......

Words: 2356 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Dasdas

...largely driven by a dramatic fall of $US 8.5 billion in Lehman’s revenues from principal transactions, which include realized and unrealized gains or losses from financial instruments and other inventory positions owned. A significant portion of the downward shift in principal transactions revenues is actually explained by unrealized losses of $US 1.6 billion in the first semester of 2008 vs. unrealized gains of $US 200 million in the first semester of 2007. Thus, accounting at fair value for some financial assets amplified Lehman's downward earnings performance. Hence, it can be put forward that FVA, through its magnifying impact on earnings volatility, may have contributed to aggravate investors', regulators' and governments' perceptions with respect to the severity of the crisis, itself characterized by record volatility in the prices of many securities and goods. On a related note, the increased volatility brought forward by FVA is conducive to the use of equity-based compensation, especially stock options, which value is then enhanced (according to the Black-Scholes model, volatility is one of the key inputs in option valuation). Prior research 此前的研究 suggests that there is a strong association between performance volatility and the use of stock options. 選項。 20 20 Through FVA, the outcomes from aggressive risk-taking in investment and financing strategies will directly flow into reported earnings, thus further leveraging the potential gains to be derived from stock......

Words: 3771 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Business Combination

...Assignment 1: Business Combinations Cindy Yoon Professor Robert Neely ACC 401 – Advanced Accounting October 24, 2013 Abstract In this paper, I will provide an explanation for the business combination method I selected in expanding the corporation by acquiring another firm, the reason for selecting that business combination method, and how the purchase will grow the business. I will also analyze the accounting requirements for the business combination method I selected and how I determined goodwill was impaired and the financial impact of such impaired goodwill. The business combination method I selected is the acquisition method. Business combinations have implemented the newly created accounting treatment called the “acquisition method.”   The major changes in the acquisition method include changes to fair value measurement, goodwill recognition, and non-controlling interests.     In acquisition method, the parent company reports the net assets of the acquired company at the price that it was paid for.   This price includes any cash payment, the fair market value of any shares issued, and the present value of any promises to pay cash in the future.   A key point of the purchase method is that the parent consolidates the book value of all the subsidiary’s assets and liabilities and then the fair value, broken down between Net Book Value and Fair Market Value increments, of the subsidiary's assets and liabilities are added to the parent's own assets and......

Words: 1726 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Financial Assessments

...markets”(Cormier et. al., 2009) in 2005, and this “adoption has made IFRS the most widely accepted financial accounting model in the world” (Paananen et. al, 2009). Therefore, it is no surprise that the two German auto makers, Daimler and BMW that have been selected for this report follow IFRS, and their two latest annual reports date back to 2009 and 2010. Both of those companies are traded on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and since 2006, they have been using IAS 39 for the recognition and measurement of their financials instruments. Furthermore, KPMG AG audited BMW’s 2009 financial statements on February 26, 2010, and BMW’s 2010 financial statements on February 25, 2011. Furthermore, KPMG AG audited Daimler AG’s 2009 financial statements on March 1, 2010, and the company’s 2010 financial statements on February 28, 2011. The purpose of this report is to examine the differences in numbers, and disclosures concerning the reporting of items under IAS 39, between and within the two companies, for 2009 and 2010. Further, this report will examine the controversies which have led to the establishment of IAS 39 fair market value procedures, and will investigate the differences between the reporting under IAS 39 (Fair value procedures), and its equivalent under US GAAP, SFAS 157. “The introduction of IAS 39 was aimed at bringing more visibility to financial statements users with regard to the accounting and disclosure of financial instruments (journal), especially derivatives,......

Words: 1237 - Pages: 5