Famine in Ukraine (1932-1933)

In: Historical Events

Submitted By buriachenko
Words 1267
Pages 6
Ukraine Famine
The Ukrainian Famine was dreadful famine premeditated by the Soviet Union, headed by Joseph Stalin during 1932-1933, as a means to undermine the nationalistic pride of the Ukrainian people. It served to control and further oppress the Ukrainian people by denying them the basic vital essentials they needed to survive. The Ukrainian Famine is also known as Holodomor, meaning “death by hunger.”
The Communist Regime sought to eliminate any threat from Ukrainian nationalists, whom they feared had the potential to form a rebellion and to seek independence from the Soviet Union. More than 5,000 Ukrainian intellectuals were arrested and later were either murdered or deported to prison camps in Siberia. These individuals were falsely accused of plotting an armed rebellion; however it was very clear that Stalin’s intentions were to eliminate the leaders of Ukrainian society, to leave the masses without any guidance or direction.
Stalin regarded the self-sufficient farms of the Ukraine peasants, as a threat to his ideals. He did not want the Ukrainian peasants to prosper freely from the wealth accumulated from independent farm holdings. The wealthier farmers were termed as “kulaks”, and became the primary target of “dekulukization,” an effort to eliminate independent farm-holdings, and create collective farm units. The Communists attempted to gain the support of the poorer class of peasants, by turning them against the kulak class of farmers. A false image of the Kulak class portrayed them as a danger to society. Contrary to the expected outcome of the Communists’ plan, the poor farmers sided with the kulaks, instead of siding with the Soviet authorities. As a result many of them became new targets of dekulakization. Many other poor farmers unwillingly joined collective farms. Those who attempted to aid a “kulak” were punished under the law.
The Soviet police…...

Similar Documents

Debt Relief and Famine

...Debt Relief and Famine Debt Relief and Famine Famine is the number one cause of death in underdeveloped countries. Every year thousands of people die due to starvation. What can be done to help these countries build up their economies in order to be able to take care of themselves and prevent future disasters? Through debt relief many countries have been able to focus their attention and spending on promoting human services and social overhead capital. But, what does debt relief have to do with famine? Debt relief is the key to poverty reduction. In 1996, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank came together and launched the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative (Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, 2010). Under the HIPC, the Fund and Bank provide interim debt relief in the initial stage and full debt-relief upon completion (Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, 2010). In order to be considered, “countries must meet certain criteria, commit to poverty reduction through policy changes, and demonstrate a good track-record over time” (Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, 2010). The HIPC is a two-step process. The first step of the HIPC is decision point. In order to be considered for HIPC Initiative assistance, a country must meet four qualifications. First, the country must be eligible to borrow from the World Bank’s International...

Words: 1671 - Pages: 7

The Famine

...In 1840 he became Assistant Secretary to the Treasury in London and held that office until 1859. This position put him in charge of the administration of Government relief to the victims of the Irish Famine in the 1840s. In the middle of that crisis Trevelyan published his views on the matter. He saw the Famine as a ‘mechanism for reducing surplus population’. But it was more: ‘The judgement of God sent the calamity to teach the Irish a lesson, that calamity must not be too much mitigated. …The real evil with which we have to contend is not the physical evil of the Famine, but the moral evil of the selfish, perverse and turbulent character of the people’. Such racist and sectarian views of the Irish were common enough within the English governing classes and were more crudely expressed by others. For the most part, Trevelyan’s views reflected the prevailing Whig economic and social opinion and that of the Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, who held office from 1846 until 1852. Trevelyan was stiff and unbending. He firmly believed in laissez faire (essentially, the importing of food should be left to the food merchants), he thought that the Government should not intervene, and warned of the danger that people might get into the habit of depending on the state. From March 1846 he controlled the public works through the disbursement of public funds. Under Trevelyan, relief by public works in 1846–7 was too little too late but also it was slow, inefficient and sometimes...

Words: 2592 - Pages: 11

Ukraine

...Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraineborders the Russian Federation to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west,Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after the Russian Federation. According to a popular and well established theory, the medieval state of Kievan Rus was established by the Varangians in the 9th century as the first historically recorded East Slavic state which emerged as a powerful nation in the Middle Ages until it disintegrated in the 12th century. By the middle of the 14th century, Ukrainian territories were under the rule of three external powers—the Golden Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Kingdom of Poland. After the Great Northern War (1700–1721) Ukraine was divided between a number of regional powers and, by the 19th century, the largest part of Ukraine was integrated into the Russian Empire with the rest under Austro-Hungarian control. A chaotic period of incessant warfare ensued, with several internationally recognized attempts at independence from 1917 to 1921, following World War I and the Russian Civil War. Ukraine emerged from its own civil war, and on December 30, 1922 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. The Ukrainian SSR's territory was...

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

Famine

...he Current Problem of Famine in Africa This paper is about two African third world countries that have serious problems with hunger, Ethiopia and Sudan. Looking at the people, the land, and the history in each country, a comparison will be made about the causes and effects of famine. Famine in Ethiopia and Sudan is apparently due to ethics, politics, and global weather patterns, but the specific causes of famine in these two countries differ greatly. Famine has stricken both Ethiopia and Sudan very harshly, with many people dying of starvation and others just waiting to die from the horrible hunger. Starvation threatens 365,000 people in Sudan, with the numbers just increasing, with no sign that they will stop increasing either (Nelan, 20). The whole country of Sudan is going through these troubles, but the famine is having its biggest impact in the Southwest and the Northern areas of Sudan (Nelan, 22). Throughout the whole country, 2.5 million square miles of land are empty, without crops that could hold valuable food for the starving people in Sudan. Those numbers are almost nothing compared to the country of Ethiopia though. It is estimated that in Ethiopia there are 4.6 million people starving or currently dead (www.news). Part of this is due to the fact that their crops became stunted drastically with the elongated dry season and an exceptionally short rainy season (www.news). All of these things make people miserable so they are forced to focus on other things...

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Famine in Ukraine (1932-1933)

...Ukraine Famine The Ukrainian Famine was dreadful famine premeditated by the Soviet Union, headed by Joseph Stalin during 1932-1933, as a means to undermine the nationalistic pride of the Ukrainian people. It served to control and further oppress the Ukrainian people by denying them the basic vital essentials they needed to survive. The Ukrainian Famine is also known as Holodomor, meaning “death by hunger.” The Communist Regime sought to eliminate any threat from Ukrainian nationalists, whom they feared had the potential to form a rebellion and to seek independence from the Soviet Union. More than 5,000 Ukrainian intellectuals were arrested and later were either murdered or deported to prison camps in Siberia. These individuals were falsely accused of plotting an armed rebellion; however it was very clear that Stalin’s intentions were to eliminate the leaders of Ukrainian society, to leave the masses without any guidance or direction. Stalin regarded the self-sufficient farms of the Ukraine peasants, as a threat to his ideals. He did not want the Ukrainian peasants to prosper freely from the wealth accumulated from independent farm holdings. The wealthier farmers were termed as “kulaks”, and became the primary target of “dekulukization,” an effort to eliminate independent farm-holdings, and create collective farm units. The Communists attempted to gain the support of the poorer class of peasants, by turning them against the kulak class of farmers. A false image of the...

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6

Famine

...Understanding Famine: Entitled failure, Food Availability Decline or something else? Famine is defined in the dictionary as “extreme and general scarcity of food, as in a country or a large geographical area, any extreme and general scarcity, extreme hunger; starvation.” (Dictionary.com) Famines happen as a result of things such as Natural Disasters, Lack of rain/drought and not much money. Most droughts happen in the developing countries (Third world countries), which aren't economically successful and also near the equator (latitude), as their climate is very different. Amartya Sen’s paper “Ingredients of famine analysis: availability and entitlements” looks at other approaches of famine. The paper looks more into the command of food and the legal means in society more then the shortages and availability’s of food. Firstly Amartya Sen looks at the Availability approach: This looks directly into the availability of food. He highlights the main increasing problems with lack of food and confesses his concern on the continuation in famines. Sen seems to question the traditional definition of the Famine “extreme and general scarcity of food….”. Sen believes that starvation is directly as a result of people not having enough food and not the there is not enough food available to eat. If there is enough food available surely means that famine should not exist. Unluckily this is not the case and Sen’s paper continues and looks at the “Entitlement Approach”. The...

Words: 1746 - Pages: 7

Famine Ships

...Name Class Professor Date The Famine Ships: A Wing and a Prayer The Famine Ships is a book written by Edward Laxton about the Irish exodus from their ravished homeland. The focus on the book is describing what it was like to travel on these ships across the Atlantic Ocean while encountering storms, icebergs, disease, and starvation. The trips were often long and horrifying for the passengers, but they were forced to make the journey due to worsening conditions in Ireland at the time. As the potato crop continued to fail, more and more Irish left their homeland for America and Canada on these famine ships. In search of a better existence, many Irish risked their lives by taking the 3,000-mile voyage on ships that weren’t fit for service. Many of them died from sickness, starvation or accidents while in route, yet they kept coming, for their fate at home was even worse. Between 1846 and 1851 emigration from Ireland to America and Canada increased drastically due to the deteriorating famine conditions in Ireland. When the potato crop failed in 1846, “more than 100,000 had crossed the Atlantic by year’s end” (Laxton 13). This mass evacuation of people required more ships than were available, so many ships were refitted in order to carry passengers one way and then freight the other. The living quarters beneath the ships were over crowded and unsanitary. Wooden boards were thrown together in the ship’s hold as makeshift bunks, and each passenger had a...

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Ukraine

...UKRAINE Name Class Affiliation Instructor Date Introduction Ukraine is in Eastern Europe, and borders Russia to the east, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia to the west, Moldova and Romania to the Southwest, and Black and Azov Sea in the south. It covers an area of an approximated 603, 628 km sq, thus making it the second largest European country, after Russia. Ukraine became an independent State in 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had depressed the Ukraine economy, although after its dissolution, the economy of Ukraine has shown a positive trend of increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)[1] .Ukraine is a united state, with 24 states, Crimea, and 2 large cities: Sevastopol and Kiev. Language The official Ukraine language is Ukrainian. This is an East Slavic language, which is a native language among 67.5 % of the population in Ukraine. Russian is used by about 29.5 % of the population in Ukraine. The rest of the people speak other native languages. Ukraine uses the Slavic language, which is written as Cyrillic script. Current Ukraine languages include Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Romanian, German, Hungarian, Armenian, Crimean, Tatar, Greek, and Georgian. There are other minority languages used in Ukraine. Culture The word Ukraine refers to a borderland, and in the context of this paper, it explains why Ukraine has a diverse culture. The culture of Ukraine has...

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6

Dprk-Famine

...Ty Tran Mr. Waagen Honors English 10 24 March 2014 North Korean Starvation “Think about a population that’s totally dependent on rations from the government, and we know that these rations are going to run out,” said Nutrition Specialist Mandana Arabi, “There are really not a lot of resources they can tap into” (UNICEF). North Korea, for years on the edge of famine, have crossed the boundary, and dropped into the dark abyss. Food is rationed to one-fifth the necessary amount for survival, up to 5 million people could starve to death within the year, and 80,000 children are in "imminent peril" of starvation (UNICEF). North Korea, formally known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” is susceptible to food crises because of political and economic isolation, extreme militarization, and climate change. Last year, widespread flooding in the country’s main rice producing region resulted in a poor harvest, plus an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, which affected the cattle used to harvest crops, also exacerbated shortages (Ahn). North Korea’s suffering has gotten out of hand, such that some of the DPRK’s citizens have resorted to cannibalism. The majority of North Korea’s population relies solely on food rations, like pennies on a dollar; the amount of people relying on rations far outweighs the total amount of food being distributed. The World Food Program (WFP) indicates that food rations in 2005 were at approximately 200-250 grams per person per day...

Words: 1945 - Pages: 8

The Ukrainian Famine of 1932

.... Before the start of the famine, there were a few aspects of the changes in government that affected the economy of the Soviet Union. Scholars concur that in terms of the number of victims—between 3 and 10 million 28—the famine of 1932–1933 constitutes an event of great enormity and significance in the history of the twentieth century and one that devastated Ukraine as well as Ukrainians who lived in the North Caucasus and Kuban regions” (Marples 2009). First of all, the wealthier families with any sense made sure to protect their wealth when they realized that the communist leaders would take away the riches that they owned. Therefore the wealthier populations made sure to move their money to foreign countries so that it could not be taken by the state, and than moved to the new locations themselves to protect against the upcoming overthrow of the bourgeois society. In an interview taken from an eyewitness account from an anonymous person who lived through the famine, it is stated that, “the big landowners deposited their money in banks before the revolution and fled” (United States: Commision on the Ukraine Famine 1988). This left any of the money that could have gone to those people from the lower classes, still in the hand of the wealth who were now going to spend it on other country’s economies. Any of the rich that stayed within the country had their wealth and goods taken away by order of the Soviet Union officials, as within a communist regime, all people must have...

Words: 3120 - Pages: 13

Ukraine

...Ukraine is a sovereign state; its independence was proclaimed in 1991. Ukraine is situated in the east of Europe. The territory of Ukraine is 603 700 square kilometres. Ukraine borders on Russia, Belarus, Poland, Moldova, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania. It’s washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and has very important ports. Ukraine is larger than France and Great Britain but considerably smaller than Russia. 5% of Ukraine’s territory is mountainous; the rest part of the Ukrainian area is flat. Ukraine has the Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. The Carpathians is the natural mountainous boundary of Ukraine. They are covered with mixed forests of pine, fir, beech and oak trees. There are the thickest forests in Volyn, which are part of the famous Byelovezhskaya Puscha. The Dnieper is the main river of the country; moreover, it’s the third longest river in Europe. Such rivers as the Dniester, the Danube, the Southern Bug and the Seversky Donets are also important. The population of our country is about 46 million people. Besides Ukrainians the representatives of many other nationalities live there: Russians, Jews, Belarusians, Moldavians, Romanians, Greeks, Tatars, Poles, Armenians, Germans, Gypsies and other ethnic minorities. They contributed to Ukraine’s culture and history. The biggest cities of Ukraine are Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Donetsk, Odessa, Mykolaiv and others. Ukraine is developed industrial and agricultural country.......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Ukraine

...1. Financial Budget Based on the analyses, Pinchunk proposed a financial plan includes a EUR 7 million investment in new plant and equipment in 2001 as well as a EUR 6.8 million investment in warehouse and distribution center for 2002. There are several aspects suggesting that they need to improve their financial budget. a) Asset-utilization ratios As we can see from the Exhibit 4 of the case, Ratio Analyses of Historical and Projected Financial Statements, the sales growth rate and the assets growth rate are not change consistently. As the ratio in Table 1 shows, from 1997 to 2000, when the sales growth rate increased significantly, the assets growth rate declined or maintained stable. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the investment to meet their sales growth goal. Table [ 1 ] Asset Utilization | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 |   | Actual | Actual | Actual | Actual | Proj'd | Proj'd | Sales growth rate % | 4.0% | 7.9% | 22.2% | 12.6% | 14.8% | 12.6% | Assets growth rate % | 6.0% | -0.9% | 6.0% | 4.5% | 10.9% | 8.4% | b) Investment environment in Ukraine i) Ukraine has a relatively large population of 52 million and strategic location within Central and Eastern Europe, making it particularly attractive. ii) From 1995, the Ukrainian government supported the privatizations and market reforms, which suggested a valuable chance to expand, since their privatizations and market reforms......

Words: 264 - Pages: 2

Ukraine Description

... confiscation of grain from Ukrainian farmers by Soviet authorities resulting Soviet famine of 1932 – 1933 which lead to 5 million deaths . The famine destroyed a significant part of local population, “even though the property system was no longer the capitalist style, he continued to refer to the grain as the "fruit of their[peasants'] labor"(e.g. p. 66, p. 148) that they were entitled to keep-omitting that some people work on much better land than others if there is no socialist cooperation to even out disparities in the means of production” according to Stephane Courtois (1997, p.147) The Black Book of Communism. Ukraine was one of the most devastated Soviet republics after World War II. The 1986 explosion at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, located in the Ukrainian SSR, and the Soviet Government’s initial efforts to conceal the extent of the catastrophe from its own people and the world, was a watershed for many Ukrainians in exposing the severe problems of the Soviet system. “When President Leonid Kravchuk was elected by the Ukrainian parliament in 1990, he vowed to seek Ukrainian sovereignty. Ukraine declared its independence on Aug. 24, 1991. In Dec. 1991, Ukrainian, Russian, and Belorussian leaders cofounded a new Commonwealth of Independent States with the capital to be situated in Minsk, Belarus. The new country's government was slow to reform the Soviet-era state-run economy, which was plagued by declining production, rising inflation, and widespread...

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Famine

...Introduction Famine is described by the Global Express Edition as a “crisis in which starvation from too little food results in a sharp amount of deaths in one place,”[1] and a crisis it is. In addition to war, famine is also one of the most common ways of which people are dieing in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Famine, on the other hand, is not as widely talked about, around the world, but leads to the same result, numerous amounts of deaths. Hundreds of thousands to millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa have died as a result of this crisis in different nations, such as Sudan, Ethiopia, (fill in different countries). However, famine is not something that happens overnight, and many factors lead to this major crisis. There are many major factors that build up to the final occurrence of a famine in sub-Saharan Africa. The major causes of famine are droughts, war, economic issues, and food distribution. One of the five causes may lead to a major famine, however, when two or more of the causes “work together” to produce a famine, the situation may become hectic. For example, if a war happens to erupt during a drought, it becomes harder for a nation to prevent an all-out famine crisis rather than if their was just a drought. It has become apparent that international and national intervention is needed to help prevent future famines from taking place. Organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Food Association Organization (FAO), United States...

Words: 3245 - Pages: 13

Ukrainian Famine

...The Ripple Effect Causes of the Ukrainian Famine 1932-1933 The Ripple Effect Causes of the Ukrainian Famine 1932-1933 TABLE OF CONTENTS: * Introduction * Five Year Plan * Collectivization * The Human Factor * Conclusion Introduction Investigation into the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-33 should be closed due to a lack of evidence of criminal culpability. Every action and decision that a person or a government makes has a cause and effect. It is called the ripple effect. In any given society the ripple effect causes second and third order effects. Sacrifices were made in order to make Russia the superpower it is today. Unfortunately, in regards to the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933, people were the sacrifices. Investigating archives that have been made available since the collapse of the U.S.S.R in 1991, eyewitness accounts, and other sources evidence suggest that three main causes lead to the Ukrainian Famine. Joseph Stalins’ implementation of his proposed five year plan, beginning in 1927-1932, laid the foundation for what become known as the Ukrainian Famine. The implementation of the five year plan caused a ripple effect that was felt throughout Russia, especially in the Ukraine. The Ukrainian Famine took place prior to World War II happening. Another factor that led to the famine was the collectivization of farms and agriculture. Policies were implemented to ensure that Russia could produce and provide enough grain, crops, and meat to supply...

Words: 2252 - Pages: 10