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Fatigue Control Method

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Fatigue Wear Control Method
Lowering the coefficient of friction between two contact surface is the most effective way of preventing fatigue-based wear. The surface traction forces are insufficient for delamination in sliding or contact fatigue in rolling to occur if low coefficient friction. Another important aspect in controlling fatigue wear in both sliding and rolling is the material “cleanliness”. Clean material with with minimum imperfections should be selected for sliding and rolling contacts. Enhancement of material properties such as hardness, to reduce crack growth can also be benificial in some cases. However, this method is limited by the increased brittleness of hard materials. These are several methods that used in industry to control fatigue wear.
1.Surface compression Higher strength metal such as hard alloy and steel that defects or flaws in the surface produce effect on fatigue life lby acting as points of stress concentration. These stress risers may include foreign matter, void, nicks and scratched produced in the drawing or other fabtication operation, scale due to heat treatment or tempering, defects produced in packing and shipping or in manufacturing operations such as coiling and grinding. All of this reduce fatigue life has been known for many years that surface compression will reduce the adverse effect of these defects and flaws on fatigue life by eliminating or masking their effect. Surface compression can be introduced by performing shot peening, laser peening, ultrasonic impact treatement or laser peening. 1.1 Shot peening

Cold working process in which small spkerical media called shot bombard the surface of a part. Each shot that strike the surface acts like a tiny peeing hammer, imparting the surface. The surface must in yield in tension in order to creat the dimple. The material will try to restore its original shape at below the surface, then producing a hemisphere of cold-worked material highly stress in compression.

1.2 Laser peening

Laser peening is the process of hardening metal using powerful laser. A unique high energy laser is fired at the surface of a metal part. The laser will impact impart a layer of residual compressive stress.

2. Hardening Hardening is metallurgical process that used to increase hardness of material.hardness of metal is directly propotional to uniaxial yield strength. More harder metal will have more high resistance to plastic deformation. High resistance og plastic deformation will slow the fatigue process.
3. Coating Coating is a covering that applied to the surface of an object. Its involve the application of thin firm of functional material to a substrate. Coating may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. Surface properties such as roughness, hardness and plasticity are critical to preventing wear and fatigue. Instead of “surface finishing” a surface, to improve its anti-wear and anti-fatigue properties, coating can be applied. Coating are applied to surface to prevent wear during the initial operation of a machine part (break-in).

4. Drill stop Fatigue crack that have begun to propogate can sometimes be stop by drilling holes, called drill stop in the path of fatigue crack. However, this method has limitation that is the holes represent a stress concentration factor which depends on the hole and geometry, though the hole is typically less of a stress concentration than the removed tip of the crack. They a re still possibility that the crack will initiate at the side of the hole. It is always better to replace the part entirely.
5. Design against fatigue The behavior of a component under fatigue loading does not not only on the fatigue or endurance limit of the material used in making it, but also an several other factors including: * Size and shape of the component or structure * Type of loading and state of stress * Stress concentration * Surface finish * Operating temperature * Service environment * Method of fabrication
Other fatigue-design criteria: * Safe-life or finite-life * Design is based on the assumption that the component is free from flaws, but stress level in certain areas is higher than the endurance limit of the material * Means that fatigue-crack initiation is inevitable and the life of the component is estimated on the number of stress cycles which are necessary to initiate crack

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