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Farming in the Bahamas

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MWA NOMOGRAPH: DIARY FOR BAHAMAS’ GROWERS, 2013

(A PUBLICATION OF MICHAEL WALLACE AND ASSOCIATES) wallacemichael1945@gmail.com By

Mike Wallace
B. S. (Agr), B. S. (Chem), Member, American Chemical Society

“Every garden is a chore sometimes, but no real garden is nothing but a chore”

Grasby, 1986 Almanac

“Unless you are faithful in small matters, you will not be faithful in large ones.” Luke 16:10

Michael Wallace
Apt 2 Tivoli Gardens
West Atlantic Drive
P.O.Box H-45077
242-351-8248 (H); 242-442-2141 (Cell)
Freeport, Grand Bahama
Bahamas

CONTENTS OF YOUR GROWER’S DIARY

• (Unofficial) List of Public Holidays for 2013 • Composite Calendar for 2013 • Suggested Annual Growers’ Garden/Farm Plan • Development: Planning for Changes • Directory • Emergency Preparedness for Hurricane Season, 2013 • Farm Credit and Farm Assistance Opportunities • Preparing the Garden Area • Table of General/Average Monthly Weather Conditions • Herbicides/Weed Killers • Make 2013 a Year of Prayer for Self, For Families, For Communities, and for Our Country • Identification and Management of Common Crop Pests • Listing of Contacts

(UNOFFICIAL) PUBLIC HOLIDAYS FOR 2012

- New Year’s Day …… 1st January - Good Friday …….. 29th March
- Easter Monday …….. 1st April - Whit Monday …… 20th May
- Labour Day ………… 7th June - Independence Day … 10th July
- Emancipation Day ….. 5th August - Discovery Day ………. 14th October
- Christmas Day ……. 25th December - Boxing Day ………….. 26th December

JANUARY

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
| | |1* |2 |2 |4 |5 |
|6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |
|13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |
|20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |
|27 |28 |29 |30 |31 | |You were planned for|
| | | | | | |God’s purpose |

FEBRUARY

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
| | | | | |1 |2 |
|3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |
|10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |
|17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |
|24 |25 |26 |27 |28 | |You were formed for |
| | | | | | |a family |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | | | |
|Jan |2.76 |69.1 |Cassava; Fruit trees with irrigation |Weeding; pruning fruit trees; ferti-gation|Vegetables; cassava; |
| | | | |for vegetables |potatoes; green peas |
|Feb |2.63 |68.9 |- Ditto - |- Ditto -; land preparation for Spring |- Ditto - |
| | | | |cropping | |
|Mar |3.61 |71.9 |Sugar cane, okras; pigeon peas/beans |- Ditto -; land preparation for Summer |- Ditto - |
| | | | |crops; irrigation | |
|Apr |2.15 |75.1 |- Ditto -; propagation of fruit trees|Spraying fruit trees particularly for |Dry peas/beans |
| | | |by marcottage, (a.k.a. sphagnum |sap-sucking insects; weed control for all | |
| | | |mossing) |crops; fertilization of fruit trees, and | |
| | | | |young cassava | |
|May |4.83 |78.4 |Summer vegetables; melons; corn; |Completion of April chores |-Ditto -; start of irrigated |
| | | |propagation of fruit trees | |okra crop |
|Jun |7.34 |81.7 |Completion of May chores |Irrigation of new plantings; pest control,|Okra; start of fruit, - |
| | | | |particularly for snails, slugs, |citrus, mango, cherries – |
| | | | |caterpillars and mites; application of |crops |
| | | | |contact foliage herbicides within he corn | |
| | | | |crop to facilitate inter-cropping with | |
| | | | |okra, or sweet potatoes; plant banana | |
| | | | |suckers, and fruit trees | |
|Jul |5.72 |83.5 |Preparation/ planting seedbeds for |Fertilizer applications for all coming |Okra; various fruit; radish, |
| | | |winter vegetables; planting okra or |crops; weed control by hoeing or contact |zucchini, cucumbers |
| | | |sweet potatoes within corn |herbicides as necessary | |
|Aug |7.72 |83.2 |Same as July; preparation for winter |Same as July; potting of fruit tree parts |Same as July; green corn |
| | | |crops; applying soil organics; plant |from marcottage, (a.k.a sphagnum mossing) | |
| | | |second crop of corn; cucumbers | | |
|Sept |9.95 |81.8 |Transplant winter vegetables |Same as August |Same as August |
|Oct |6.35 |78.6 |Same as September |Same as September |Same as September; sweet |
| | | | | |potatoes |
|Nov |2.68 |74.1 |Plant second crop of sweet potatoes |Irrigation, fertilization, pest control, |Sweet potatoes, green corn, |
| | | | |and weeding, as needed; first fertilizer |green peas, cucumbers, sugar |
| | | | |for newly potted/planted fruit trees |cane stalks |
|Dec |2.55 |70.9 |Strawberries with irrigation; second |Same as November |Start of cassava, green |
| | | |crop of cucumber, zucchini | |pigeon peas, table beets |

MARCH

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
|You were created to | | | | |1 |2 |
|become like Christ | | | | | | |
|3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |
|10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |
|17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |
|24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |29* |30 |
|31 | | | | | | |

APRIL

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
| Easter! |1* |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |
|7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |
|14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |
|21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |
|28 |29 |30 | | | |You were shaped for |
| | | | | | |serving God |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR MARCH/APRIL, 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | | | | |
| | | |1 |2 |3 |4 |
|5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |
|12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |
|19 |20* |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |
|26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |31 |You were made for a |
| | | | | | |mission |

JUNE

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
|You were in God’s | | | | | |1 |
|care before birth | | | | | | |
|2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7* |8 |
|9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |
|16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |
|23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |29 |
|30 | | | | | | |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR MAY/JUNE, 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | |
|1. LOCATION | | | |
|1.1 Well kept surroundings | | | |
|1.2 Low flood potential | | | |
|1.3 Minimal exposure to strong winds | | | |
|1.4 Low exposure to loose debris, and potential missiles | | | |
|2. STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF BUILDINGS | | | |
|2.1 Design does not offer resistance to wind/water | | | |
|2.2 Walls are sound | | | |
|2.3 Windows and doors are able to be closed | | | |
|2.4 Shutters are in place to protect windows/doors | | | |
|2.5 Roof is well maintained, hurricane clips are in place, in | | | |
|compliance with the Bahamas Building Code | | | |
|2.6 Emergency exits are designated, and accessible | | | |
|3. UTILITIES | | | |
|3.1 Electrical wiring is sound | | | |
|3.2 Electrical fixtures are sound, are grounded, and protected from| | | |
|brownouts/surges | | | |
|3.3 Electrical poles in the area are in good state | | | |
|3.4 Water supply is adequate, and contingency plans are in place, | | | |
|including point-of-use treatment of water | | | |
|3.5 Septic tanks, and associated plumbing, are sound | | | |
|4. SAFETY EQUIPMENT | | | |
|4.1 Fire extinguishers are charged; detectors work | | | |
|4.2 Evacuation exits are clear; safety signs are clear | | | |
|4.3 The First-Aid Kit is stocked, and accessible | | | |
|4.4 Spare batteries, bulbs, matches, fuel, are available | | | |
|5. STORAGE FACILITIES | | | |
|5.1 Storage for volatile substances is safe | | | |
|5.2 Storage of sanitizers, medicines, and first-aid items, are | | | |
|protected from water damage, and accessible | | | |
|5.3 Storage of chemicals is adequate | | | |
|5.4 Stocks of food, and beverages, are adequate | | | |
|6. WASTE MANAGEMENT FACLITIES | | | |
|6.1 Hazardous wastes are adequately contained, with minimal | | | |
|exposure to occupants | | | |
|6.2 Chemical, and noxious liquids, are adequately contained | | | |
|6.3 There is clear spatial, or physical, separation of wastes from | | | |
|fire, or water | | | |
|7. WRITTEN PROCEDURES | | | |
|7.1 An hurricane preparedness plan is available as a reference for | | | |
|actions by all occupants of the premises | | | |
|7.2 A fire response procedure is available as a reference for | | | |
|actions by all occupants of the premises | | | |
|7.3 An evacuation, and head count, procedure is available as a | | | |
|reference for actions by all occupants of the premises | | | |
|7.4 At least one (1) review of the procedures, and drill, has been | | | |
|effected during the lat six (6) months | | | |

JULY

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
| |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |
|7 |8 |9 |10* |11 |12 |13 |
| | | |Bahamas at 40!! | | | |
|14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |
|21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |
|28 |29 |30 |31 | | |The Lord will |
| | | | | | |fulfill His purpose |
| | | | | | |for me |

AUGUST

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
|God is love | | | |1 |2 |3 |
|4 |5* |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |
|11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |
|18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |
|25 |26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |31 |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR JULY/AUGUST 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | | | | |
|1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |
|8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |
|15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |
|22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |
|29 |30 | | | | |The Bible has a |
| | | | | | |remedy! |

OCTOBER

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
|God has planted | |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |
|eternity in the | | | | | | |
|human heart | | | | | | |
|6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |
|13 |14* |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |
|20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |
|27 |28 |29 |30 |31 | | |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | | | | |
|Pole beans |½ Lb |40 – 48 |3 – 6 |1 – 2 |80 |55 – 70 |
|Sweet corn |2 Oz |24 – 36 |12 – 18 |1 – 2 |115 |60 – 95 |
|Cucumbers |½ Oz |36 – 60 |12 – 24 |1 – 2 |100 |40 – 50 |
|Okra |1 Oz |24 – 40 |6 – 12 |1 – 2 |70 |50 – 75 |
|Sweet pepper |100 plants |20 – 36 |12 – 24 |½ |50 |60 – 80 |
|Sweet potato |100 plants |48 – 54 |12 – 14 |3 – 4 |300 |120 – 140 |
|Pumpkin |1 Oz |60 – 84 |36 – 60 |½ |300 |80 – 110 |
|Staked Tomatoes |70 plants |36 – 48 |18 – 24 |½ |200 |75 – 90 |
|Watermelons |1/8 Oz |84 – 108 |48 – 60 |1 – 2 |400 |80 – 90 |
|Beets |1 Oz |14 – 24 |3 – 5 |½ - 1 |75 |50 – 65 |
|Broccoli |1/8 Oz |30 – 36 |12 – 18 |½ - 1 |50 |55 – 70 |
|Cabbage |1/8 Oz |24 – 36 |12 – 24 |½ - 1 |125 |70 – 90 |
|Carrots |1/8 Oz |16 – 24 |1 – 3 |½ |100 |65 – 80 |
|Onions |1 Oz |12 – 24 |4 – 6 |½ - 1 |100 |110 – 120 |
|Spinach |1 Oz |14 – 18 |3 – 5 |¾ |40 |45 – 60 |

c. Soil Preparation – Good soil preparation, and organic matter addition, are needed to create an homogenous surface; soil tilling/disking/grubbing to a depth of 6 – 9 inches, at 2 weeks before planting to facilitate root penetration; removal of large stones that could harbour pests, and disease, organisms; the removal of weeds at the roots; the removal of weed residues; and leveling of rows as best as is practical, so as to facilitate water, and fertilizer distribution.
d. Organic Matter Addition – Bahamian soils are low in active organic matter, and nutrient-retaining clays. At 4 weeks before planting, (cf. at soil preparation), apply composted animal manures to the planting area at approximately 25 pounds per 100 feet of rows.

TABLE OF GENERAL/AVERAGE MONTHLY WEATHER CONDITIONS

| |Jan |Feb |Mar |Apr |May |Jun |
|God’s plans endure | | | | |1 |2 |
|forever | | | | | | |
|3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |
|10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |
|17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |
|24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |

DECEMBER

|Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday |
|1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |
|8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |
|15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |
|22 |23 |24 |25* |26* |27 |28 |
| | | |Christmas! | | | |
|29 |30 |31 | | | |God’s purposes last |
| | | | | | |eternally |

PURCHASES, EXPENSES, INCOME FOR NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013

|Date |Details |Totals ($) |
| | | | | | | |
| | | |1* |2 |3 |4 |
|5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |
|12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |
|19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |
|26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |30 | |

NOTES:

IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF COMMON CROP PESTS

“We need suitable crop protection measures, ….the increased yields obtained through improved technology are in danger of being wiped out by pests and diseases.” FAO Publication: “Smaller Farmlands Can Yield More”

There is a progressive move towards more organized, more intensive, and more extensive, cultivation of crops, over an extended period of seasons. One side effect of these trends, is the greater risk for economic loss due to pest attack. It is important that growers seek means to introduce strategies to prevent attacks, and to have, in-place, the means to mitigate/minimize losses due to attacks.

• Major pests and damages done

|Crop |Pest |Example |Damages |
|Tomatoes, Melons, |Insect |Stink bug/Aphids |1.Discoloration of fruit; |
|Cantaloupes, Cucumbers | | |2.Opportunities for disease infection in bored holes left; |
| | | |3.Insects excrete ‘honey dew’ on which molds live, cause a |
| | | |reduction in green surfaces and lower crop yields |
|“ |Insect |Fruit worms |4. Bored or chewed leaves and fruit; |
| | | |5. Same as 2, above |
|“ |Mites |Red mites |6. – ditto - |
|“ |Mollusks |Snails/Slugs |7. – ditto - |
|Onions |Insects |Thrips |8. Shriveled leaves and ‘die-back’ from the sucking actions of |
| | | |the pests; |
| | | |9. Same as 2, above |
|“ |Insects |Cut worms |10. Seedlings cut at the base, and death |
|Cabbage |Insects |Loopers |11. Chewed outer leaves |
| | | |12. Same as 2, above |
|Lettuce |Insects |Caterpillars |13. – Ditto |
|“ |Insects |Aphids |14. Same as 2, 3, above |
|Peppers, Carrots, Cassava, |Mollusks |Snails/Slugs |15. Same as 2, 3, above |
|Potatoes | | | |
|“ |Insects |White flies/Aphids |16. Same as 2, 3, and 8, above. |
|“ |Insects |Weevils |17. Burrowed, and spoiled tubers |
|Corn |All of the above | |1 – 17 apply |

NOTES:

• Symptoms to detect infestation/damages

|Symptoms/Damage |Pest group |Example of Control |Application |
|1. Seedlings cut at the base of the |Chewing pest in the soil |Malathion/Sevin dust |Apply as a soil bait, and consider |
|stem | | |replanting |
|2. Extensive chewed/deformed leaves |a. Chewing pest, all over plants, |Malathion liquid |Spray mist |
| |good flyer | | |
| |b. Chewing pest, upper leaves, but |Malathion liquid, Malathion/Sevin |Spray mist, and/or dusting |
| |non-flyer, o |dust | |
| |c. Chewing pest, lower parts of |Malathion, or Sevin dust |Apply as soil bait, and dust for |
| |plants, non-flyers | |lower parts of plants |
|3. Localized chewed leaves |d. Caterpillars |- Ditto - |Dust |
| |e. Mollusk attack |Sail/slug bait |Soil bait, and seek to remove |
| | | |potential soil/rock habitats from |
| | | |areas |
|4. At night, lots of moths about |f. Moths laying eggs in buds, on |Malathion/Sevin dust |Dust |
| |vegetation, or in soil | | |
|5. Deformed leaves and/or young |g. sap-sucking pests |- Ditto -; or. |Dust or spray mist |
|fruit | |Malathion liquid | |
|6. Lots of ants about |- Ditto - |- Ditto - |- Ditto - |

• Cautions –

i. Work to avoid pest issues by rotating crops, plant ‘compatibles’, and by practicing good sanitation in crop areas ii. Take appropriate care in using chemicals for pest control; and make certain that all crops are free of chemical residues before they are handled, or marketed iii. Dispose of all chemical residues, and containers, properly.

NOTES:

LISTING OF CONTACTS

|Name |‘phone |
| |# |
| 1 inch = 25.40 millimeters |1 millimeter = 0.03937 inch |
|1 inch = 2.540 centimeters |1 centimeter = 0.3937 inch |
|1 foot = 30.480 centimeters |1 meter = 39.37 inches |
|1 foot = 0.3048 meters |1 meter = 3.2806 feet |
|1 yard = 91.440 centimeters |1 meter = 1.0936 yards |
|1 yard = 0.9144 meters |1 kilometer = 0.62137 mile |
|1 mile = 1.609 kilometers | |
| | |

mm= millimeter cm = centimeter m = meter km = kilometer yd = yard ft = foot in = inch

AREA

|BRITISH TO METRIC |METRIC TO BRITISH |
|1 sq. inch = 645.16 sq. millimeters |1 sq. millimeter = 0.00155 sq. inch |
|1 sq. inch = 6.4516 sq. centimeters |1 sq. centimeter = 0.1550 sq. inch |
|1 sq. foot = 929.03 sq. centimeters |1 sq. meter = 10.7640 sq. feet |
|1 sq. foot = 0.0929 sq. meters |1 sq. meter = 1.198 sq. yards |
|1 sq. yard = 0.836 sq. meter |1 sq. hectometer = 2.471 acres |
|1 acre = 0.4047 sq. hectometer |1 hectare = 2.471 acres |
|1 acre = 0.4047 hectares |1 sq. kilometer = 0.388 sq. mile |
|1 sq. mile = 2.50 sq. kilometers | |
| | |

VOLUME

|BRITISH TO METRIC |METRIC TO BRITISH |
|1 fluid ounce = 2.957 centiliters = 29.57 cu. cms |1 centiliters = 10 cu. Meter = 0.338 fluid ounce |
|1 pint (liq) = 4.732 deciliters = 473.2 cu. cms |1 deciliter = 100 cu. Centimeter = 0.0528 pint (liq) |
|1 quart (liq) = 0.9463 liter = 0.9463 cu. dms |1 liter = 1 decimeter = 1.0567 quarts (liq) |
|1 gallon (liq) = 3.7853 liters = 3.7853 cu. dms |1 liter = 1 decimeter = 0.26417 gallons (liq) |
| | |

lt = liter cms = centimeters dm = decimeters gal = gallon pt = pint qt = quart

MASS (Weight)

|BRITISH TO METRIC |METRIC TO BRITISH |
|1 ounce (dry) = 28.35 gram |1 gram = 0.03527 ounce |
|1 pound = 0.4536 kilogram |1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds |
|1 short ton (2,000 pounds) = 907.2 kilograms |1 metric ton = 2,204.6 pounds |
|1 short ton (2,000 pounds) = 0.9072 metric ton |1 metric ton = 1.103 tons (short) |
| | |

CALCULATION OF ESTIMATED CROP YIELDS

Crop: ____________________________ (e.g. pigeon peas)

Planted as seed/seedling/sett/stem cutting/root cutting: _____________________
(e.g. pigeon peas from seed and at numbers of seeds per hole based on germination studies)

Planting day(s) ___________, _____________, ___________, _____________, __________

Acreage under cultivation: __________________ (e.g. 2 acres total cultivation)

Dedicated growing area/Inter-cropped area: _____________ (e.g. quarter area, ½ acre to pigeon peas, and to others….., inter-cropping)

Approximate Spacing: __________ (e.g. pigeon peas at 4 ft within rows, and 10 ft between rows, inter-cropping)

Estimation of numbers of plants per acre, for each of the inter-crop species, using the following procedure….. Mark out four (4) areas within each growing area with dimensions of 100 ft x 100 ft = 10,000 sq ft, (i.e. approximately ¼ acre)

|Zones of |Zone 1 |Zone 2 |Zone 3 |Zone 4 |
|100 ft x 100 ft = 10,000 sq | | | | |
|ft | | | | |
|Number of each crop plants |e.g. 50 pigeon pea healthy |e.g. 80 pigeon pea healthy |e.g. 60 pigeon pea healthy |e.g. 100 pigeon pea healthy |
|within a zone |plants |plants |plants |plants |

Average number of plants/10,000 sq ft = ________ x 4 = Plants per acre = ____________
e.g 73 healthy pigeon pea plants/10,000 sq ft x 4 = 290 healthy pigeon plants per acre

Expected plants per acre for dedicated growing of the each crop at prescribed (stated) spacing, and number of planting materials per hole
e.g. for pigeon peas = 500 plants per acre

Weight of harvested, and marketable, crops, per picking, from all plants

|Harvest date |Pounds harvested |Harvest date |Pounds harvested |
|1 |e.g. 50 lbs (green peas) |2 |e.g. 100 lbs (green peas) |
|3 |e.g. 200 lbs (green peas) |4 |e.g. 150 lbs (green peas) |
|5 |e.g. 75 lbs (green peas) |6 |e.g. 50 lbs (green peas) |

Total weight of crop harvested: ____________________ lbs
e.g. 624 lbs (green peas)

Yield = Total weight of crop x Plants/acre (dedicated)/Estimated plants/acre = lbs/acre
e.g. for green pigeon peas, 625 lbs x 500/290 = 10,776 lbs/acre

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