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Farming

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Abdullah10
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SLAUGHTER HOUSE AND CALF FATTENING FARM

Final Project (Introduction to business)
Submitted to: Dr. Robina Yasmeen

Submitted By: Abdullah Mansoor Siddiqui (15419) Hina Zulfiqar (17431) Rida Mansoor (17032) Yasir Khan (17673)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PROJECT BRIEF 2. PROJECT SCOPE 3. CURRENT INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 4. CURRENT MARKET SITUATION 5. EXPORT OF MEAT 6. MEAT MARKET 7. PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY OF MEAT 8. CURRENT MEAT SLAUGHTERING MARKET 9. ISLAM AND SLAUGHTERING 10. -------------------------------------------------
MARKETING
11. -------------------------------------------------
CAPACITY
12. -------------------------------------------------
NO. PRODUCTS SHARE IN PERCENTAGE 13. -------------------------------------------------
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP'S) 14. -------------------------------------------------
HANDLING NEWLY ARRIVED ANIMALS 15. -------------------------------------------------
FEED ADAPTABILITY AND FEEDING SCHEDULE 16. -------------------------------------------------
ANIMAL PERFORMANCE MONITORING 17. -------------------------------------------------
THE SLAUGHTER HOUSE DESIGN 18. FACILITIES, EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS 19. MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT 20. SLAUGHTERING TOOLS

project Brief

The project is about setting up a business where calves will be kept from the age of 8-10 days old and they will be grown under the advisory of vets. They will then be slaughtered and processed into meat products at the age at which ISLAM allows us to Hallal the Calves. The animals that will be commonly slaughter for food are cattle. Then the meat will be processed through the procedure where all the un-hygienic material will be washed out and stamped by the food Inspector. This slaughter house will be set on modern standards and promise to provide highly hygienic meat products for local sales as well as for export purpose.
The major aim of the project will be to increase the production of meat and improve the quality standards along with superior value addition.
They will also be slaughtered under highly waste reduction and efficient manner. Meat will be sold in a manner that it has the most efficient value addition.
The beef fattening farm that is being setup will be productive throughout the year. It will be operative in batches. To the start with 3000 calves will be purchased and they will be retained on Milk Replacer for the first 75 days. The operation will be for approximately 1 year and in 3 batches a year. After the first 75 days the calves will not be fed on Milk Replacer. They will be converted to green fodder. This is the most cost effective and health benefiting feeding mechanism.
In the first year of operation only 3000 calves will be slaughtered, as only the first batch will be ready after 225 days, in the remaining years 9000 calves each year will be available for slaughter.
They will be then be slaughtered in a fully furnished and equipped slaughter house and then the meat will be sold in open market.

Project Scope

The study provides information about the investment opportunity in a Slaughter house. The abattoir will not only be a slaughtering facility but will have animal residence and rearing facility. It will also provide slaughtering and allied services to the local trader. However, some of its capacity will be utilized for slaughtering animals for own supply of meat in the local as well as in the international market, hence contributing towards earning foreign exchange for the country.
The proposed project will also have the potential for further development of animal by-products processing industry.
The slaughterhouse will be technically equipped for slaughtering calves; cows and buffaloes etc. will also have the potential for further operations such as by-product processing/utilization, meat preservation, meat processing butchering and development of meat market.

CURRENT INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

There is a huge shortage of slaughter animals for meat supply. The animal growth cycle needs to fill the gap but rapid increase in daily use, change in consumption patterns, use of more meat in food table and economic up lift has increased the demand by many folds resulting in slaughtering of premature animals, poor carcass quality and increase in price. If this practice continued, there would be a huge gap between supply and demand, forcing the import of meat at large scale. At present small ruminant are mainly coming from the range/rain fed areas where feed resources are not sufficient to bear the animal production requirements. In most of the cases range areas are either overcrowded and mostly without grazing systems, resulting in poor nutrients supply to animals and damage to range lands them-selves. The disappearance of desirable fodder species and propagation of unwanted plants make this situation worsened for future also.
The slaughterhouses present in Pakistan are meeting the only 75% of daily requirements and rest of meat is slaughtered at different areas illegally. Now it is need of time that if public sector cannot meet the changing trade scenario and export standards, the private sector should be developed for this purpose. The loans to set modern abattoir with hygienic production facilities should be granted on easy terms.

Current market situation

In the Islamabad market despite increase in local production of meat and livestock population, meat merchants are persistently jacking up prices by attributing the same to smuggling of live animals and surging meat exports.
They also term the official figures of increasing meat and livestock population as fictitious based on old census.
In absence of any check on rates, many meat merchants are demanding Rs400 to Rs450 per for beef (without bones) and Rs350 per kg with bones.
There is also no uniformity in prices of beef and mutton in the city. Some retailers are charging Rs425 per kg for beef without bones and claiming to be the main supplier of beef in the city. They also assure customers they are selling pure beef of high quality and not offering calf meat as beef meat.
The difference in prices of beef and mutton in different areas like in F-7 the price will be a little higher and in Karachi Company and Peshawar Mor the prices will be a little lower. That rising of a price according to area confuses customer and the seller lost its trust in the buyer.
As consumers are not aware of the quality, majority of them usually pay higher prices for low quality meat presented as high quality one.
The Economic Survey of 2007-08:
It showed rising trend in both animal population and meat production from 2005-06. Cattle population has risen to 31.8 million in 2007-08 from 30.7 million in 2006-07 and 29.6 million in 2005-06. Buffalo population soared to 29 million in 2007-08 from 28.2 million in 2006-07 and 27.3 million in 2005-06.
Population of goats rose to 56.7 million in 2007-08 from 55.2 million in 2006-07 and 53.8 million in 2005-06.
Beef production in 2007-08 increased to 1,549,000 tons from 1,498,000 tons in 2005-06 and 1,449,000 tons in 2004-05. Mutton production in 2007-08 was recorded at 578,000 tons from 566,000 tons in 2006-07 and 554,000 tons in 2005-06.
According to the Federal Bureau of Statistics, export of meat and meat preparations during July-March 2008-09 surged to 19,647 tons ($53 million) as compared to 13,378 tons ($36 million) in the same period of last year. Meat is exported mainly to UAE, Saudi Arabia and Gulf countries. Around 2,200 tons of meat is being exported per month.
The basic reason of increase in meat prices were export of meat and smuggling of live animals to Iran and Afghanistan. As a result, the market is not getting the required livestock supply as per demand. For example, the per capita consumption of meat is 54 grams a day but only 22 gram is being supplied.

Export of Meat

The export of meat from Pakistan is relatively a new segment of country’s trade, as the real commercial level export started in not before that. Thus, the export of meat and meat preparation is not so high; but the export growth rate is quite encouraging.
Pakistan owns a large inventory of livestock, which determines a large size of meat exports in future. So, meat export is bound to be a good contributor to Pakistan’s foreign exchange in the years ahead. In year 2000-01, the export of beef was 715 metric tons (value 1.1 Million US $) whereas 3303 metric tons of mutton (value 5.8 million US $).
Despite an increase in meat production, the prices have moved upward abnormally. The recent increase in meat prices is attributed to the export of live animals or meat to the Middle East and Afghanistan. The country, though rich in livestock, rarely got a chance to export meat or meat products to earn foreign exchange. It was offered an opportunity when various Middle East states stopped importing meat from European countries due to the incidence of the mad cow disease. Meat export from Lahore started in the beginning of the year 2000 when carcasses of goats and large animals were airlifted. The meat was processed under a special arrangement between the exporters and the Metropolitan Corporation of Lahore, which runs four abattoirs in the city. The exports of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep and goat are finding their way to the Gulf States, Iran and Afghanistan where there is a shortage of good quality meat, hence fetches a high price.

Meat Markets

Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is working on an informal basis from animal rising to meat selling. Animal traders purchase animals from the rural areas and sell them to the animal markets in the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Butchers act as meat traders and dominate the meat market both in rural and urban areas. The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to buy these cheap animals. Pakistan is one of the cheapest beef producers in the world as the live weight value per kilogram is lowest in the world because of the cheap raw materials available.

Per Capita Availability of Meat

Per capita availability of meat is 12 kg, most of which is from buffalo and cattle. It may, however, be mentioned that population statistics and statistics on the availability of products from various sources differ drastically. To meet the domestic demand of meat, the rate of growth must be at least 5-7 % per annum.
The demand of livestock food products is growing fast because Pakistan's human population is increasing at the rate of 2.9 per cent annually. If population pressure continues to grow and livestock production stays at the same level, then food deficit may become larger. According to one recent survey, in coming years, milk, red meat and poultry meat deficit will be 9.72, 0.17 and 0.14 million tons if our livestock production stays at the same level.
Therefore there is need of establishment of slaughterhouse facilities of a sufficiently high standard but still simple would improve the situation. Therefore, this prefeasibility study has been made of a medium size slaughterhouse equipped with medium level semi mechanized technology. By providing value-added services, the slaughterhouse can utilize the abundant and unexplored resources of Pakistan.

current meat slaughtering market

A slaughterhouse is demanding by the meat exporters since 2001. Pakistan is suffering very much due to the lack of meat processing plants. Slaughterhouses are small and most are located in congested areas adding that they are unhygienic, with no modern technology and had insufficient transportation facilities.
Animals are slaughtered primitively, which affects the export of meat and meat by-products.

Around 200,000 goats or sheep and 20,000 buffaloes or cows are slaughtered every month to supply 160,000 kg of beef and 140,000 kg of mutton daily.
Pakistan could not penetrate Middle Eastern markets even when the “mad cow” disease broke out in Europe because the country had an unhygienic and conventional slaughtering system. Trade delegations from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates visited government slaughterhouses some years ago and disallowed meat exports to their countries for lack of hygiene in Pakistani slaughterhouses.
Government had allocated Rs 51 million to upgrade and standardize the vaccination laboratories and for their ISO certification. The livestock director general for research was asked to inspect the laboratories.
The government also allocated Rs 96 million to the University of Veterinary Sciences to set up a reference laboratory.

Islam and slaughtering

Islam introduced the concept of slaughter, where a naturally Halal animal would have to be properly slaughtered prior to consumption. The act of slaughtering is to ensure the quality of meat and to avoid any microbial contamination. For example, a dead but not slaughtered animal is normally associated with disease.
Therefore, slaughtering is mandatory to ensure the complete drainage of blood from the animal's body, thus minimizing the chance of microbial infection. This is compatible with the overall concept of cleanliness that is always emphasized in Islam.

To determine the Halal/Haram status of foodstuffs and other materials, Islam has laid general guidelines on this matter.
The production of Halal food is not only beneficial to Muslims, but also to non-Muslim food producers, by means of an increased market acceptance of their products.

Unhygienic slaughter houses

A large number of small slaughterhouses are scattered all over the country, some are licensed and others are not. A majority of licensed places lack modern amenities which are built and controlled by the municipal committees providing anti-mortem and post-mortem facilities under qualified veterinary officer.
The unlicensed slaughterhouses are spread in the villages without any proper plan. They do not provide any facilities and are devoid of a qualified veterinary officer.
The slaughtering of livestock in cities like Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar is done in the municipal slaughterhouses, and at times in the streets and at shops. Butchers prefer to slaughter animals at their convenience.
MARKETING

The proposed slaughterhouse will identify and develop such services and products that will help to cater the unfulfilled market for quality meat and its by-products in an effective and efficient manner on the following grounds:
The slaughterhouse, duly equipped with modern facilities and hygienic standards, can carve a niche in the existing market through properly defined segments and create a competitive strength over municipality-owned and managed slaughterhouses. This unique marketing position can be attained through formulation an adequate marketing mix. The slaughterhouse can achieve differential competitive advantage by.

* Physical differentiation through distinguishing own product in quality and appearance * Psychological differentiation through labeling, stamping, packing advertisement, salesmanship and sales promotion * Differentiation through its distinctive environment of pleasant surroundings, personal attention and improved services * Differentiation through physical distribution capabilities by making meat readily available at customers’ doorstep * Differentiation through pricing and terms of sales and services

The decision of selecting the distribution channel will be based on the identification of target market.

For local market, the slaughterhouse can target the needs of health conscious people through departmental stores, chain stores, other retail outlets, but in the initial stage, opening of own retail outlet is not recommended, because it will require investment and specialized skills of retailing business.

CAPACITY

The capacity of the proposed slaughterhouse is 1500 cows and 1100 buffalo calves. They will be grown and kept till they reach to a certain age. Cow calves will be grown to 30 months and buffalo calves till the age of 15 – 18 months.

No. Products Share in Percentage

Table Products {Cattle (beef, Veal)}
Sr.No. Products Share in Percentage

1 | Veal meat(Bone less) 40% | 40% | 2 | Minced meat 35% | 35% | 3 | Mixed meat | 25% |

Following by products can/will also serve as a revenue generating source.
Table By Products
Sr. No. By Products

1 | Skin | 2 | Feet and Head | 3 | Intestines | 4 | Pluck | 5 | Dried Blood |

Table Services
Sr. No Services (Facility)

1 | Cold Storage | 2 | Slaughtering Service |
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP's)

Keeping in view the specific requirement of the project on “Livestock production and development for meat production”, Standard Operating Procedures have been prepared including identifying animal resources, animal selection, procurement and transportation; handling of newly arrived animals at fattening farm; their adaptability to fattening feeds and feeding practices and animal performance monitoring. The details of the SOP's are given in the proceeding paragraphs.

Animal Resources, Selection and Procurement

In Pakistan, the beef resources are usually the male and female buffalo and cows, male and female calves/yearlings and sick, emaciated and old animals. However, the potential large ruminants which can be used for feedlot fattening are:

1. Male buffalo and cow calves/yearling 2. Old and out of work bullocks 3. Infertile, old and emaciated buffalo and cows

However, during the project activities, buffalo and cow calves/yearling will be involved in feedlot fattening. Selection of proper animal at the time of procurement is a key to success for supervision of animals should be done during transportation to avoid any untoward incident.

During long distance transportation, water should be provided to the animals periodically.

Handling Newly Arrived Animals

Most critical period for incoming animals at the farm is almost first two weeks. Following guidelines pertaining to new incoming animals will minimize diseases and death losses and maximize performance and profitability.

1. Make sure that information is given to farm management about the expected number of animals, date and approximate time of their arrival, so that all necessary preparations can be made well in time.

2. Make sure that prior to the arrival of new animals, housing premises are properly cleaned and disinfected; water stations are functioning and feeding troughs repaired, disinfected and thoroughly cleaned.

3. Rest, fresh water, good feed, proper medication and Tender Loving Care (TLC) are essential for preventing shipping fever and death losses·

4. Give the animals’ easy access to clean fresh water because they are usually dehydrated and thirsty upon arrival and will drink water before they eat feed.

5. Open water tanks are preferable for this purpose.

6. Provide palatable ration so that animals should start eating soon after they are unloaded at the fattening place to reduce the transportation stress and to make the animal recover their weight loss more rapidly.

7. Make sure that animals get 24 - 48 hours rest and only after that they should be carefully transferred to handling yard for treatment against internal and external parasites. All weak animals should be injected with vitamin A and a combination of other fat and water soluble vitamins.

8. The animals that show clinical signs of disorders i.e., sunken eyes, runny nose, labored breathing; dry mouth should be isolated in a separate sick pen and treated accordingly.

Therefore, attention should be paid for proper and effective procurement of the calves/yearlings and for this purpose following are the general guidelines:

1. It is important that the purchase of the animals should preferably be made by using the weighing scale. In the absence of the weighing scale, assistance of the experienced person should be acquired to estimate the weight of animals.

2. Before purchasing the animals, their health status should be monitored and examination of mouth (buckle cavity) should be performed. Eyes of the animal should also be examined to identify the diseased and anemic conditions. Examination of nostrils for running nose should also be undertaken.

3. General view of the skin should be taken to judge whether the animal is suffering from warble fly or other infectious diseases.

4. Male buffalo and cow calves/yearlings should preferably be used for feedlot fattening as they produce more beef than females of the same age.

5. The calves/yearlings should be healthy, vigorous, active and non-emaciated.

6. The calves/yearlings should be of normal built up, almost uniform in weight, size and age. Slightly underweight calves/yearlings will perform better for weight gain purposes as they have the ability to catch the compensatory growth.

Transportation of Animals

Following points should be kept in mind to minimize the stress and risks during the transportation of the animals.

1. Before loading the purchased calves/yearlings in the truck, they should be given anti-pyretic and terramycine injection to avoid stress during transportation.

2. Proper bedding of the truck either with dried grass or wheat straw/rice straw should be provided to avoid injury.

3. Loading of the calves/yearlings should be done according to the available space in the truck to avoid suffocation and injury.

4. Initially, a palatable Transit Ration having high fibre should be introduced and then gradually shift to feedlot fattening ration. This will help to avoid any digestive problem.

5. Make sure that all animals are weighed on arrival and given some kind of identity (neck tags, ear tags, etc.).

6. Consult the veterinarian or feedlot fattening officer to know the vaccination schedule and source of good vaccine. Ensure that all the animals are vaccinated as per recommended vaccination schedule.

7. Ensure that animals are grouped according to their specie (buffalo or cow), weight, category, sex.

8. Incoming animals for fattening are usually deficient for minerals, especially if they have been on dry roughage or grazing. Therefore, mineral mixture should be offered free choice.

9. Feed should be offered daily in the morning and evening almost on fixed time.

10. Generally, fattening animals will consume daily an average amount (on air dry basis) equal to 3 percent of their body weight. Therefore, the animals should be offered feed at the rate of slightly more than 3 percent of their body weight.

Feed Adaptability and Feeding Schedule
The feed given to the animals kept and reared for the purpose of slaughtering is milk replacer formulae. It is almost half the cost of growing calves on fresh milk. It is cost efficient and readily available and most suitable for meat fattening.
Animals to be fattened should be gradually introduced to a high concentrate fattening ration to avoid lactic acidosis. It is always advisable to start feeding animals on a high roughage ration “Transit Ration” and then shifting them gradually to fattening feed (high concentrate ration). This is essential to avoid bloat and diarrhoea. However, new animals for feedlot fattening should be put on fattening feed as rapidly as possible.
Overfeeding and underfeeding is undesirable and thus should be avoided. Overfeeding usually result in wasteful of feed and health hazard.
Under feeding generally decrease the rate of gain, adversely affects feed efficiency, and increases cost of gains. Therefore, daily feeds intake should be mentioned and quantity of feed to be offered be adjusted accordingly.

Animal Performance Monitoring
Complete and well-kept record is an essential element to monitor the financial and biological performance of animals under feedlot fattening operation. Therefore, record book or computer should be used to maintain and facilitate record keeping.

Following are the key points for the record keeping:

Basic Record
- Date of purchase of animals
- Purchase price of animals
- Purchase weight of animals
- Cost of transportation of animals
- Sale weight of animals
- Sale price of animals

Fattening Performance Record
- Date of starting feedlot fattening
- Initial body weight of each animal
- Daily feed offered
- Fortnightly weight of each animal
- Final weight of each animal
- Feed to gain ratio
- Date of de-worming
- Date of vaccinations
- Maintenance of health record.
Other Record
- Feed cost per kg
- Mortality
- Maintenance and repair costs

The slaughter house design

The Slaughtering facility will be located in the agricultural area near Karachi. The plant, build on 12 acres of land, comprises of two abattoirs, Cold Storage units, Lairage, Offal Area, Management Offices and Canteen and Residence for staff.

Production

It will have state of the art slaughtering and storage facility. The fully automated Slaughtering plant has been imported from Australia which is the third largest meat processing country in the world. The plant has capacity of 40 heads per hour the plant is the largest private slaughtering house in Pakistan. Foreign technicians and experts were involved in setting up of the plant and in the training of the staff.
The plant has been developed keeping international standards of food safety and hygiene. The entire construction and design has been made to prevent contamination and bacteria from affecting the food.
All floors, walls, covings, doors, windows, ceilings / over-head fixture and stairs, in the production area, are constructed of material that is durable easy to clean and suitable for arduous nature of slaughter house.

In order to prevent contamination the plant also comprises of laboratory where our food technicians and microbiologist perform and evaluate several tests for potential microbiological and bacterial growth that may harm the meat. Appropriate proactive measures are taken to prevent any potential contamination.

Furthermore our Quality Assurance team comprises of food technicians and Veterinary doctors who insure that all SOPs related to food safety, hygiene and meat quality are implemented at fullest. The veterinary doctors perform ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection of animals and meat in order to ensure that the animal that is to be slaughtered is in good health and free from diseases and the animals’ meat that is eventually obtained is fit and healthy for human consumption.

Laboratory and Quality Assurance

In order to prevent contamination the plant also comprises of laboratory where our food technicians and microbiologist perform and evaluate several tests for potential microbiological and bacterial growth that may harm the meat. Appropriate proactive measures are taken to prevent any potential contamination.
Furthermore our Quality Assurance team comprises of food technicians and Veterinary doctors who insure that all SOPs related to food safety, hygiene and meat quality are implemented at fullest. The veterinary doctors perform ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection of animals and meat in order to ensure that the animal that is to be slaughtered is in good health and free from diseases and the animals’ meat that is eventually obtained is fit and healthy for human consumption.

Chillers and Cold Storage

Due to perishable nature of our product and to increase its shelf life chillers, freezers and Cold storage rooms have been developed. The total freezing capacity is around 40 tons at a time.
Managing temperature effectively is very critical for food safety. The temperature is reduced so as to retard the microbial growth and increase the shelf life of the meat. Thus trained and qualified staff has been appointed to ensure that each of the chiller, freezer and cold storage so as to ensure appropriate temperature is achieved before the product is eventually shipped.

Transportation

The facility has several refrigerated trucks to carry its products from the plant to the port. The product rapped in cotton cloth is placed in refrigerated trucks. The refrigerator in trucks are deigned to maintain the temperature of the meat so as to avoid any bacterial growth.
These refrigerated trucks are cleaned every time a new shipment is prepared so as to avoid any cross contamination prior to loading of the product.

OPERATIONAL PROCESSES

Lairage
The animal should be given rest for at least 12-18 hours before slaughtering and only water should be given to it in this process.

Slaughtering
Slaughters are done manually. The animal being cast down is laid on its back, while the neck vessels and passages (esophagus and trachea) are severed by a single slash of a sharp knife. Bleeding proceeds to completion.

2 Req. Area per small animal is 15 sq.ft, per large animal is 50 sq.ft,( 2 days animals in stock)

Bleeding
Slaughtered animals must be positioned first for bleeding. A vertical or hanging position is achieved by shackling below the hock of one hind leg and hoisting the animal (head down) to a convenient height. Alternatively, the animal can be placed horizontally on a concrete slab or a sturdy plastic pallet for bleeding.

Hoist bleeding is more hygienic and is recommended. It also facilitates collection of blood for further use.

Skinning
It is removing the skin of animals. Skinning will be done in hanging position with facilities/equipment of railing, the individual carcasses one after another.

Eviscerating
The next step is to cut open the animal body to dislodge the contents and produce the carcass. It is important that the carcass remains or is placed in the hanging position on railing.

Post-mortem Inspection
Inspection will be carried out by professional veterinarians and public health inspectors are to be employed, as it is required by the MCL. (Provision of their salaries has been provided in the financial analysis). Their duty is to examine the slaughter products for evidence of disease and abnormality and reject/eliminate them from the public meat supply.

Rigor Mortis process
Before chilling, for at least 2-4 hours, air is provided by fans to carcasses in a separate room.

HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
To improve slaughter hygiene and meat quality, reduce raw material losses, increase utilization of by-products, and thereby increase profitability. To meet this objective, proper training is required for the meat workers who are to operate these facilities.

FACILITIES, EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS

Water and Drainage
The slaughterhouse must have a dependable source of clean water, preferably pipeborne, to maintain hygienic and sanitary services in the plant. The water must be well distributed in terms of point-location inside the premises and must be hot, if possible, for hygienic washing of products and facilities.

It would be useful, to install a reservoir or tank on the premises as a security against shortages and breakdown of pumps.

Drainage of water is one of the main considerations in any slaughterhouse. All washings or wet cleaning must course over the slaughter floor into a collecting drainage and empty eventually outside the building. The floor should be designed to slope toward the main collecting drain, the latter in turn to slope toward exterior connecting pipes. The walls must have a hard smooth surface to prevent staining with blood and fat and hence facilitate cleaning; on the other hand, the floor must be rough or grooved to forestall slipping.

Lighting and Ventilation
Lighting is another important requirement of the slaughterhouse. Electricity connection will be obtained from WAPDA, but a diesel generator is provided for emergency supply of electricity. Transparent insets can also be made in the roofing at vantage points to provide natural lighting or sky lighting. Wide lintel windows (e.g. aluminum frame), covered with gauze to exclude insects, also serve the same purpose, as well as provide ventilation.

Equipment
The standard installation and equipment required in modern slaughterhouse are those necessary to effect a rapid and hygienic conversion of livestock into meat.

Machinery & Equipment 1. Weighing scale 2. Lab equipment 3. Tube lights 4. Sorting tables 5. Conveyor/hooks 6. Trolleys 7. S.S hooks with bearing 8. Over-head mobile hook 9. Chiller Hooks 10. Slaughtering kit& equipment 11. Mincing machines 12. Booring

Slaughtering Tools

Relatively fewer tools are required for the slaughter and some can be made by local metal workshops or blacksmiths. The most commonly used slaughtering tools are;

Skinning Knife
As the name implies, this knife is used for the removal of the animal's skin. Also with a six-inch blade and characteristically curved backwards to allow for ease of operation, it can be used to scrape off burned hair from carcasses being dressed with the skin-on.

Meat Saw
A replaceable blade handsaw, which is used in sawing through bone

Meat Chop:
Also called the cleaver, the meat chop is a heavy axe used for separating heavy structures, e.g. the head from the neck or the shanks from the leg.

Spreader:
A metal device for suspending the animal body and spreading out the legs for dressing and inspection

Grinding and Honing Stones:
Grinding stones are coarse grained and used for the initial sharpening of knives into thin edges, and then finished with the homer, which is of fine-grain to provide extra thinness. Either oil or water may be used in sharpening knives to prevent the stone from heating the knives.

Steel:
A long, tapering rounded and smooth metal rod on which knives is smoothened from time to time to improve keenness

Meat Tree/Hooks:
Metal devices with bent-out curved ends for holding or displaying parts of the slaughtered meat and offal for washing and inspection

Van
A chiller van which includes reefer container and refrigeration systems will be required for delivery of meat, especially for the delivery to airport for export of meat.

Raw Material
The following is the material used for cleaning purposes.

 Sulfuric Acid
 Caustic Soda
 Ferric Chloride
 Sodium Hypochlorite
 Coagulation Material (Alum)
 Anion & Cation Resins

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...Organic Farm Business Plan Freedom Farm Submitted for Commerce 492.3, University of Saskatchewan 2001 Rosalind Ball Heather Hack Murray Nelson Myles Thorpe Executive summary Introduction Organic farming in Canada, and Saskatchewan in particular, has steadily increased especially in recent years. Reasons for the increase in organic food production are: market premiums of 2 to 2.5 times the conventional market price; an expansion in the consumer sector willing to pay the higher prices demanded by organic food; an expansion of markets in the developed world where Saskatchewan farm exports traditionally are targeted; and lower input prices due to organic production. This document is a proposed business plan, with a financial model, for setting up and operating an organic grain farm in Saskatchewan. The business is new, and is named Freedom Farm. Financial performance is projected for a ten-year period from 2002 to 2012. To sell organic produce at premium, Freedom Farm will obtain organic creditation from the Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The mission statement of Freedom farm is: To provide quality organic produce to suit customer demand while maintaining soil fertility and crop productivity. Operations Plan The proposal is for the establishment of a new organic grain production business in Kipling, South East Saskatchewan. The proposed business is a sole......

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Factory Farming

...burgers and 627 million pounds of bacon. Contrary to popular belief, all this meat is not raised on Old McDonald's farm ("Factory-Farming.com", 2010-2015). As arable land has declined over the last 100 years along with farmers as a percentage of the U.S. population, factory farms have taken their place ("How is Land in The United States Used? A Focus on Agricultural Land", n.d.). However, while factory farms produce more food optimizing economies of scale, modern technologies, and genetic engineering, factory farming more often than not incorporate abusive treatment to the animals. Factory Farming is an inhumane way of producing meat and dairy products due to its common practices of confined living conditions, wide usage of antibiotics and genetic engineering, and slaughterhouse practices. One of the most common forms of animal cruelty in factory farms is the overcrowded and confined living areas of the animals. Chickens are the most confined animal in Factory Farming with up to 120,000 birds on one farm. (Madhani, 2015). Both egg-laying hens and fryer chickens are housed in “battery cages”. Battery cages hold between five and ten hens with each hen allotted between 67 - 76 sq. inches (less than the size of a standard sheet of letter paper). Being confined to such a small area creates multiple physical and mental problems for the chickens. Among the more common noted problems is the inability to spread their wings, standing up, nesting, perching, and dust bathing.......

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...Why the government should Subsidize Organic Farming Organic farming is a farming method focused on advancing environmental and ecosystem benefits, as opposed to the external output in farming. It promotes the health of the ecosystem, biodiversity, and the soil biological activity. Government subsidies farmer receive are aimed at promoting healthy and beneficial and responsible farming. To understand why it is crucial for the government to subsidize organic farming, it is good to evaluate the benefits that accrue from organic farming. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the gains achievable if the government was to subsidize organic farming. One of the focuses of most governments is the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG). A UN framework for climate change is now a key focus for most governments. One way of achieving this is the subsidizing farmers to do organic farming. The aim of doing that is that, by the use of organic farming methods, the increase in greenhouse gases reduces. The essence of this is to reduce the number of energy intensive farming that have a negative impact on farming. In addition, using less energy intensive methods means more saving on the inputs and additional benefits to the farmers. This is important since, over the years, the gains and benefits for farming have reduced. That is because, of among other things, bad weather, and scares of public health. Therefore, promoting a method that will directly benefits the farmer and the environment......

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Factory Farming

...December 2015 Should Factory Farming Be Acceptable in Our Society? Since the past fifty years, farming operations in the United States have developed from individualized production to mass production, which is known today as factory farming. Factory farming is a method of food and fiber production which exploits animals in a confined environment (Marcus). As the demand for meat continues to increase, the modern agricultural practice of factory farming also continues to increase to meet the food consumption of humans. Factory farms consist of a large number of animals confined in small spaces to minimize operation costs; this mass production has decreased the price of meat as the factories produce an excess amount of meat to satisfy the demand. However, although Americans are fulfilled with the abundant amount of cheap meat, the practice of factory farming causes serious consequences for animals, humans, and the environment. This unhealthy practice has led to problems such as pollution, inhuman animal treatment, and human illness. Therefore, for all these reasons, many people have stated that factory farming is morally and ethically wrong. Since factory farms wield tremendous power in our society, they have become a controversial topic, with many people questioning whether they are detrimental or beneficial to our society. While opponents believe that the costs of factory farming outweigh the benefits, supporters rather believe that factory farming is needed in our current......

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Fish Farming

...Fish farming Fish farming or pisciculture is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Worldwide, the most important fish species used in fish farming are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish.[1][2] There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries, China holding 62 percent of the world's fish farming practice.[3] Fish farming offers fish marketers another source. However, farming carnivorous fish, such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries, since carnivorous farmed fish are usually fed fishmeal and fish oil extracted from wild forage fish. The global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO in 2008 totalled 33.8 million tonnes worth about $US 60 billion.[4] In 2005, aquaculture represented 40% of the 157.5 million tons of seafood that was produced, meaning that it has become a critical part of our world's food source even though the industry is still technically in its 'infancy' and didn't really become well known until the 1970s. Because of this rise in aquaculture, there has been a rise in the per capita availability of seafood globally within the last few decades.[5] Major categories of...

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...Fish Farming | Benefits and Costs | Hailey Devitt 3/28/2011 | English 160 Module # 4 & 5 Assignment # 5 Formal Report North Island College Section: Distance Submitted To Derek Hanebury March 28, 2011 Submitted by: Ms. H. Devitt Table of contents Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 1 Introduction & Background……………………………………………………………………………………Page 2 Major Issues…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 2 & 3 Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 3 & 4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 4 Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………………………….………….Page 5 Executive Summary Fish farming in Canada has recently taken quite the spotlight, for good or for worse that is the question that needs to be addressed. I feel the negatives greatly outshine the positives at this point in time; the wild salmon stocks are currently in danger and fish farming is taking double the amount of wild salmon to produce half the amount of farmed fish. The fish coming from the farms are dubious to say the least; they produce a chemical, disease ridden product that is not beneficial for consumption. There are many issues around the benefits of the actual fish, and what it might do to the wild if they are interbred and mixed among the wild salmon. However like everything along with the negatives come some benefits of these farms. There is a major industry with fish farming......

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Factory Farming

...Benefits of Factory Farming What are the benefits of factory farming? Factory farming or industrial agriculture involves the exploitation of animals so as to ensure profits, particularly in the dairy and meat industries. As such, engaging in this kind of farming not only offers high profits, but it also guarantees more productivity. Cheap food production: Due to the use of technology and “economies of scale,” they produce food at less cost than smaller farms, thus enabling customers to save money on food purchases (1). Efficiency: The ability to efficiently produce and distribute huge quantities of food to feed large cities (1). Employment: Factory farms provide employment to nearby communities (1). Capital: Supporters argue that factory farms do invest in the communities in which they operate (1). In today’s technology factory farming and also applying chemical products, food is produced at lower costs as compared to smaller farms. A cheaper production that benefits the producers and the consumers. Meaning producers will have better profits. Consumers can enjoy on the lower priced products. The capability of providing large amounts of food is vital in huge cities. This high efficiency will benefit the people in those particular cities ensuring they always have food. Stopping food shortages is a major factory farming benefit. The produced food product can be quickly distributed to its consumers, thus supporting better overall health. Employment of factory farming requires......

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...Freedom Lost, Factory Farming With Egg Laying Chickens Katelyn Felix Upper Iowa University Filth, confinement, disease, mutilation, and deprivation are a few things that come to mind when factory farming is mentioned. It is a rapidly growing problem in the United States. Factory farming first started in the 1930’s on a low scale. New kinds of incubators lead to chickens being able to be produced in larger quantities in large scale operations. After World War II the increased demand of eggs led to specialized breading and an increase in factory farming in the United States. Soon following suit between the 1960’s and 1970’s was the boom of fast food chains thus increasing the demand for cheap, fast products (Safe for Animals, 2012). Mass production swept the nation at the expense of the animals and our health. This movement cannot be stopped unless people can get informed with what is happening in these factory farms, and possible alternatives to better our nation’s moral standing. Factory farming of egg laying hens is when they are kept under strict guidelines with intensive methods in order to achieve mass production, in this case, of eggs. These hens are deprived of life, they are only used as means of production and might as well be categorized as machines. First let’s discuss the killing and disposal of chickens in this industry. In the egg industry obviously hens are the only useful chicken to these business owners, seeing as males cannot produce eggs, because of......

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Organic Farming

...Organic Farming The organic industry has become popular in recent years, but some do not know there is a difference between organic and natural. The word "organic" refers to the way farmers grow and process agricultural products (mayoclinic.com). Organic farming methods encourage soil, water conservation, and reduce pollution; farmers who grow organic produce and meat don't use conventional methods to fertilize, control weeds or prevent livestock disease (mayoclinic.com). With consumers looking for healthier options, organic seems like it would be a perfect option. However, with so many guidelines farmers need to follow the price for buying organic exceeds that of non-organic. Demand for organic milk and dairy has grown universally since the society has become more aware of what hormones and genetically modified organisms (GMO) have gone into the items we eat and drink. For example, in the case of GMO’s food is altered to a form that does not occur naturally in nature (livestrong.com). Plants repel insects, resist viruses while others are treated in a way that allows herbicides to be sprayed without harming the crop itself (livestrong.com). Although demand for organic is on the rise buyers have to do research on the items they are buying is truly organic and not just labeled as natural. In order for a farm to be natural all they have to do is put a label on their products. In the United States neither the FDA nor the USDA has rules or regulations for......

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...Today’s farms not only abuse the animals but also produce harmful diseases and environmental hazards to each and every one of us, regardless whether you consume these animals of not. The U.S. government should ban the use of factory farming animals Factory farming should be illegal in the United States because the food produce is poor quality food. The meat from the animals in factory farms is mechanically removed, which means it it ripped from the bone and other parts of the body by a machine(Hurst). Factory farms even use parts of the body that most people wouldn't use such as: lips, eyes, testicels, and anal tracts are included in sausage and patties(Hurst). The excess meat is then blended up and added in with the other meat to make a larger profit. The food from factory farms may be cheaper the nutritional foods. Organic food continues to cost on average several times more than food from factory farms, but no one goes to farmers’ markets for bargains. But not all costs can be measured by a price tag. Once you become sick with health problems due to the poor quality of the food and have to pay for treatment. The animals are injected with a variety of drugs and hormones to increase growth and production ("Natural resources defense council"). Which is then passed onto the consumer in the food or meal making the food unhealthy for your body ("Natural resources defense council"). The drugs and hormones that are in the food that you ingest can disrupt the human hormone......

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...Topic: Factory Farming Organizational Pattern: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Specific Purpose: To persuade the audience that factory farms are dangerous and abusive and therefore need to be banned. Primary Audience Outcome: I want the audience to join or support national organizations that protest against factory farms. Thesis Statement: The government should ban factory farms and require the meat industry to raise animals in their natural environments. The process of preparing the project: I start with information finding in week 3 by referring to youtube suggested by the lecturer. Then I choose a topic: Factory Farming. I prepare the script for the speech by referring to a few website that I got from google search. I narrow down the main ideas that I want to include in my topic: 1) disadvantages/ danger of factory farming; 2) suggestion to replace factory farming; 3) action that need to be done. Apart from that, I prepare the material supporting my presentation that include the visual for factory harming so that audience can give full attention to the topic, arouse their interest to know more and continue listening to my speech. The Script guideline: I. Attention: Close your eyes and step into the world of an individual. You are born into a world where nights and days are never constant (attention getter). You are fed three to five times a day, but no one is there to nurture you. Not even the numerous others crammed into your living space. You grow...

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