Free Essay

Feasibility Study

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kohlenroth
Words 38786
Pages 156
Child Care Center
Feasibility Study
Mariposa County

November 2009

Prepared by Chevon Kothari, Jill Harry, and Megan Rogers, Consultants, for the Mariposa County Local Child Care Planning Council
"Promoting and supporting a community-wide effort that results in a child care system that meets the needs of our children."

Table of Contents

LCP Mission and Goals -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv
Age Ranges Defined ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v
Local Child Care Planning Council Member List -----------------------------------------------------vi
Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Section I: Community Information ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
Mariposa County Profile ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
Nature of the Child Care Industry ------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Existing Child Care Options in Mariposa County ------------------------------------------------ 6
Section II: Survey Data -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
Summary of the 2009 Child Care Needs Assessment --------------------------------------------- 9
Child Care Needs Survey Results ------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
Family Child Care Homes Survey Results --------------------------------------------------------- 19
Section III: Child Care Center Licensing and Operation Requirements ------------------------ 25
The California Department of Social Services Community Care Licensing Division ---- 25
The California Department of Education Child Care and Development Programs ------ 26
Section IV: Costs and Income of Operating a Child Care Center --------------------------------- 34
Estimated Costs Involved in Opening and Operating a Child Care Center ---------------- 34
Income, Profitability & Funding of a Child Care Center --------------------------------------- 41
Section IV: Summary & Conclusions ------------------------------------------------------------------- 47
Appendixes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 470
Appendix A: Child Care Needs Survey Results --------------------------------------------------- 49
Appendix B: Family Child Care Home Provider Survey Results ----------------------------- 57

Page ii

Appendix C: Sample Child Care Center Annual Budget---------------------------------------- 63
Appendix D: Sample Child Care Center Start Up Costs Budget ------------------------------ 65
Appendix F: Sample Child Care Center Expenses and 3-Month Reserve Budget -------- 71
Appendix G: Resources for Starting a Child Care Center -------------------------------------- 72
Appendix H: California Department of Education Subsidized Ceilings for 2009 --------- 80
Appendix I: Focus Group and Case StudiesChild Care Provider Focus Group ------------ 81
Child Care Provider Focus Group -------------------------------------------------------------- 81
Case Study 1: Children’s Center ----------------------------------------------------------------- 84
Case Study 2: St. Luke’s School Preschool Program ---------------------------------------- 87
Case Study 3: UC Merced Early Childhood Education Center --------------------------- 89
Case Study 4: The Associated Students Children’s Center, Chico State University -- 92
Case Study 5: Acorn Tree ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 94

Page iii

LCP Mission and Goals
Mission
On behalf of Mariposa children, the Local Child Care Planning Council is dedicated to promoting and supporting a community-wide effort that results in a child care system that meets the needs of all our children.

Goals
The Local Child Care Planning Council Will:
 Promote and enhance public awareness of child care issues.
 Develop a variety of child care choices.
 Work to improve the quality of child care in Mariposa County.
 Recognize child care providers in a formal way.

Page iv

Age Ranges Defined
Throughout this document four different age ranges of children are labeled and referenced. The age ranges for infants and preschoolers vary depending on whether the children are in a family care home or a child care center that serves a single age group (infants only or preschoolers only), or whether they are in a center that serves a combination of ages and includes a toddler component, as illustrated below.

FAMILY CARE AND
SINGLE AGE-GROUP
CHILD CARE CENTERS

CHILD CARE CENTERS
THAT INCLUDE A

TODDLER COMPONENT

Infants
Birth to 23 months of age

Infants
Birth to 17 months of age

Toddlers
18 to 30 or 36 months of age, depending on developmental readiness Preschoolers
2 years to 5 years of age

Preschoolers
30 or 36 months of age, depending on developmental readiness, to 5 years of age

School-age Children
5 years to 12 years, 11 months of age

School-age Children
5 years to 12 years, 11 months of age

Page v

Members of the Mariposa
Local Child Care Planning Council
MEMBERS

ALTERNATES

-Child Care Provider RepresentativesSusan Johnson
Child Care Provider

Margaret Essary
Head Start Teacher

Marie Pretzer
Child Care Provider

-Community RepresentativesGwen Nitta
Mother Lode Job Training

Alan Wright
Parent

Gussie Kidd
NET Representative

-Child Care Consumer RepresentativesAmber Chambers
Infant/Child Enrichment
Services (ICES)

Vanessa Holt
Mariposa Safe Families

Janet Gass
Mariposa County
Department of Human
Services

-Public Agency RepresentativesDebbie Smith
Mariposa County
Department of Human
Services

Marna Klinkhammer
Mariposa County
Department of Public
Health

Rebecca Maietto
Mariposa County
Department of Human
Services

-Additional RepresentativesNancy Damm
Mariposa County Unified
School District

Carla Shelton
First 5
Mariposa County

Pat Fithian
Mariposa County
Unified School District

-Staff[Open position]
Executive Director/Coordinator
P.O. Box 1162
Mariposa, CA 95338
(209) 966-6299

Lydia Woolsey
Staff/Interim Coordinator
P.O. Box 1162
Mariposa, CA 95338
(209) 966-6299
Page vi

Introduction
The following sections explain who the feasibility study was done for, its purpose and components, and a brief summary of conclusions.

Purpose of the Local Child Care Planning Council
The primary purpose of the Mariposa County Local Child Care Planning Council (LCP), as defined by state statutes and regulations, is to bring together all the resources of our communities to identify, assess, and prioritize the early care and education needs within Mariposa County and to develop plans to address these needs. A secondary purpose is to act as an advocate to ensure that all children of Mariposa County have these needs met.

Purpose of the Feasibility Study
From May to September 2009, the LCP conducted a child care feasibility study to determine the following: Is there a need for a child care center in the town of Mariposa?
Could a child care center in the town of Mariposa meet identified unmet child care needs?
What are the regulatory agencies’ requirements that must be considered in developing a child care center?
If the need for a child care center does exist, is it economically feasible?

Components of the Feasibility Study
In order to answer the above four questions, the following research was conducted:
Child Care Needs Survey: A child care needs survey, designed to supplement the child care needs survey conducted for the LCP 2009 Needs Assessment, was distributed to families throughout Mariposa County.
Family Child Care Home Provider Survey: Existing family child care providers and preschools were surveyed to better ascertain existing child care services in the county.
Focus Groups and Case Studies: A focus group with local providers was conducted. Interviews were conducted with local providers, a former town of Mariposa child care center director,
Infant Child Enrichment Services (ICES) staff, UC Merced’s Child Care Center director, the proprietor and director of Acorn Tree Child Care Center (Oakhurst, CA), and Acorn
Preschool’s program director, who was previously the director of the Associated Students
Children's Center & Child Development Lab at Chico State University. A California
Department of Social Services, Community Care Licensing Division licensing analyst was also consulted.
Research on Child Care Centers and Regulatory Agencies: Research was conducted on laws and regulations outlined in Title 22, The California Department of Social Services, Community
Care Licensing Division, Manual of Policies and Procedures for Child Care Centers, and the portions of Title 5 from The California Department of Education, P-16, Policy and
Page 1

Information Branch, Child Development Division, specific to Child Care and Development
Programs. In addition, research regarding funding of child care, federal and state subsidized programs, as well as state and national information regarding child care centers was conducted. Conclusions
Based on the analysis of all components of this feasibility study, it is concluded that while a child care center in the town of Mariposa would benefit many families and expand existing child care options, currently it is not feasible for a child care center to be financially self-sustaining in the community. The significant start-up and ongoing costs involved in operating such a facility, the limited fees Mariposa families are willing or able to pay, and the difficulty in securing alternative funding sources in the current fiscal climate, all contribute to this current assessment.
Despite the challenges of operating such a facility currently in Mariposa, the research team did feel there would be many benefits to the community if such a facility could be created and operated in the future. Expansion of options for quality child care for local families in need of it, the location of care close to many of the employers in the community, and the benefits to the economy of creating more jobs at the center and allowing more families to return to work with the expansion of child care options, are just a few of the benefits that could be realized.
The remainder of this document explains the basis of these conclusions and offers alternative recommendations. Page 2

Section I: Community Information
The first step of the study was to research the demographics of the Mariposa County community and the types of child care currently available.

Mariposa County Profile
Mariposa County is a small, rural county located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada
Mountains in Central California. Nearly half of the 1,451 square miles of the eastern part of the
County is home to Yosemite National Park, two national forests, and the U.S. Department of Land
Management.
The U.S. Census 2008 estimates 17,976 people, 7,347 occupied households, and 4,995 families reside in the county. There are approximately twelve people per square mile, as compared to the state average of 217 people per square mile. The town of Mariposa, which is the county seat, has the largest population density with about 1,700 people. A large percentage of the county’s population resides within a 10 mile radius of the town of Mariposa. Four other areas of the county have more wide spread populations, and each has its own distinct cultural identity. These communities are
Cathey’s Valley (pop. 1,370), Coulterville-Greeley Hill (pop. 2,355), El Portal-Yosemite National
Park (pop. 1,556), and La Grange-Lake Don Pedro (pop. 2,043).
Mariposa’s economy depends heavily on the tourist industry. Accordingly many jobs are seasonal, low paying with irregular and rotating work schedules. Service jobs, including tourism and retail, provide 42.4% of the jobs in Mariposa County. The 2000 per capita income rate for the county was
$18,190. Mariposa’s 2009 estimated median household income is $38,757, compared to California’s median household income of $55,450. Males have a median income 18% higher than females.
The counties unemployment rates have reached historical highs due to the economic recession of the past two years, but are now declining. According to the California Economic Development
Department, unemployment rates in Mariposa County have slowly decreased from 12.9% in January
2009 to 9.5% in August 2009. However, this is an increase from the average unemployment rates of
6.06% during 2007, and 7.68% during 2008.
U.S. Census 2007 estimates about 10.5% of families and 14.8% of individuals of Mariposa County are below the federal poverty level. Children Now 2007 reports 17% of the children in Mariposa
County live in poverty, compared with the state percentage of 19%. According to 2009 reports from the Mariposa County Human Services Department, the number of families and children applying for financial subsidies, such as food stamps, has increased dramatically over the past year.1
There are approximately 3,492 women in the labor force: 74% work 35 or more hours per week. Of these women, 19% work non-traditional hours, 5% work from home, and 12.1% have a child under the age of 6.

1

Human Services Report, Mariposa County, 2009.

Page 3

Of the 7,347 households in the County, 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living in them,
55.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.1% were non-families (i.e., roommates). 1,880 families had children. 28% of families with children were headed by a single parent, 10.5% of the single parents had a child under the age of 6. The average family size was 2.86.
Despite child populations declining between 2000 and 2007, the 2008 U.S. Census projection for
California State populations showed the population of children between the ages 0 and 13 years of age once again on the rise.2 The U.S. Census projects that the number of children in California will continue to rise in future years. The following table illustrates Mariposa County child population changes from 2000 to 2006.

Mariposa County Child Population Estimates
Children 0-13
0-2
3-4
5-13
Children 0-13 with parents in the workforce3
0-2
3-4
5-13

2000
2,704
275
479
1,950
1,594
180
259
1,155

2006
2,206
306
401
1,499
1,3004
147
212
941

Nature of the Child Care Industry
The U.S. Department of Labor, National Bureau of Labor Statistics provides a glimpse at the nature of the child care industry from a national perspective5. Obtaining affordable, quality child care, especially for children under age 5, is a major concern for many parents, particularly in recent years with the rise in families with two working parents. As the need for child care has increased in the last decade, the child care services industry began to fill the need of non-relative child care.
According to the Department of Labor, two main types of child care make up the child care services industry. Formal child care centers include preschools, child care centers, and Head Start centers
(federally funded, designed to provide disadvantaged children with social, educational, and health
U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Interim State Population Projections, 2005.
This is the number of families where either two parents are working, or single head of household is working. 4 Estimate based on 2000 Census Data.
5 National Bureau of Labor Statistics. Child Day Care Services. www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs032.htm
2
3

Page 4

services). Family child care home providers care for children in their own home for a fee and are the majority of self-employed workers in this industry. (Family child care home providers do not include persons who provide unpaid care in their homes for the children of relatives or friends or occasional babysitters. Also, child care workers who work in the child’s home, such as nannies, are included primarily in the private household industry, not this industry.)
Nationwide, the industry consists of establishments that provide care for infants, toddlers, preschool children, or older children in before- and after-school programs. The for-profit part of this industry includes centers that operate independently or as part of a local or national company. Nonprofit child care organizations may provide services in religious institutions, YMCAs and other social and recreation centers, colleges, public schools, social service agencies, and worksites ranging from factories to office complexes.
The significant points provided by the National Bureau of Labor Statistics about the industry are:
Preschool teachers, teacher assistants, and child care workers account for almost 8 out of 10 wage and salary jobs in the child care industry. (Family child care home providers are selfemployed, and are not part of this statistic.)
About 42% of all child care workers have a high school degree or less. (This is the total industry-wide, which includes child care center employees and family child care home providers.) There are frequent job openings because dissatisfaction with benefits, pay, and/or stressful working conditions causes many to leave the industry.
The hours of child care workers vary. Unscheduled overtime, traffic jams, and other types of emergencies can cause parents or guardians to be late. Many centers are open 12 or more hours a day and cannot close until all of the children are picked up by their parents or guardians. Nearly 18% of full-time employees in the child care services industry work more than 40 hours per week. The industry also offers many opportunities for part-time work: more than 26% of all employees worked part time in 2006.
Jobs in child care are found across the country, mirroring the distribution of the population.
However, child care centers are less common in rural areas, where there are fewer children to support a separate facility.
The median age of child care providers is 38, compared with 44 for all workers. About 21% of all child care providers are 24 years or younger as opposed to about 14% for all industries. About 6% of these workers are below the age of 20, reflecting the minimal training requirements for many child care positions.
Wage and salary jobs in the child care services industry are projected to grow on a national level about 34% over the 2006 to 2016 time period, compared with the 11% employment growth projected for all industries combined. The rising demand for child care services driving industry growth reflects in part demographic trends. Over the same period, the number of children under age
5 is expected to increase at a faster rate than in previous years and many of them will continue to be raised in households with two working parents or a single working parent. Furthermore, growing numbers of parents will hold jobs that require work during weekends, evenings, and late nights. As a
Page 5

result, demand will grow significantly for child care programs that can provide care during not only traditional weekday hours, but nontraditional hours as well. In addition, school-age children, who generally require child care only before and after school, increasingly are being cared for in centers.
Center-based care should continue to expand its share of the industry because an increasing number of parents prefer its more formal setting and believe that it provides a better foundation for children before they begin traditional schooling. However, family child care home providers will continue to remain an important source of care for many young children because some parents prefer the more personal attention that such a setting can provide. Demand for child care centers and preschool teachers to staff them could increase even further if more states implement preschool programs for
3- and 4-year-old children, which some states have begun and others are planning to start.
Legislation requiring more welfare recipients to work also could contribute to growing demand for child care services.
In 2006, hourly earnings of non-supervisory workers in the child care services industry averaged
$10.53, much less than the average of $16.76 throughout private industry. On a weekly basis, earnings in child care services averaged only $316 in 2006, compared with the average of $568 in private industry. Weekly earnings reflect, in part, the large number of part-time jobs in the industry.
Employee benefits in child care services often are minimal. A substantial number of child care centers offer no healthcare benefits to any teaching staff. Reduced care fees for workers’ children, however, are a common benefit. Wage levels and employee benefits depend in part on the type of center. Nonprofit and religiously affiliated centers generally pay higher wages and offer more generous benefits than do for-profit establishments.
As for the work environment, child care can be physically and emotionally taxing, as workers constantly stand, walk, bend, stoop and lift to attend to each child’s needs, interests, and problems.
Child care workers must be constantly alert, anticipate and prevent trouble, deal effectively with disruptive children, and provide fair, but firm, discipline.
Many child care workers become dissatisfied with their jobs’ stressful conditions, low pay, and lack of benefits and eventually leave.

Existing Child Care Options in Mariposa County
Presently, the Mariposa child care industry consists of family child care home providers, part-time child care centers in the form of preschools, and before- and after-school care. There are no fulltime child care centers in the county.
Family Child Care Homes
As of August 2009, there were 30 licensed family child care home providers in Mariposa County. Of these, 18 were small family child care homes (capacity of 6 or 8 children, the former if they have been in business less than a year or do not wish to apply for the increase after a year in business) and

Page 6

12 were large family child care homes (capacity of 12 or 14 children). At least 2 of the providers were not actively providing child care services and did not have any children in care.
Preschools
There are seven licensed and two licensed-exempt preschools located in the county.6 The seven licensed preschools offer part-time care, while the two license-exempt preschools offer full-time care. The nine preschools are:
Mariposa County Head Start - licensed, capacity: 20 x 2 sessions (40), ages 3 – 4.9.
First 5 Building Blocks Greeley Hill - licensed, capacity: 24, enrollment limit 18; ages 2 – 5.
First 5 Building Blocks Lake Don Pedro - licensed, capacity: 24, enrollment limit 18; ages 2 – 5.
First 5 Cathey’s Valley - licensed, capacity: 16; ages 3 - 5.
Acorn Co-Operative Preschool ―Sprouts‖ – licensed, capacity: 22; ages 3 - 6.
Mariposa Kiwanis Preschool Academy - licensed, capacity: 19, ages 2 – 6.
Mariposa Cooperative Preschool – licensed, capacity: 20, ages 2.5 - 6.
El Portal Child Development Center – license-exempt, capacity: 21, ages 4 mo - 12.
Yosemite Child Development Center – license-exempt, capacity: 22, ages 4 mo - 12.

After School Care for School-Age Children
There are four license-exempt after-school programs, two license-exempt before- and after-school programs, and one licensed before- and after-school program operating in Mariposa County. The four license-exempt after-school programs are run by Mariposa County Unified School District
(MCUSD). 7 MCUSD serves approximately 170 students through the district’s low-cost or no-cost after-school education programs at Mariposa Elementary School, Greeley Hill School, Mariposa
Middle School, and beginning in 2009 Woodland Elementary School. Within the federal land boundaries of Yosemite National Park, Yosemite Child Development Center and El Portal Child
Development Center operate a fee-based licensed-exempt before- and after-school program that serves an additional 30 children. Almost Like Home Before- and After School Center is licensed to serve 21 school-aged children. However, since the start of the MCUSD after-school program at
Woodland Elementary School in 2009, Almost Like Home has had decreased enrollment.
Total Slots Available in Existing Child Care Options
In 2007, the California Resource and Referral Network (CRRN) estimated 383 licensed child care slots in Mariposa County. In addition, they reported that licensed care was available for 29% of the
1,300 children ages 0 to 13 with parents in the labor force.8 They noted that some families will choose to use child care provided by family and friends. The 2009 data reported in this study shows approximately 473 licensed child care slots, some of which are limited to part-time. The difference is primarily because five new preschools have been added since the CRRN’s statistics were calculated in 2007. The preschools in Mariposa County are all part-time, meeting half days, three to five days per week, many with no classes during the summer. Therefore, their use as a child care provider for
Acorn Co-operative Preschool’s ―Acorn‖ program, which serves up to 30 children, was not included in this statistic since it is not a licensed preschool. A qualifying adult must stay with the children during the preschool hours.
7 Before – and after-school programs offered through school systems are regulated by the California Department of
Education and are license-exempt.
8 Children and Child Care in Mariposa County, California Child Care Portfolio, Resource and Referral Network, 2007.
6

Page 7

parents employed more than part-time is limited and these families must supplement with additional child care if full day care is needed. Based on the above preschool and family child care home data, it is estimated that there is at least part-time licensed care available to approximately 36% of children ages 0 to 13 with parents in the county’s labor force. According to survey data collection, 42% of parents don’t use child care, and 36% of parents use family and friends.
The following table illustrates the total number of child care slots available in child care centers
(preschools), family child care homes, and before- and after-school and after-school programs in
Mariposa County.

CHILD CARE

LICENSED
PRE-SCHOOLS

LICENSEEXEMPT
PRESCHOOLS

LICENSED
FAMILY
CHILD
CARE
HOMES9
#

BEFORE- AND
AFTERSCHOOL
PROGRAMS

10

SCHEDULES

SLOTS

#

Total number of sites
Total number of slots
Infant Slots (age 0 to 2)
Preschool Slots (age 2 or 3 to
6)
School-age slots (age 7 to 13)
Both Full-time and part-time slots Only full-time slots
Only part-time slots

#

7
165

2
43

0

8

0

165

35

0

30
308

#

7
221

221
-

43

273

-

-

-

35

-

165

-

-

221

In the next section, we examine whether the child care options and slots available are meeting the needs of Mariposa County families.

9

Breakdown by age is not available for family child care homes. They typically take a variety of ages.
Data Source: The California Child Care Portfolio 2007.

10

Page 8

Section II: Survey Data
This section includes a summary of the 2009 Child Care Needs Assessment, presents updated child care resource and referral request data, and details the 2009 supplemental community child care needs survey data and the family child care home provider survey data.

Summary of the 2009 Child Care Needs Assessment
From spring of 2008 to spring 2009, the Mariposa County Local Child Care Planning Council conducted an assessment of child care needs in Mariposa County. This needs assessment was completed in accordance with the requirements of Educational Code § 8499.5.
The 2009 Needs Assessment was completed using a variety of tools, including surveys from parents/primary caregivers and providers, as well as key informant interviews and focus groups with professionals, child care providers, and parents.
One conclusion from the- 2009 Needs Assessment was that although simply looking at the numbers
(families needing child care vs. number of existing child care slots in the county) revealed that there is enough child care available to meet the needs of the community, the numbers do not tell the entire story. Many of the licensed child care slots in the county are not filled. On the other hand, many families indicate their specific child care needs are not being met or that there were barriers to them accessing affordable, quality child care.
Some of the key areas where the assessment indicated unmet child care needs include: families needing care during alternative hours (weekend, evenings and early mornings); families needing occasional care through ―drop-in‖ availability (in other words needing it here or there, rather than committing to a regular schedule); and families needing care for children ages 0 to 2.
The two most frequently reported barriers that families experience with regards to child care were affordability, followed by hours and days care is offered. Type of care offered was a moderate barrier for just less than a quarter of the families. Priorities for choosing child care, as identified by survey participants, were quality of care, followed by cost of care.
The 2009 Needs Assessment indicated the following:
Quality is the most important factor identified by parents when choosing a child care provider. Quality child care promotes vitality and growth of children and the local community. Licensed family child care homes are not at capacity. In April 2009, 79% of licensed family child care homes reported having openings. This is a change from one year prior to the assessment, when licensed family child care homes had less availability.

Page 9

There is a large demand for preschools. The majority of preschools in southern Mariposa
County have a waiting list.
Efforts should be made to increase child care resources for specific ages, specific populations, and varied geographic locations (i.e. caregivers of infants, Spanish-speaking providers in El Portal, providers with specialized training to care for children with special needs). o A large number of mothers with children ages 0 to 2 work non-traditional hours
(52%); they are an increasing population; there are limited licensed slots in family child care homes for this age group. This age group is more costly to serve due to the
1:4 caregivers to infant ratio required by state licensing. o Parents of children with special needs have a hard time finding child care.
Given that 19% of women in the labor force work alternative working schedules and requests through Infant Child Enrichment Services (ICES) for alternative hour child care have increased 41%, activities to increase alternative hour (including drop-in) child care should be undertaken.
In the spring of 2008, parents were divided on whether or not they would use a child care center in
Mariposa (No, 32.1%; Maybe 23.9%; Probably, 17.2%; Yes 18.7%; No response 8.1%). There was a similar response to whether parents would use drop-in care in Mariposa (No, 29.9%; Maybe 26.9%;
Probably, 16.4%; Yes 18.7%; No response 8.1%)

Infant Child Enrichment Services (ICES) Resource & Referral Information
The 2009 Needs Assessment included Infant Child Enrichment Services (ICES) child care referral request data from July 2005 to July 2008. Data from the July 2008 to July 2009 fiscal year has been added to this feasibility study to provide additional trend data for child care requests in Mariposa
County.
Number of ICES Child Care Referral Requests by Child Age
The 2009 Needs Assessment identified an overall increase in child care requests for preschool-age children, while requests for infant/toddler and school-age children decreased between 2005 and
2008. Child care requests for ICES’ 2008-2009 fiscal year shows that this general trend is continuing, with more parents requesting child care for preschool-age children since 2005. However, there has been a steady decline in child care requests for all three age categories since 2007.

Page 10

Over the past year, child care requests for infant/toddler care have decreased 14.3%; requests for preschool-age children have decreased 11.0%; and requests for school-age children have decreased
26%. Parents of preschool-age children continue to be the largest consumers of child care. This is illustrated in the following graph:

Number of Children

120

95

100
80

72 77 71

60

63

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

109

91

70

81

80

73 72

54

50

40

37

20
0

Infant/Toddler (>2)

Preschool (2-5)

School-age (6+)

Number of Children

Schedule of Child Care Requested from ICES
Parents continue to seek more part-time child care. Over the past year, requests for part-time child care have remained fairly consistent, decreasing only 1.6%, while full-time requests have decreased
33.3%, over the same time period. This is illustrated in the following graph:

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

147
119

123 121

101

111

126
105
81
51

Part-Time (<35 hrs)

Full Time (35+hrs)

Page 11

Number of Children

Non-Standard Hours Child Care Requested from ICES
Request for child care during non-traditional hours also continues to rise, although not as drastically as in prior years. Over the past year child care requests for non-traditional hours has risen 4.9%.
Both, summer care requests and before- and after-school care requests have decreased, as shown here: 90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

86
58 61

55
43

46

38

34 35

29
7

Before/After School

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

14
5

5

Summer Only

6
Non-traditional Hours

Summary and Next Steps
While much information was gleaned from the 2009 Needs Assessment, it did raise some questions regarding changing child care needs and how those needs could best be met. Numbers-wise, the assessment revealed that there is enough child care to meet the needs of the community, however, the numbers did not tell the entire story. Many of the child care slots in the county are not filled, and many families indicated their specific child care needs, such as alternative hours care, drop-in availability, and/or infant care, are not being met. Some families indicated there are barriers to them accessing affordable, quality child care.
The following section details the next steps taken in finding out more information regarding how to meet Mariposa County families’ child care needs.

Child Care Needs Survey Results
In 2009, supplemental child care needs data was collected for this feasibility study to expand on the child care needs survey data collected by the LPC in the summer of 2008. Due to the questions raised by the data gathered in the previous survey, and also the drastic economic changes that have occurred over the past year, it was determined that current information on parent’s child care needs was necessary to provide an accurate assessment of the feasibility of a child care center in Mariposa.
Page 12

Current child care needs data was collected through a self-report survey, which was distributed from
June to September 2009. In an attempt to capture a representative sample of the county’s child care needs, and interest in a child care center in the town of Mariposa, from all geographical regions, socio-economic levels, and ethnic backgrounds in Mariposa County, surveys were distributed at various community agencies and schools throughout the county. One hundred-sixty-five surveys were returned and included in the final analyses. Appendix A includes a complete list of the distribution sites and details the survey questions and results.
The majority of respondents identified themselves as parents (92.7%), while some identified themselves as grandparents (non-guardian) (5.5%). For ease of reporting, all respondents will be called ―parents‖ throughout the remainder of this document. Most of the parents lived closest to the
Mariposa and Woodland areas of the county. Consistent with national trends, parents with children ages 3 to 5 reported the highest need for child care (44.1%), followed by parents of children ages 6 to 13 (39.5%) and parents of infants (28.9%).
The majority of parents, 70.1%, were employed in some capacity: 44% were employed full-time;
20% were employed part-time; and 6.7% were self-employed. 23% of parents choose to stay at home and care for their child(ren).

Changes in Child Care Needs
Over the past year, the majority of parents reported no change in their child care needs (40%).
Interestingly, 30% of parents have actually had an increase in child care hours needed. Only 13% of parents experienced either a decreased need for child care, or have stopped using child care altogether. The changes in child care needs are demonstrated in the graph below:

17%

8%

Decreased Hours
30%

Increased Hours
Stopped completely
No change
Not Applicable

40%

5%

Page 13

Schedule of Child Care Needs from Survey
The survey questioned whether families were in need of child care full-time, part-time or some alternative measure of time each week. It also asked about specific days and hours needed.

Part-Time Versus Full-Time Versus Other Time-Related Needs
Consistent with previous data, part-time child care is still needed by Mariposa families. Need for a consistent part-time schedule of care, a varying part-time schedule of care, and occasional drop-in care all tied for the schedule of care most needed by Mariposa families. Just under 22% of parents needed consistent full-time child care, while approximately 11% needed varying full-time child care.
Part-time child care was defined as less than 35 hours per week. Full-time child care was defined as
35 or more hours per week. Self-employed parents were still consumers of child care, although they required a part-time, varying schedule of care. The part-time drop-off preschools can typically meet the needs of self-employed parents. The various schedules of child care needed by parents are shown in the following graph:

30%

25.6%

25%

25.6%

25.6%

21.8%

20%
15.0%

15%

11.3%

11.3%

10%

7.5%
5.3%

5%

ol
Ye
ar
On
na ly lD
Af
ro te r p/B in
Ca
e fo re re
Sc
ho
En
ol
Ca
ric hm re en tp rim ari ly yc are O

cc as io

Sc ho Su mm er
On
l

are

e
Va
ry

ing
,P

art
-

ull
-

tim ec tim ec ar

ec are tim ing ,F

Pa rt- Va ry en t, Co ns ist

Co ns ist

en t, Fu ll -t i m ec are 0%

Page 14

Traditional Versus Non-Traditional Hours
The most frequently needed child care schedule is traditional weekday, daytime hours. Even so, many families reported also needing child care during non-traditional hours almost 50% of the time.
Non-traditional hours are defined as child care during either weekday evening/night hours, weekend daytime hours, and/or weekend evening/night hours. Few family child care homes provide child care during weekday evenings or on weekends. If they do, many providers prefer to make such accommodations only for existing clients with whom they have a prior relationship.
Many family child care home providers are able to accommodate parents who need early morning hours. One issue that may arise for parents needing early morning hours is traveling distance to the child care provider. The days and times parents reported needing child care are displayed in the following table:

Days & Times

Percent

Early morning hours (6:00 AM - 7:30 AM)

19.5%

Weekday Daytime hours (7:30 AM - 6:00 PM)

76.4%

Weekday Evening/Night hours (6:00 PM - 6:00 AM)

17.9%

Weekend Daytime Hours

9.8%

Weekend Evening/Night Hours

22.0%

After School

23.6%

Holidays

9.8%

(Parents were asked to choose all that applied, so the total may exceed 100%)

Are Families Child Care Needs Being Met?
Of parents surveyed, 34.6% felt their child care needs were being met ―completely,‖ while 22.2% felt
―mostly‖, 19.0% felt ―somewhat,‖ and 7.8% felt their child care needs were ―not being met at all.‖
16.4% of parents felt that the availability of weekend, evening, and night-time care would better meet their child care needs.
Mariposa parents rely heavily on family members and friends to meet their specific child care needs.
Parents of infants either tend not to use child care at all or to use family and friends more than they use licensed child care. This could be due to the irregular work schedules reported by parents of infants. Parents of preschool-age children also use family and friends, followed by not using child care at all. Parents of school-age children mostly don’t use licensed child care, followed by using family and friends. Despite these statistics, the largest consumers of licensed family child care home services are parent of preschool-age children, followed by parents of school-age children.

Page 15

The following table shows the types of child care currently used by Mariposa families:
Don't use child care

Family/
Friend

Licensed
Family Home

Preschool/
Head Start

Private
Babysitter

After School
Program

Age 0-2

47.2%

33.3%

12.5%

7.0%

9.7%

0.0%

Age 2-5
Age 6-13

31.6%

36.8%`

26.3%

26.3%

9.2%

1.0%

46.4%

37.8%

15.9%

0.0%

6.1%

10.9%

(14-17 for special needs)

Cost of Child Care to Families
The cost of child care is a pressing issue for Mariposa families. In the 2009 Needs Assessment, the cost of child care was an ―extreme barrier‖ for 27.6% of the families who responded. In the supplemental 2009 survey, inability to afford child care was again the number one reason why parents went without it, with 32% of parents identifying affordability as a barrier.
The top four barriers parents have to using family child care homes are:
Parents of Infants:
Can’t afford it (32.8%)
Quality of care (32.8%)

Lack of availability (29.7)
Hours open (17.2%)

Parents of Preschoolers:
Can’t afford it (28.5%)
Lack of availability (25.0%)

Quality of care (23.9%)
Hours open (18.2%)

The top four barriers parents have to using a drop-off preschool are:
Parents of Preschoolers:
Can’t afford it (23.4%),
Transportation/Location (16.8%)

Lack of availability (16.8%)
Hours open (16.8%)

Affordability of Child Care
Parents currently feel that child care costs in Mariposa are more than they can comfortably afford.
The standard child care rates are set by family child care homes, as historically, they have held and they continue to hold a large share of the market of the child care industry in Mariposa County.
Preschool rates in Mariposa tend to be low compared to other counties in California. This is because all of Mariposa’s preschools, other than Head Start, are either run by First 5, receive First 5 grants, and/or receive rent at a fraction of market value from the Mariposa County Public Works
Department, Parks and Recreation.
Page 16

On average, research indicates that national and state rates for child care centers are higher than rates for family child care home providers. According to the California Department of Education, the average full-time daily rate for infants receiving care in a child care center is 42.9% higher than the average full-time daily rate for a family child care home ($42.17 and $24.08, respectively). For preschoolers, the average full-time daily rate for a child care center is 20.1% higher than the average full-time daily rate for a family child care home ($28.01 and $22.37, respectively). For school-age children, the average full-time daily rate for a child care center is 13.5% higher than the average fulltime daily rate for a family child care home ($23.63 and $20.44, respectively).
In Mariposa County, parents’ reports of how much they can afford for child care is similar to rates charged by family child care homes in Mariposa. What parents say they can afford is much lower than the state’s average rate of child care centers. Family child care home rates are what parents in
Mariposa are accustomed to, as this is the only type of full-time child care available in the county.
Furthermore, many parents currently felt that child care rates in family child care homes in Mariposa are unaffordable, despite having comparatively lower rates than those in other communities or child care centers statewide. Rates that parents said they are willing or able to pay for child care are presented here:

Average

Per Hour
(Part-time:
6hrs or less)

$21.58

$6.03

Range

Per day
(Full-time/
All day)

$0 - $50

$1.50 - $15

Per Day (FT)
Percentages
$0 =
≤$10 =
$15 =
$20 =
$24 =
$25 =
$30 =
$35 =
$50 =

17.9%
11.9%
8.9%
17.9%
1.7%
17.9%
7.5%
5.0%
1.5%

Use of a Child Care Center in Mariposa
Of parents surveyed, 36.7% said they would ―possibly‖ or ―very likely‖ use a child care center in the town of Mariposa. When considering only parents who live in the Mariposa and Woodland areas this positive response increased to 44.7%. Conservatively estimating approximately 1 child under age 6 per household, this represents approximately 46 children. Of the sixty-one parents who shared their opinion regarding the need for a child care center in Mariposa, 65.4% parents felt that a child care center is greatly needed. Convenience, more affordable care, more quality care, extended hours, and expansion of child care choices were reasons cited by many parents as to why a child care center is needed. Other parents said they would not use a child care center in Mariposa due to the distance from their home being too great, satisfaction with their current family home care provider, or disbelief that centers provide quality care (See Appendix A for a complete list of comments).

Page 17

One survey question asked whether parents would utilize a child care center if it was co-located in a county building. This question was included because the Human Services Department is preparing to build a new facility and is in the process of exploring community needs in this facility, one of which could be space for a child care center. Overall, 42.8% of respondents indicated that they would ―possibly‖ or ―very likely‖ use a co-located facility. When considering only parents who live in the Mariposa and Woodland areas this positive response increased to 50.5%.
Parents have concerns about using a child care center with ―drop-in‖ capacity, meaning it would offer immediate, short term child care or occasional child care to families who do not have regular enrollment. The most frequently cited concerns include the possibility of parents not disclosing a child was sick, appropriate staffing levels, quality supervision, quality of care providers, and the influence of children who are not there on a consistent basis. While parents have a number of valid concerns regarding drop-in services, Elaina Newcomb of Acorn Tree in Oakhurst said that in her 20 years of experience working in for-profit child care centers, drop-in services is a standard service offered to maximize revenue when capacity exists (see Case Study 5).
The following table summarizes responses to whether or not families in need of child care would use a child care center in the town of Mariposa.

Use of a Child Care Center in the town of Mariposa
Very Unlikely

May
Consider

Possibly

Very Likely

Response
Count

All Respondents

39.5%

23.8%

21.1%

15.6%

147

Mariposa & Woodland Only

26.2%

29.0%

25.3%

19.4%

103

Use of a Child Care Center co-located in a County building
All Respondents

37.2%

20.0%

24.2%

18.6%

145

Mariposa & Woodland Only

25.2%

24.3%

28.2%

22.3%

103

Use a Child Care Center that allowed Drop-In Child Care to families that Need
Immediate or Occasional Care
All Respondents

26.2%

23.5%

22.1%

28.2%

149

Mariposa & Woodland Only

22.9%

24.8%

22.9%

29.5%

105

Summary
Survey results suggest that parents of the Mariposa community desire expansion of the child care options in Mariposa County. Some services parents would like to see expanded are non-standard hours of care, mainly in the evenings and the weekends. In addition, parents’ desire increased availability and hours of drop-off preschools and the availability of occasional drop-in child care services. Page 18

Data indicates enough interest in a child care center exists to fill a small center of approximately 38 children (8 children under the age of 2 and 30 children ages 3 to 5) in the town of Mariposa. Starting even smaller than this would help ensure the center runs at full capacity. While costly because of the staffing ratios required for infants, Acorn Tree owner Elaina Newcomb recommends including infant care. (See Case Study 5.) In Ms. Newcomb’s experience, infants are an important source of future revenue as they continue needing care during their preschool-age years. Preschoolers are the more profitable age group for a center due to less staff needed to meet ratio requirements. Including infant care also corresponds to Mariposa County data which indicates an increased need for infant care. However, in order to attract and retain parents, the quality of the staff and program must be high. While the fees associated with child care centers are typically higher than fees for family child care homes, Mariposa families are not willing or able to pay more.
Families having an interest in a child care center in the town of Mariposa versus their being unable or unwilling to pay more than what they are paying for care in family child care homes effects the fiscal feasibility of a child care center. The implications of this are examined in Section 4.
The following section examines the interest and capability of current family child care providers in meeting the unmet needs of Mariposa County families interested in child care.

Family Child Care Homes Survey Results
To further identify the current capacity and hours of child care services offered by existing family child care home providers, a questionnaire was distributed to the 30 providers identified by the
ICES mailing list. According to ICES, this represents approximately 96% of family child care home providers (approximately 2 providers have chosen not be on the ICES mailing list). Seventeen family child care home providers returned the survey. Of the surveys returned, 58.8% were small family child care home providers licensed for 8 children and 41.2% were large family child care home providers licensed for 14 children. Survey results are detailed in Appendix B.

Capacity
The questionnaire results represent 178 licensed full-time child care slots. Multiple part-time children can fill one full-time slot, thus increasing the total number of children served. However, this can cause scheduling complications for family child care home providers. Some family child care home providers desire to care for less children then their license allows or care for their own children as well. Family child care home providers indicate that they only desired to fill 72%, or 129, of their licensed slots.

Page 19

Rates
Child care rates are determined by the individual family child care home provider, and therefore vary. Policies regarding how many hours constitute half-day versus full-day care can also vary by provider. The average rates charged by family care home providers for infants, preschool-age children, and school-age children, based on responses received, are listed in the following table.
Family Child Care Home Provider Rates
Average

Range

Hourly Rate

$5.80

$3 - 10

Infants (Full-Day)

$28.75

$24 - $30

Infants (Half-Day)

$19.38

$15 - $30

Preschoolers (Full-Day)

$26.00

$22 - $30

Preschoolers (Half-Day)

$15.71

$10 - $25

School Age (Full-Day)

$25.57

$22 - $30

School Age (Half-Day)

$16.00

$10 - $15

In-Diaper Fee

$2.50

$0 - $30

Family child care home providers can choose to limit their enrollment to specific age groups. The majority of family child care home providers offer infant care (94.5%). Only 5.5% (or 1 provider) did not offer infant care. All providers offered care to preschool-age and school-age children. 35.5% report having a child with exceptional needs currently enrolled in their program. 52.9% said they offer care to children ages 13 to 17 with exceptional needs.

Length of Time Providing Care
The majority of family child care home providers have been in the child care field for 6 or more years: 12.5% 2 to 5 years, 25% 6 to 10 years, 25% 11 to 20 years, and 37.5% 20 years or more.
Similarly, the majority of respondents plan on continuing in the child care field for many years to come. The majority of respondents, 80%, plan on continuing in the field for 6 or more years, while
20% of the family child care home providers plan on closing within 3 years. Of those who plan on closing within the next three years, decreased enrollment was the number one reason given for not continuing in the field, followed by personal/family reasons.

Hours Open
All providers are open year round. 93.8% of providers are open Monday through Friday. 6.2% (or 1 provider) is closed on Fridays. Saturday and Sunday care is offered by 25% of providers and holiday care is offered by 18.8% of providers.

Page 20

The two most frequently cited reasons why weekend and evening times are difficult for family home child care providers are 1) it cuts into their personal time with their own families and 2) parents tend to take advantage by not notifying them when they will be later than the prearranged drop off or pick up times. One provider said that temporary and drop-in care was ―not financially viable.‖
Family home providers typically open between 4:30 AM and 7:45 AM, and close between 5:15 PM and 6:00 PM. A few providers stay open until 10:00 PM. The following table illustrates the nonstandard hours of care currently offered by family child care home providers.

No

Yes

Case by Case
Basis

Prior
Relationship
Required

Weekend

50.0% (7)

35.7% (5)

21.4% (3)

14.3% (2)

Hourly Drop-In Care

20.0% (3)

60.0% (9)

20.0% (3)

6.7% (1)

Evening

43.8% (7)

31.3% (5)

31.3% (5)

25.0% (4)

Overnight

43.8% (7)

31.3% (5)

31.3% (5)

25.0% (4)

Varying Care Schedule

0.0% (0)

66.7% (10)

33.3% (5)

13.3% (2)

Temporary/Emergency
Care

7.1% (1)

50.0% (7)

42.9% (6)

7.1% (1)

(Totals do not equal 100% as respondents could choose all that apply)

As shown in the previous table, 35.7% of the family child care home providers who responded to the survey offer child care during non-standard hours. It should be noted that this represents only
16.7% of all the family child care home providers in the county. Many family child care providers will provide child care during night and weekends on a case by case basis, usually for families with an enrollment history. Many providers offer drop-in car. This may be a service that could be explored further for parents needing only sporadic hourly care.
One question on the survey asked if providers would be willing to adjust their hours of operation.
Just under half of the providers, 47.1%, report being willing to adjust their opening and closing hours to accommodate parents’ child care needs. Of these providers, 75% will adjust their opening and closing hours on a case-by-case basis only. 17.6% are not willing to make such accommodations.
However, 31.3% of providers would consider providing non-standard hours of care for an
Page 21

additional premium rate, while 37.5% would definitely provide care for an additional premium rate.
Most likely, providers who are already providing non-standard hours of care responded ―definitely‖ to this question.

Enrollment
Family child care home providers are experiencing an increase in part-time enrollment and lower overall enrollment. This is consistent with data from ICES presented in the 2009 Needs Assessment which indicated that parent requests for part-time child care have increased 17.8% from 2005 to
2008, while full-time requests have decreased 27.0% over the same time period. At the time of the current survey, providers reported that they were not at full capacity; there were 17 openings for infants, or 42 openings for preschoolers, or 27 openings for school-age children11. Family child care home enrollment changes over the past 12 months are illustrated in the following graph:
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Lower Enrollm ent

About the Same

Higher Enrollm ent

More Part-time
Enrollm ent

Despite lower enrollment, 71.4% of family child care home providers reported that they were not altering their programs or making marketing changes to attract families. Of the 28.6% who did make changes, these changes included: changing hours of operation, changing days they are open (such as adding weekend care), decreasing hourly rates, offering family rates, and increased advertising, such as advertising online, advertising through posters, and distribution of business cards.

Reasons for Entering the Child Care Field
Almost all family child care home providers indicated that they entered the child care field because it fit with their family needs. Many times family child care home providers have children of their own; this type of career affords them the ability to also care for their own children. Almost 40% desired
Determining the exact number of openings for each child age category is unfeasible. Due to the various provider-tochild ratios for infants, preschoolers, and school-age children, open slots can vary depending on the age of the child.
For example, a family child care home provider can care for either 1 infant or 2 preschool age children.
11

Page 22

self-employment. The graph below illustrates the reasons given by respondents for entering the child care filed:

Desired Self-employment

Fit with family needs

Career Path

Financial
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Interest in Employment at a Child Care Center
Only two providers were interested in being an owner/operator or director of a child care center.
This is consistent with the fact that most family child care home providers desire self-employment that fits with their families needs. More providers were interested in employment as an assistant staff member at a child care center, a position that has more flexible hours and has lower educational requirements than a director. The following table illustrates current family child care home providers’ interest in employment at a child care center:

14
12

Number

10
Yes

8

Possibly
6

No

4
2
0
Owner/Operator

Executive Director

Page 23

Teacher

Assistant Staff

Summary
Over half of the family child care homes are experiencing lower overall enrollment and an increase in part-time enrollment. Despite lower enrollment, most family child care home providers are not altering their programs or making marketing changes to attract families. Only a few family child care home providers are making changes to attract parents, such as changing hours of operation and expanding days open by adding evening and weekend care. While there are some family child care homes that provide care during non-standard hours, or are willing to add it, they are still unable to meet the demand for one reason or another, either due to location, logistics, or some other factor.
Very few family child care home providers are interested in working in a child care center. Most entered the home provider field because it fits with their lifestyle and family needs. Finding a person or entity willing to own and operate a child care center is one main hindrance to opening a center in the town of Mariposa.
Another main hindrance to a successful child care center is financial sustainability. Parents in
Mariposa desire more affordable child care than is currently available in family child care homes, and state-wide, these rates are typically less costly than those charged by child care centers. Due to high start-up and staffing costs, the financial feasibility and cost implications of a child care center must be analyzed. The third and fourth sections of this feasibility study provide such an analysis, as well as examining the licensing requirements of a child care center in the town of Mariposa.

Page 24

Section III: Child Care Center Licensing and
Operation Requirements
The California Department of Social Services, Community Care Licensing Division (licensing) is responsible for regulating and licensing child care facilities across the state. The Community Care
Licensing Division licenses and monitors both family child care homes and child care centers in an effort to ensure that they provide a safe and healthy environment for children who are in child care.
Child care centers also have the option of applying to the California Department of Education,
Child Development Division (CDD), to become a Child Care Development (CCD) program in order to receive funding for low income families. In the application to become a Child Care
Development program, a child care center is required to document the need for funding for low income families and state how many families it wants to serve. When the application is accepted, the
CDD applies a formula to arrive at a funding amount. To receive this funding, a center must meet all CDD regulations and guidelines, which in some cases differ from those of licensing, in which case it must conform to the more restrictive of the two in order to meet both sets of requirements.
The center would also have to meet all of CDD’s reporting requirements.
The following sections provide more information about both regulatory agencies and their requirements. The California Department of Social Services,
Community Care Licensing Division (licensing)
The mission of the California Department of Social Services is to serve, aid, and protect needy and vulnerable children and adults in ways that strengthen and preserve families, encourage personal responsibility, and foster independence.
Responsible parties must be licensed if they care for children from more than one family and who are not related to them, when it is in the setting of a family child care home or in a child care center.
Providing child care in either a family child care home or child care center that is not licensed is a misdemeanor. The responsible party could be required to pay a $200 per day fine and may also be subject to criminal charges by local law enforcement.
A family child care home must be in the licensee's own home. It reflects a home-like environment where non-medical care and supervision is provided for periods of less than 24 hours as discussed in previous sections. There are small family child care homes (capacity of 6 to 8 children) and large family child care homes (capacity of 12 to 14 children).
A child care center (also referred to as a day care center) is usually located in a commercial building.
Non-medical care and supervision is provided for infants to school-age children in a group setting for periods of less than 24 hours. This includes: child care centers, infant care centers, toddler programs, school-age centers, and child care centers for mildly ill children.

Page 25

The Community Care Licensing manual of policies and procedures is found in Title 22 and encompasses Division 12, Chapter 1 and Subchapters 2, 3, and 4.

The California Department of Education,
Child Care and Development (CCD) Programs
The California Department of Education, P-16, Policy and Information Branch, Child Development
Division provides leadership and support to contractors and the child development community, to ensure high quality early education programs are provided to children ages birth to 13 years. This division is responsible for administering and implementing the state child care assistance program funded through the federal Child Care and Development Fund.
There are a number of Child Development Programs administered by the Department of
Education. The one most applicable to a child care center is the General Child Care and
Development (CCD) Program.
CCD programs are state and federally funded programs that use centers and family child care home networks operated or administered by either public or private agencies or local educational agencies.
These agencies provide child development services for children from birth through 12 years of age and older children with exceptional needs12. Programs are required to provide an educational component that is developmentally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate for the children served.
The programs are also required to provide services, including meals and snacks to children that meet
CCD program guidelines, parent education, referrals to health and social services for families, and staff development opportunities to employees.
For a child care center to become a CCD program, it must determine the need of low income families for child care. One way to do this would be to check the subsidized child care payment waiting list at ICES and also the wait list for Head Start preschool programs, as well as the statistics reported in this document. Once an application is submitted and accepted, the Department of
Education will apply a formula to determine how much funding the center receives. Along with the funding comes more stringent requirements in terms of teacher to child ratios, food service, payment schedules for those children in the program who do not qualify for subsidized funding, and documentation. There are also frequent reporting requirements. The added requirements to qualify, or continue to qualify, as a CCD program are noted in the following sections.
The laws, regulations, and requirements for CCD programs are found in Title 5, Division 1,
Chapters 19 and 19.5, Sections 18000 through 18434.

12

The age limit for children with exceptional needs is 17-years-old.

Page 26

Physical Environment Requirements
The physical environment requirements for licensing and CCD programs are the same.
Indoor Space
In centers that serve a combination of infants, toddlers, preschool-age, and school-age children
(combination centers), all age groups must be physically separate from each other. This can be achieved with the use of moveable walls and partitions, but they must be at least 4 feet high, constructed of sound-absorbing materials, and secure so that they will not tip over. Based on interviews with other centers, for lighting, sound management, and constant visual supervision considerations, walls with large windows in them are recommended. (See Case Studies 1 through 5).
Indoors, there must be 35 square feet of usable space available per child. Bathrooms, halls, offices, isolation areas, food prep areas, and storage places are not included in the calculation. (These, and any other general-purpose spaces, may be shared spaces in combination centers.) Floor space occupied by shelves, permanent built-in cabinets, and/or office equipment is not included in the calculation. Floor area under tables, desks, chairs and other equipment intended for use as part of children’s activities is included in the calculation.
For centers providing care to infants, space designated and used for cribs is not included in the calculation. Centers must also have enough floor space for these items so that placement of them shall not hinder entrance or exit to and from the napping space. There must also be enough space to provide an adequate walkway and work space between the cribs, mats or cots sufficient to permit staff to reach each infant or napping child without having to step over or reach over any other infant or child.
Outdoor space
Outdoors, a center must have 75 square feet per child available, and the space must be situated to permit children to reach the outdoor activity space safely. The outdoor space must include a shaded rest area. Areas around and under high climbing equipment, swings, slides and other similar equipment must be cushioned with material that absorbs falls. Play structures are not required. The outdoor area must be enclosed by at minimum, a 4-foot fence. The outdoor area must be separated from any construction or equipment that could pose a hazard (air conditioning equipment, water heaters, fuse boxes, and the like).
Similar to indoor requirements, infants, toddlers, preschool-age, and school-age children must be physically separate from each other. This can be achieved through separate play areas or separately scheduled outdoor activity times.
Swimming pools have specific requirements that can be found in Title 22. Swimming pool areas are not included in the calculation of outdoor activity space.
Bathrooms
A child care center must have 1 toilet per 15 children, and also 1 sink per 15 children. Having a restroom outside the classroom is acceptable, but it needs to be labeled appropriately for the age group, and if it is shared with multiple age groups, the center must apply for a waiver. Urinals are acceptable, but they must be low enough for the children to easily use, and there must be at least 2
Page 27

toilets per urinal. Infant care centers must include diaper-changing areas. A separate staff bathroom is required.
While preschool-age boys and girls can share a bathroom, for school-age children, toilets need to provide individual privacy, and toilet facilities may not be used simultaneously by children of both genders. Storage space
Suitable storage space is also an important consideration. Each child needs to be provided individual permanent or portable storage space for clothing, personal belongings and/or bedding. Centers must have permanent or portable storage space in the playrooms and outdoors for play materials and equipment. Centers must have a place to store napping equipment when not in use (napping equipment is required if a center is open full day). Centers must also have a locked cabinet or location inaccessible to children for storing combustibles, cleaning equipment and cleaning agents in an area separate from food supplies.
Other facility space requirements
A child care center must have an isolation area for sick children or children acting up. If the center includes an infant component, the isolation area must be large enough to accommodate a crib, cot, mat or playpen for each ill infant, and must be constructed in a way that each infant is under constant visual supervision.
While a full kitchen is not required, based on research done at other facilities, it is highly recommended if possible, especially for a center providing a full day program. At minimum, a center must include a food prep area with a sink and hot water.
Also, children must have access to drinking water at all times, inside and out. Drinking fountains should be considered in the facility design phase of a project.

Child Care Center Employee Qualification Requirements
Employee qualifications for child care centers differ between licensing and CCD programs, with
CCD programs having a more extensive list of required coursework for teachers. Whereas licensing allows some staff to be working toward full qualifications while employed, the CCD requires all staff to have the required permit from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) in hand before being hired.
All staff must go through Criminal Record Clearance (fingerprinting) and checked against the Child
Abuse Central Index.
Director Qualifications
A Child Care Center must have a director or site supervisor.
To meet licensing requirements, the director must have at least 15 units of early childhood education
(ECE), which must include 3 units in administration. If infants are served in the child care center, at least 3 units must be specifically related to the care of infants. If the child care center includes a school-age component, the director may substitute 6 units in ECE with 6 units appropriate to
Page 28

elementary school-age children, including recreation, physical education, or with units earned toward an elementary teaching credential. Directors must also have 15 hours of health and safety training.
A director must have at least four years of teaching experience in a licensed child care center or comparable group child care program. Classroom teaching in an elementary or middle school counts for directors in a center that includes a school-age component.
To meet CCD program requirements, the director must have at least 9 additional units of course work in early childhood education or child development, for a total of 24 units. These units must include at least one three-semester unit course in each of the following:
Child/human growth and development
Child, family, and community, or child and family relations
Programs/curriculum
A CCD director must also have an additional 3 units in administration, for a total of 6 units.
A CCD director must have at least an associate degree or 60 semester units.
Teacher qualifications
To meet licensing regulations, teachers must already have at least 6 units in ECE, and be continually enrolled for at least 2 units per semester until they have the 12 units required to be a fully qualified teacher. An infant care teacher must also have at least 3 units related to the care of infants (pediatric nursing and post-natal care are examples of acceptable course work). A school-age child care teacher may substitute 20 training hours for each of the required ECE units. Units and training hours may be combined to meet the total educational requirement (12 units or 240 training hours, or any combination thereof). Teachers must have at least 6 months experience in a licensed child care center or comparable experience. Alternate types of experience are acceptable for school-age child care teachers. Teachers must also have a current and valid Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. To meet CCD program regulations, a teacher must have at least 18 additional units of course work in early childhood education or child development, for a total of 24 units. These units must include at least one three-semester unit course in each of the following areas:
Child/human growth and development
Child, family, and community, or child and family relations
Programs/curriculum
CCD program teachers must also have completed 16 units in general education, including at least one course in each of the following areas: humanities and/or fine arts, social sciences, math and/or science, and English or language arts. They must also have 55 additional days of experience in an instructional capacity in a child care and development program, for a total of 175 days.
Aide qualifications
For licensing, teacher aides must be high school graduates. They must have completed at least 2 ECE units, and be enrolled in at least 2 units per semester until meeting the fully qualified aide requirement of 6 units. Aides must work under the direct supervision of director or teacher.

Page 29

For CCD programs, an aide, or assistant, must have completed six semester units of early childhood education (ECE) or child development (CD) course work. Three of the six semester units in
ECE/CD must be completed in school-age course work. Alternatively, an assistant may complete an approved Home Economics and Related Occupations (HERO) or Regional Occupation Program
(ROP) in Child Development Related Occupations.
Volunteer qualifications
Volunteers must provide a statement of good health. They must provide the center with annual tuberculosis test showing a negative result. Volunteers cannot be counted in the required teacher to child ratios, and must be supervised at all times.

Teacher to Child Ratios
Teacher to child ratios differ between licensing and CCD program requirements. CCD programs require fewer teachers per grouping of children, but overall require more adult staff per grouping.
The result is that child care centers that have CCD programs must ensure its staffing ratios satisfy both licensing and CCD requirements.
Combination Centers
Combination centers are child care centers, owned and operated by one licensee at a common address, that are licensed to provide care for multiple, or a combination of, age groups. For example, a center that provides care to infants and preschool-age children and school-age children would need three licenses, one for each age group served. Non-combination centers are licensed to provide child care to only one age group, such as preschoolers only. Many child care centers are combination centers. Each age group has specific licensing requirements to obtain a license for that age group. The following outlines these requirements.
Preschooler Requirements
In a child care center serving only preschoolers, a preschooler’s age can range from 2 years until the child is entering kindergarten (typically around the age of 5). In contrast, in a combination center that includes a toddler component, children ages 30 to 36 months of age (depending on developmental progress of the child) until entering kindergarten can be counted as preschoolers.
Licensing requirements

CCD Program Requirements

1 teacher (12 ECE units) for every 12 children 1 teacher (12 ECE units), 1 aide (2 units), 15 children 1 teacher (12 ECE units), 1 aide (6 units), 18 children 1 teacher (12 ECE units), 1 teacher (enrolled to make 12 units), 24 children
Someone on staff, present during class, must have 12 ECE units

1 adult for every 8 children
1 teacher for every 24 children

To satisfy both licensing and CCD requirements, a program that has 24 preschool age children, for instance, would require 2 teachers and one aide or volunteer.

Page 30

Toddler Requirements
A ―toddler component‖ means the component of a preschool, infant care center, or combination center designed for children between the ages of 18 months and 30 months (up to 36 months if developmentally appropriate for the child). The space must be physically separate from those used by older or younger children.
Licensing Requirements
CCD Program Requirements
1:6 teacher-toddler ratio
1:4 adult-child ratio
Maximum group size = 12 children
1:18 teacher-child ratio
To satisfy both licensing and CCD program requirements, a center’s program that has 12 toddlers would require 2 teachers and one aide or volunteer.
Infant Requirements
Typically, infant is defined as a child under 2 years of age. However, in a combination center with a toddler component, ―infants‖ ages 18 to 24 months are redefined as toddlers and are included in the toddler component and fall under those staffing specifications. So, in this instance, infants refer to children ages 0 to 17 months. Again, the space for infants must be physically separate from those used by older children.
Licensing Requirements
CCD Program Requirements
1:4 teacher-infant ratio
1:3 adult-child ratio
1:12 teacher-sleeping infant ratio (must
1:18 teacher-child ratio be able to visually observe)
To satisfy both licensing and CCD program requirements, a program that includes 8 infants would require 2 teachers and one aide or volunteer.
Other considerations for centers serving infants:
Each infant must be constantly supervised and under direct visual observation of a staff person at all times. Under no circumstances shall ANY infant be left unattended.
Staff must prepare infant needs and service plans prior to the infant’s first day, and update these plans quarterly. Plans include information regarding feeding, toilet training, and so on.
The center’s isolation area needs to be equipped with a crib, cot, mat or playpen for each ill infant. The isolation area must be under constant visual observation. (Windows in walls help meet this requirement.)
School-Age Component
Licensing requirements for a school-age component in a child care center are:
1-14 children, 1 teacher
15-28 children, 1 teacher and 1 aide
29-42 children, 2 teachers and 1 aide
43-56 children, 2 teachers and 2 aides
Centers do not need to document medical assessments or immunizations for school-age children who are also enrolled in a public or private school.
Page 31

Before- and after- school programs offered through school systems are regulated through the
California Department of Education and are licensed-exempt.

Reporting Requirements
The majority of licensing reporting requirements are due before a facility is even operational. CCD programs, on the other hand, face frequent reporting requirements in order for the child care center to continue to qualify for funding.
Licensing Reporting Requirements
In order to receive a child care center license:
1. The director and/or administrator (can be the same person) must attend an orientation and pay the orientation fee. Orientations are scheduled on a regular basis all over California.
2. The director and administrator must be familiar with all child care center licensing laws and regulations. 3. The responsible party must complete and submit all the information and forms required in the California Department of Social Services, Community Care Licensing Division’s application packet, and pay an initial, and then annual fee.
4. The facility must pass an inspection by a Licensing Program Analyst (LPA).
After a facility is licensed, it is expected to report any changes in hours, location, number of children served, incident reports, and similar information, to the Community Care Licensing Division. A facility is also required to submit an annual personnel report, and to keep records up to date on site as specified in Title 22.
A facility can expect unannounced visits from its assigned LPA at any time, at least once a year. If violations are found, the LPA will give instructions and timelines on what needs to be fixed, deadlines, and violation posting requirements (i.e., handing out and/or posting the violation notice so that parents/caregivers are aware).
CCD Reporting Requirements
In order to keep a contract with the California Department of Education, a CCD program must submit quarterly reports outlining, in part:
Attendance records. These must be exact and detailed. If a family has too many unexcused absences (a sick day is permissible, a parent not making it because of a flat tire, for instance, is not), they automatically lose their spot in the program. They can be put back on the bottom of the waiting list. Families are allowed 10 ―best interest‖ days.
Records of how much money was spent under each code requirement. An annual outside audit is required to verify these numbers.
Meal documentation. This includes specifics of every breakfast, lunch, and snack served, including what was served and how much was eaten by each child.
Notices of Action. It must be documented that new families have received information outlining their reporting responsibilities. After initial family information is taken, families are responsible for reporting any and all changes to the CCD program (change of job, work
Page 32

hours, pay, and so on). If a family has not reported a qualifying change, it is considered fraud by the CDD.
There is an online reporting program called the North Hollywood, or NOHO system, which is recommended for reporting purposes. Staff members enter data real time, on a day-to-day basis, and
NOHO automatically generates the required reports, which can be submitted to the California
Department of Education electronically.
Subsidized Versus Non-Subsidized Children in CCD Programs
One other consideration for CCD programs is that while tuition is subsidized for low income families that qualify, the families that do not qualify as low income must pay the same or higher rate than the state is paying per child. They may not pay less.

Summary
An individual or entity interested in starting a child care center must keep in mind the California
Department of Social Services Community Care Licensing Division’s requirements regarding space, staffing, and reporting. If the proprietor is interested in becoming a California Department of
Education CCD program offering subsidized care for qualifying low income families, there are additional requirements that must be satisfied.
Both agencies’ requirements have financial implications to starting a child care center. The following section looks at both expected costs and income of operating a child care center.

Page 33

Section IV: Costs and Income of Operating a Child
Care Center
Before a potential proprietor can make a decision on whether opening a child care center in the town of Mariposa makes financial sense, they would have to carefully analyze both the costs involved and the potential income expected. The following sections attempt to do just that.

Estimated Costs Involved in Opening and
Operating a Child Care Center
Based on survey results and research, and taking into consideration regulatory agencies’ staffing requirements to maintain proper teacher to child ratios, this study presents a model for a combination center that has the capacity to serve up to 38 children divided among 3 age groups, as defined by licensing for combination centers: 8 infants (0 to 17 months), 12 toddlers (18 to 30 or 36 months), and 18 preschoolers (30 or 36 months to kindergarten). The study also assumes facility hours of 7:30 AM to 5:30 PM Monday through Friday, year round, excluding holidays.
While survey results indicate that Mariposa County residents who make use, or would like to make use, of child care services have needs for alternative hours and hourly drop-in capacity, we are not including these services in our feasibility and financial analysis. Most of the centers interviewed in this study did not provide alternative hour care or drop-in care simply because the cost of doing so
(salaries, utilities, and so on) is too great. Instead, they have traditional hours of operation, for example, 7:30 AM to 5:30 PM. Some offered fees for any combination of half day, full day, and numbers of days per week, while others had a flat monthly rate that assumed child participation every day, full time. In the latter instance, families could coordinate amongst themselves for varying portions of each ―slot.‖
Drop-in care would most likely be a service utilized by many parents in the community and can be a source of extra revenue when capacity allows. However, the income generated from drop-in care is variable and therefore does not lend itself to accurate predictions. Further, weekend care can be cost prohibitive if a minimum number of children are not enrolled. The only center interviewed that provided weekend care was the for-profit Acorn Tree in Oakhurst operated by Ms. Newcomb (See
Case Study 5). Ms. Newcomb has found it has a seasonal demand consistent with that of the tourism industry. Ms. Newcomb requires a minimum of four or five children enrolled on the weekends so that she can ―break even‖ financially. In addition, she frequently worked weekends to reduce her teachers salary cost. For Acorn Tree, it is the enrollments of the sixth child and above that make providing weekend care profitable. The number of families interested in weekend care would have to be assessed by the center’s proprietor after start-up. However, providing seasonal weekend care could be a positive selling point with parent’s who work in the tourism industry.
Likewise, while after-school care used to be a significant source of revenue for the now closed
Children’s Center in Mariposa (See Case Study 1), today it is not feasible for a new, private afterschool program to be financially sustainable in Mariposa. (See the statistics in Section III). This is primarily due to the increase in free or low cost after-school programs on local school campuses
Page 34

provided by the Mariposa County Unified School District over the past few years. For instance, with a new after school program starting at Woodland Elementary this year, the Almost Like Home
Before and After School Center that serves the Woodland area has seen a significant drop in enrollment, to the point where the proprietor does not know if the program will be sustainable. We do not recommend the inclusion of an after-school care component in a Mariposa child care center.

Space Requirements and Facility Costs
A combination child care facility serving 8 infants, 12 toddlers, and 18 preschoolers for a total of 38 children requires indoor usable space of 35 square feet per child, or 1,330 square feet. Additional space is needed for bathrooms, halls, offices, isolation areas, food prep areas, storage places, and so on, not included in the usable space calculation. If we estimate the additional needed square footage at 500 square feet, the total estimated indoor facility space would need to be 1,830 square feet.
There is flexibility in the layout of the space. For instance, the facility could be set up with separate rooms of appropriate size for each of the age groupings, or the facility could have one large space that could then be divided by 4-foot tall, sturdy, secure, sound controlled partitions. Another example of flexibility is that an office might also be able to function as an isolation area.
The amount of outdoor usable space required is 75 square feet per child. Since age groups must be kept separate from one another, the requirement of this space could be as little as 1,350 square feet
(total of the largest group of children (18) times the 75 square foot requirement, with age groups using the yard area at separate times of day); or as great as 2,850 square feet (the amount required for each age group to have their own designated space in the outdoor area).
If planning to build new space or if looking for space to rent, please refer back to Section III,
Physical Environment Requirements.
Cost of a Ready Made Facility
If land is available, either through a partnership with the county, the school district, or some other public or private entity, bringing a ready-made building onto a site is an option. Though all projects have their own parameters and costs will vary accordingly, there is recent local data that can be used to help inform the decision of whether to pursue a ready-made building project.
In 2009, First 5 Mariposa County installed a double-wide ready-made preschool classroom building on Cathey’s Valley Elementary school grounds, in cooperation with the Mariposa County Unified
School District. The facility meets all licensing requirements for a capacity of 16 preschool-age children, including office/isolation area, children’s restroom, and food prep area (to meet requirements, staff and other adults use the elementary school’s adult restroom). The cost of the double-wide portable classroom was $73,319. The estimated cost of the architect, site work, inspections, and so on (at the time of this report, the project is not yet complete), was $141,526 for a total estimated cost of $214,845. Because this facility is on school district property, the California
Department of State Architects was involved in reviewing plans and inspecting the site, and so requisite fees to this agency were incurred. A facility not on school district property would not incur these costs.

Page 35

A ready-made building of appropriate size and configuration to accommodate 38 children would undoubtedly have many of the same costs of the aforementioned project.
Cost of Renting a Facility
There is local data regarding rents paid by preschools to help inform this discussion.
Commercial Property: During the summer of 2009, Acorn Cooperative Preschool made an extensive search in the town of Mariposa and nearby outlining areas such as Bootjack for a new location to rent. In its search, board members encountered rent between 60 cents per square foot and $1.10 per square foot, with $1 per square foot being the most common asking price. The facilities on the lower end of pricing came with the stipulation that a 10% annual increase be included in the rental agreement. This becomes costly for a business that plans to stay in a space for a number of years. In looking for a facility, Acorn Co-operative Preschool had to consider enough open area to meet licensing space requirements, as well as bathroom and outdoor space requirements. Finding a location that met all its needs was a challenge. In the end, Acorn Cooperative Preschool rented a section of a commercial building in Bootjack for $1,000 per month, or $12,000 per year.
Given this data, a child care center looking for appropriate commercial facility space can expect a monthly rental cost of approximately $1 per square foot, with the final cost depending on the size of the space. To protect its balance sheet against the cost of increased rent, the proprietor of a
Mariposa child care center may want to weigh the costs and benefits of a long term lease option.
Partnerships with Public Entities: There can be some cost savings realized in partnering with a county or other public agencies, such as the school district or a church, as noted in the table below. However, the programs listed serve at maximum 30 children at one time (Acorn Preschool), with the remaining averaging 18 children at a time. To serve 38 children will require more space and, very likely, more rent. Partnering with a public entity is also contingent on the agency having appropriate space available for rent.
Preschool

Monthly Annual
Rent
Rent
$291
$3,500

Building Blocks Preschool,
Greely Hill (First 5)
Acorn Co-operative Preschool
Until 2009
$291
After 2009
$1,000
Kiwanis Preschool Academy
$256
Mariposa Co-op Preschool
$300
Cathey’s Valley Preschool
$389
(2006-2008)

$3,500
$12,000
$3,072
$3,600
$4,669

LESSEE
Community Action Partnership of
Madera County
Lutheran Church
Private Lessee
Mariposa County
Mariposa County
Mariposa County Unified School District

Appendix C, Sample Mariposa Child Care Center Annual Budget, provides an example budget of estimated costs. It uses $21,960 per year as the estimated rent, opting to illustrate the minimum amount of indoor space needed for 38 children (1,830 square feet) times the most common asking price per square foot ($1). This assumes an available commercial space having the exact square footage required, which may not be the case. It must have the minimum amount required, but may have more.
Page 36

Staffing Costs
Staff considerations include a director, teachers, aides, support staff, and a custodial/maintenance worker. To estimate costs, we can look at what local preschools are paying staff. All costs listed below are best estimates, for illustration purposes only. The following sections are meant to give an idea of the costs involved in running a child care center. They should only be used as a starting point. Teaching staff
To support a combination center capable of serving 38 children, with a breakdown of 8 infants, 12 toddlers and 18 preschoolers, the minimum staffing requirements for a child care center would be:
Number of
Children
8 infants

Licensing

CCD

2 teachers

12 toddlers

2 teachers

1 teacher, 2 adults
(could have one more infant) 1 teacher, 3 adults

18 preschoolers

1 teacher, 1 aide

1 teacher, 2 adults

TOTAL STAFF

5 teachers,
1 aide

To Meet Both
Requirements
2 teachers, 1 aide (or volunteer) 2 teachers, 1 aide (or volunteer) 1 teacher, 2 aides; or
1 teacher, 1 aide, 1 volunteer
5 teachers, 4 aides; or
5 teachers, 1 aide,
3 volunteers

Since a child care center must have a director, one teacher could qualify in a director/teacher capacity. This is a common practice.
In order to reduce costs, a child care center that decided to become a CCD program could adopt a cooperative model, making use of volunteers—parents willing to rotate time in their child’s room, or community members who meet licensing’s volunteer guidelines (statement of good health and annual negative TB test results)—to meet the adult to child ratios. All volunteers must be supervised at all times.
At minimum, a licensed child care facility would need 5 teachers and 1 aide. We use this configuration in the sample budget of costs found in Appendix C.
For First 5 Mariposa County school readiness preschools and preschools receiving grants from First
5 Mariposa County, the starting rate for a director/teacher averages $20 per hour; for a teacher it averages $18 per hour; and the cost for an aide averages $12 per hour.
This hourly rate does not include required employer payroll taxes (unemployment insurance, disability insurance, FICA, and Workers Compensation) that must be taken into account. Payroll taxes can add as much as 15% additional employment costs (and using a payroll service, which many agencies do, would be an additional administrative cost). For instance, for a teacher making $20 per hour, the cost to the employer including all payroll taxes is $23.

Page 37

We assume employees will not receive medical benefits. However, if the center did offer these or other types of benefits there could be an additional 5-15% added onto the hourly rate for each staff person. Though our example center is open from 7:30 AM to 5:30 PM, for a total of 10 hours per day, we assume staff hours at 8 hours per day, or 40 hours per week, as teaching staff can be staggered so that less are present in the opening and closing hours when less children are there and less staff is required, and all teaching staff is present during the peak time of day when all children are present.
The cost of one director/teacher with a total payroll cost of $23 per hour (wage plus payroll taxes), who works 40 hours per week for 52 weeks per year would be approximately $47,840.
The cost of four teachers with a total payroll cost of $20.70 per hour (wage plus payroll taxes), who works 40 hours per week for 52 weeks per year would be approximately $43,056 each, or $172,224.
The cost of one aide with a total payroll cost of $13.80 per hour (wage plus payroll taxes), who works 40 hours per week for 52 weeks per year would be approximately $28,704.
A center would also need to pay the cost of a substitute teacher to fill in for vacation and sick days.
A substitute could be paid at the same rate as an aide, and could be expected to work a minimum of
2 weeks for each of the six teaching staff, or 12 weeks per year. Add in two additional weeks to cover any employee sick leave, for a total estimate of 14 weeks per year. The total cost for one substitute aide is estimated at $13.80 per hour (wage plus payroll taxes), who works 40 hours per week for 14 weeks per year would be approximately $7,728.
Support Staff
Especially if the director is acting as a teacher, a child care center with 38 children divided into 3 groups should consider an administrative assistant to the director to assist with paperwork. The starting rate for a part time assistant averages $12 per hour. This increases to $13.80 per hour with payroll taxes figured in. If the assistant works 3 hours per day, or 15 hours per week, for 52 weeks per year, the payroll cost would be $11,700.
Custodian/Maintenance
The proprietor of the child care center may also want to consider a custodian. The starting rate for a part-time custodian in preschools in Mariposa County is $12.00 per hour. With payroll taxes and insurance included, this increases to $13.80 per hour. If the custodian works 2 hours per day for a total of 10 hours per week, 52 weeks per year, the annual payroll cost for this position would be
$7,800.
Total Annual Staffing Costs
In our example scenario, the total staffing costs of one director, four teachers, one aide, one administrative assistant, and one custodian would be $293,200.

Page 38

Other Costs to Consider
In addition to building and staffing costs, the proprietor of a child care center must also consider such costs as:
California Department of Social Services annual licensing fee (for 38 children, the original application fee is $880, and the annual fee is approximately $400).
Insurance for the child care center (estimated $1500-$2000 annually based on what current local preschools are paying).
Utilities, trash pickup, phone service, internet service, bank fees, post office fees, etc.
Food for breakfast, lunch, and snacks. (Many programs ask parents to provide the food to cut this expense. Government subsidy programs can also be considered – See Appendix G)
Payroll services (some current preschools use a temporary agency or an independent payroll service agency to administer payroll and payroll taxes).
Accounting and auditing fees (approximately $750 to prepare annual taxes. A CCD program would also require an annual outside audit, which is estimated to be $4,000 based on local data.) Memberships to such organizations as the National Association for the Education of Young
Children (NAEYC) or other similar ECE organizations.
Employee trainings/seminars.
Repairs and upkeep.
Reserve for unexpected costs and emergencies13 (at the time of submitting an application, licensing requires centers to provide proof of a reserve large enough to cover 3 months of expenses). Summary of Annual Costs
A sample budget of annual costs can be found in Appendix C. Please note this budget is meant for illustrative purposes only. Any number of criteria for a child care center could be different from what is indicated in the sample budget. Any estimated costs not explained above were estimated based on budgets of current preschools (Acorn Co-operative Preschool and First 5 School
Readiness Preschools), and are meant as estimates for illustrative purposes.

Start Up Costs
For a child care center to open its doors, it must first be fully furnished and ready for children. Items that need to be considered:
Office equipment and supplies: computer, printer, photocopier, laminator, paper, pens, ink cartridges, etc.
Cleaning equipment and supplies: vacuum, floor polisher, cleaning products, bathroom supplies, etc.

Notably, the child care center previously in Mariposa closed because they did not have such a reserve and faced a number of unexpected costs all at once. (See Case Study 1.)
13

Page 39

Kitchen equipment and supplies: refrigerator, oven, microwave, cups plates, paper products and silverware.
Program supplies: paper, paint, glue, science items (seed and soil, silkworms,…), sand, rice, noodles for artwork (these will need constant replenishment), etc.
Furniture and other one-time large purchases: cubbies, rug for circle, story time station, tables and chairs, writing center, listening center, music center, children’s play kitchen area, items for dress-up area, art cart, easels, storage cabinets, book shelves, etc.
Outside: shed, tricycles, water table, sand box, outside activity toys, etc.
Curriculum: educational toys and games, books, music, instruments, blocks, etc.
Infant and Toddler care items: cribs, high chairs, changing tables, cribs or playpens, etc.
Building/property permits and fees: County use permit, fire and building code clearance fees, water permits, etc.
A sample budget of start up costs, listing specific items and estimated prices, is included as
Appendix E. The costs are based on items that were purchased to start Cathey’s Valley Preschool in the fall of 2006, adding in some items known to be needed for the infant and toddler components of the combination center in our example. Cathey’s Valley Preschool is for 3 to 5 year olds only, serving 16 children at a time. The child care center in our example serves 38 children: infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The sample budget, therefore, should not be considered all inclusive, but rather a starting point for items to consider and the costs involved.
As noted earlier, in addition to these start up costs, a center must prove it has enough capital in reserves to pay for three months-worth of expenses. Also, if a proprietor is renting a building, they will likely incur some remodeling costs to make the building conform to licensing requirements (i.e., walls added or removed, bathrooms added, outdoor fencing added, etc). According to Elaina
Newcomb, the proprietor of Acorn Tree in Oakhurst, CA, it is not uncommon for the proprietor of a new child care center to need a start-up loan. She estimates it will take her approximately two years to repay her $50,000 loan in full. In her experience in for-profit child care centers, this is a typical repayment timeframe. Ms. Newcomb does not draw a director’s or teacher’s salary from her business until her load is repaid. (See Case Study 5.)
While a loan is something a potential child care center proprietor may want to consider, please note that a monthly loan repayment expense was not included in any of the sample budgets provided in the Appendixes.

Summary of All Costs
As has been demonstrated in the preceding sections, there are many costs that must be considered before starting a child care center. Appendixes D, E, and F contain sample budgets of estimated costs, based on our example of a combination child care center serving 38 children: 8 infants, 12 toddlers, and 18 preschoolers. The sample budgets are meant as a starting point only, with the possibility of changes to any number of variables. But they do provide insight into why starting a child care center in the town of Mariposa would be economically challenging at this time. Further, many child care centers require a start up loan in the tens of thousands of dollars. A monthly loan repayment expense was not included in the sample budgets provided in the Appendixes. The following section examines sources of income needed to offset the costs.
Page 40

Income, Profitability & Funding of a Child Care Center
To balance out the costs illustrated in the previous section, a child care center might need to employ a variety of funding sources, including tuition, fees, fundraisers, grants, and government programs.

Tuition
Currently, families using family child care home providers in Mariposa County are typically paying
$30 per day for children 2 years and younger, and $25 per day for preschoolers (these are the most frequently cited rates for each age group, the average rates are a few dollars per day less).
Families with children in Mariposa County First 5 preschools or Head Start are receiving these service for free (for Head Start, funding is by way of federal subsidies). Families with children enrolled in the remaining area preschools are paying from $85 – 120 per month. The preschools offer only three to four hours of care per day, three to four days per week.
After-school care fees for school-age children are relatively low cost. However, many families are now getting these services free or at low cost through four Mariposa County Unified School District license-exempt after-school programs. It would be difficult if not impossible for a child care center to compete with these programs, and thus we would not recommend the inclusion of a school-age after care component in a child care center in Mariposa.
The fees in Mariposa County are quite low compared to rates for preschools and child care centers in neighboring counties. In Merced, for instance, the cost for a half-day at St. Luke’s preschool is
$22.50 per day, or $338 per month. Add in after school care until 6:30, and the rate increases by
$9.20 per day, or $138 per month, for a total monthly cost for a full day program of $476 per month. (See Case Study 2.)
UC Merced’s Child Care Center allows monthly payments only, and they are calculated for full days,
7:30 AM to 5:30 PM, five days per week. For UC Merced students, staff, and faculty, the rates are
$975 per month for infants; $850 per month for toddlers; $750 per month for preschoolers. For the community at large, these rates increase to $1200 per month for infants; $1,000 per month for toddlers; and $750 per month for preschoolers. (See Case Study 3.)
Acorn Tree in Oakhurst, CA, a for-profit child care center, offers child care from 6:00 AM to 6:00
PM Monday through Sunday. However, this center offers weekend care seasonally, when there is enough demand (at least 5 children). Acorn Tree charges weekly tuition fees. Full-time weekly tuition fees, which include 5 days of care, are as follows: infants $180 per week ($36 day); preschoolage $135 per week (tuition for this age group will increase to $145 in January) ($29 day); and schoolage $100 per week (this figure may change soon after a market analysis). Enrolled parents of preschool-age children can add an additional day of care during the week for $30. Non-enrolled parents (those without a consistent, pre-established care schedule) pay a higher daily drop-in rate of
$40. Non-enrolled parents can utilize available drop-in slots if all paperwork and child shot records are provided. (See Case Study 5.)

Page 41

Despite the fees charged in neighboring counties, survey results indicate that Mariposa families are not willing or able to pay more than what they’re currently paying. A child care center in Mariposa would not likely be able to charge more than $30 per day for infants and $25 per day for preschoolers. If the center had a full-time monthly payment fee schedule, this would equate to $650 per month for infants and $542 per month for preschoolers. If the center had a toddler component the cost for toddlers would be $27.50 per day (the average of the rates for infants and preschoolers).
Given our example model of a combination child care center serving 38 children divided among 3 age groups: 8 infants (0 to 17 months), 12 toddlers (18 to 30 or 36 months), and 18 preschoolers (30 or 36 months to kindergarten), once at full capacity (which may take some time) such a child care center could expect to recoup on a yearly basis, based on what Mariposa families are willing to pay:
$62,400 from families with infants ($650 per month times 12 months times 8 infants); $85,800 from families with toddlers ($595.83 per month times 12 months times 12 toddlers); and $117,000 from families with preschoolers ($541.67 per month times 12 months times 18 preschoolers). The total amount that might be expected in annual tuition fees is $265,200.00. As you will see in Appendix C, this is not enough to cover our example child care center’s total annual budget.
Appendix D shows the tuition rates that would have to be charged in order to do a little better than break even in our example child care center’s total annual budget. The rates are: $34 per day for infants (12% higher than the $30 per day Mariposa families indicated they are willing to pay); $33 per day for toddlers (9% higher for families with toddlers 18 to 24 months; 18% higher for families with toddlers 24 to 30 months), and $29 per day for preschoolers (17% higher).
Note on Tuition: It is important to reiterate that the annual tuition income noted in Appendix C and
Appendix D can only be realized if the child care center in our model is at full capacity. Research indicates that it can take a child care center anywhere from 9 to 18 months to become profitable. A child care center would have to have significant savings to make up for enrollment shortfalls and cover costs.
In addition, at the time of applying for a license through the California Department of Social
Services, Community Care Licensing Division, an applicant must include proof that it has enough cash reserves to cover a 3 month period of operation.

Enrollment Fees
In addition to tuition fees, some child care centers charge annual enrollment fees. While in many cases, these fees are simply the amount needed to cover the cost of processing the paperwork, in others the fee is another way for a child care center to generate income to offset other facility costs.
For instance, at St. Luke’s School in Merced, the annual enrollment fee is $150 for the first child, and $100 for additional children in the same family. In contrast, the annual membership fee for
Acorn Cooperative Preschool in Mariposa is $50 for both of their programs.
If the Mariposa child care center in our model followed the St. Luke’s model it could generate
$3,800 per year in annual enrollment fees.

Page 42

Grants
During the 1990s, the Associated Students Children's Center & Child Development Lab at Chico
State University was able to fund its program entirely through grants, with no tuition charged to parents. (See Case Study 4.) Recently, the UC Merced Child Care Center was able to fund the construction of its building with the help of grants through First 5 of Merced County, The Merced
County Employees Federal Credit Union, and the Packard Foundation. However, most of the money for the site construction came from the UC school system, and this center does not have any grant money for funding program costs; all program costs are paid for through tuition fees. (See
Case Study 3.)
Locally, there are preschools that receive some grant assistance through First 5 Mariposa County, including Acorn Cooperative Preschool and Kiwanis Preschool Academy. First 5 Mariposa County also fully funds preschools in its School Readiness Program: Cathey’s Valley Preschool and Building
Blocks Preschools in Greeley Hill and Lake Don Pedro. However, First 5 Mariposa County does not have funding available to support another school readiness program. In addition, First 5 Mariposa
County has cut back on its grant funding in recent years, and may be forced to not provide grant funding in years to come. This is because its reserves are steadily decreasing each year it funds grants. Also California First 5, which provides funding for half the costs of the school readiness program, has said that the current school readiness cycle, which in Mariposa County runs through
2012, will be the last cycle to receive state funding. Though the final decision will be up to the First
5 Mariposa County Commissioners, it is likely that any money that Mariposa County First 5 receives as part of its annual allocation after 2012 will need to be put toward sustaining its own school readiness program preschools.
While local child care centers (at this time, preschools) have had some success in securing small grants to help defray program costs (for instance, in 2007 Cathey’s Valley Preschool received a grant from the Mariposa County Health Department Tobacco Education Program to purchase books for a lending library), the search for large grants, other than First 5, to help defray program costs has proven unfruitful. The largest cost for a child care center is payroll for its personnel; however, it is very difficult to find grants that will cover personnel costs. See Appendix G for grant resources that could be researched.

Fundraising
Mariposa County child care centers such as Acorn Cooperative Preschool and Kiwanis Preschool
Academy have had success in raising money to defray program costs through fundraisers. Some examples of successful fundraisers include rummage sales, food booths at the County fair, weekend tri-tip barbeque sales outside Pioneer Market, collecting receipts for a 1% donation of the receipt amount from Pioneer Market, selling catalog items for companies such as Great America, etc.
However, the amount gleaned from these venues is by no means enough to sustain a program.
While a child care center in the town of Mariposa County could certainly plan and hold successful fundraisers, the amount of money raised from such endeavors is an unknown variable. Furthermore, if the child care center operated as a for-profit business versus a non-profit entity, it many not be successful using fundraising as a strategy and could not offer any tax deduction incentives.

Page 43

CCD Program
A child care center could apply for funding through the California Department of Education (CDE),
P-16, Policy and Information Branch, Child Development Division, General Child Care and
Development Program (CCD).
Tuition: As discussed earlier, to become a CCD program, a child care center must determine the need of low income families for child care. One way to do this would be to check the alternative payment waiting list at ICES and also the wait list for Head Start preschool programs, as well as the statistics reported in this document. Once an application is submitted and accepted, the Department of
Education will apply a formula to determine how much funding the center receives. The following table shows the California Department of Education’s reimbursement ceilings for subsidized child care in 2009.

CDE Average Rate of Subsidy in Mariposa County
Age Group
Birth to 24 Months
2 through 5 Years
School Age

Full-time
Daily
42.17
28.01
23.62

Full-time
Weekly
185.91
128.93
110.75

Full-time Part-time Part-time Part-time
Monthly
Hourly
Weekly
Monthly
754.75
6.61
143.03
560.84
513.68
4.74
95.23
363.82
414.62
6.17
63.90
256.82

See Appendix H for more subsidy information and rates.
Food: CCD programs are also required to provide breakfasts, lunches, and snacks that meet the
California Department of Education’s nutrition guidelines. They provide subsidies to pay for this for low income families. Families that do not qualify as low income would have to pay the same amount as the CDE is paying for subsidized families.
If a center had a full kitchen, meals and snacks could be provided on site. Another option is for a site to contract with the local school district for one of its’ school kitchens or with the senior center to use it’s kitchen to provide the meals and snacks.
There are a number of things to consider before applying to become a CCD program:
1. One consideration is that while tuition and meals are subsidized for low income families that qualify, the families that do not qualify as low income must pay at least the same rate that the state is paying per child. They may not pay less. This rate could be too cost prohibitive for some Mariposa families who do not qualify for the subsidy.
2. The director and teachers for CCD programs have greater educational requirements, and may not be working toward the full requirements while employed as licensing allows. They must have the proper California Department of Education teacher credentialing permit in hand before they are hired. To attract and keep fully qualified staff may require greater salary costs. 3. While CCD programs require fewer teachers, they require a greater child-to-adult ratio than what licensing requires. To satisfy the requirements of both regulatory agencies would result in the need for more teachers and aides.
Page 44

There are many more reporting requirements and paperwork involved with CCD programs. This paperwork is in relation to attendance, changes to participating families work or salary information, and meal programs. See ―CCD Reporting Requirements‖ in Section 3 for more information.
As previously mentioned, there is an online reporting program called the North Hollywood, or
NOHO, which after data is entered, will automatically generate and forward the required reports to
California Department of Education. Danielle Waite, who is the director of UC Merced’s Child Care
Center and has previous experience running CCD programs, said the NOHO program is very expensive, but worth every penny.
Cost/Benefit analysis: Before applying for a child care center to become a CCD program, one would need to weigh the costs against the benefits. For instance, Ms. Waite said that while turning UC
Merced’s Child Care Center into a CCD program was possible, it was not worth it for that particular center because 1) the community does not have a significant amount of families who would qualify for the subsidy; 2) it would raise the rates for those who do not qualify; and 3) the reporting requirements take a significant amount of time to comply with.
Because of the costs outlined above and because we can’t predict the anticipated income , we do not include CCD program income in our sample budget. However, Merced College runs a large CCD program and would be a good center to visit and consult with if a Mariposa County child care center wished to become a CCD program. Also, UC Merced’s Child Care Center director, Danielle Waite, has experience running CCD programs and would be a good source of information.
Child Care Subsidy through Infant and Child Enrichment Services (ICES)
Rather than becoming a CCD program, a child care center could recommend to parents who qualify as low income that they seek a tuition subsidy through the Infant and Child Enrichment Services
(ICES) Alternative Payments program, which is funded by the Department of Education. Note, however, that ICES has a policy of limiting the number of children receiving subsidies at each child care facility. Providers may not have more children receiving subsidy then the number of children they are licensed to care for. For example, if a child care center is licensed for 38 children, only 38 of the enrolled children can be receiving subsidized tuition, regardless of whether the child attends for one hour per week, or 40 hours per week. This policy is to ensure that a child care business will remain financially solvent if the child care subsidy program dissolves. (See Appendix I.) Families’ ability to receive subsidies through ICES’ Alternative Payments program is also dependent on funds being available. There is often a waiting list.

Other Government Programs
There are other government sources available for funding. For instance, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) Rural Housing Service has facility funding available for non-profits or local governments that support child care facilities. The USDA also has funding programs that support child care centers (and family day care homes) by providing assistance through the Food and
Nutrition Service food programs.
Please see Appendix G for a list of possible funding sources. Researching funding sources to make sure they are current and applicable, applying for funds, and meeting funding requirements, all take a
Page 45

considerable amount of time, but could prove very beneficial to a child care center in the long run.
Also note that funding for child care is directly impacted by available federal, state or county funding, which can fluctuate from year to year.

Partnerships with Public or Private Entities
One way to defray costs for a child care center would be to form a partnership with a public or private entity whereby the child care center is mutually beneficial. For instance, if Mariposa County decides it would like to locate a privately-run child care center within a county building, a strong public-private partnership between the county and the privately run child care center would have to be established and maintained by both parties. Perhaps as part of this arrangement, the privately run child care center could negotiate for a very low rent, as has been done locally for both Kiwanis
Preschool Academy and Mariposa Cooperative Preschool.
Perhaps an arrangement could be made with the Mariposa County Unified School District
(MCUSD) for the use of any available school buildings, or the lease of available school grounds for a building to be constructed or brought in. For instance, when Cathey’s Valley Preschool started as an independent non-profit in 1996, the preschool rented an empty classroom at Cathey’s Valley
Elementary to run its program. Later, when First 5 Mariposa County took over the preschool as part of its school readiness program, First 5 made an arrangement with MCUSD to bring in a readymade building to house the preschool, and leased the land from the district for $1 per year. Likewise,
Mariposa County First 5 owns the preschool building on MCUSD property at Lake Don Pedro
Elementary, and again pays the district $1 per year to lease the property. There are benefits to First 5 school readiness programs in being in close proximity to schools and benefits to the school district in supporting programs that help children be ready to learn when they enter kindergarten.
Another possibility would be for an entity like the county to contract with a company like Kidango or Bright Horizons to see if a partnership agreement could be reached whereby an outside private agency like these contracts to run the child care center.
Kidango is a private, nonprofit agency providing a variety of services to children and families in
Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Francisco Counties. Its services are for children from birth to twelve years of age, varying from site to site by the need at each location. Hours of operation also vary from site to site. Kidango began as Tri-Cities Children’s Centers in 1979. At inception there were 90 children and families being served at one center in Fremont. Today more than 2800 children and families are served in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Francisco Counties each day. While it is doubtful this company would travel as far as Mariposa, perhaps a similar, more global organization such as Bright Horizons might.
Founded in 1986, Bright Horizons Family Solutions is the world's leading provider of employersponsored child care. Bright Horizons manages more than 600 child care centers for corporations, hospitals, universities, and government agencies. All of its child care centers are designed to meet the standards of excellence set by the National Association for the Education of Young Children
(NAEYC). They partner with employers to support their employees as they strive to balance the demands of work and family. This is a popular model followed in many places where child care is desired, but help is needed in getting a child care center started.

Page 46

Section IV: Summary & Conclusions
Based on the survey results, interviews, and research presented within this document, it is concluded that the creation and operation of a child care center in Mariposa County at this time is not feasible.
Several factors contribute to this conclusion. First, the fiscal factors associated with high start-up and operating costs, coupled with the requirements for reserves, the limited availability of grant funding to defray program costs, and the general inability and/or unwillingness of Mariposa families to pay rates necessary to the center’s survival. Additionally, due to the extended length of time it may take a center to become licensed and get to full capacity would further reduce its ability to generate revenue. Third, strict licensing requirements necessitate providers with a high degree of experience and education in the child care field to operate and work in such a center. There is currently a limited pool of individuals in Mariposa County who meet this requirement and it may necessitate someone from outside the County choosing to be an owner/operator of such a facility. Finally, even if the operation of basic hours (7:30 AM to 5:30 PM) within a center was feasible, unmet needs for after-hour care and drop-in capacity for Mariposa families would still exist. Therefore, despite meeting some needs for the community, significant gaps would still exist.

Recommendations
Although a child care center is not currently feasible primarily due to financial constraints, there are some steps that can be taken by the Local Child Care Planning Council in partnership with Infant
Child Enrichment Services (ICES) and other entities to move toward closing the gaps between child care resources and unmet child care needs identified in this study.
Continue to work with existing family child care home providers to explore options for expanding alternative hours (evenings, nights, weekends) or drop-in capacity;
Expand training opportunities for parents and families regarding what is quality child care and how to advocate for quality care for their children;
Expand training opportunities for families who choose to use families and/or friends as providers, which can serve the dual purpose of strengthening quality care and informing families about the subsidies that may be available for this type of care;
Explore funding to provide incentives and subsidies to family child care home providers for including alternative hours and drop-in capacity within their programs.
Explore capital funding opportunities for a child care center, which would assist in offsetting costs to a potential future owner/operator of a facility.
Work to identify potential future owner/operators of a child care facilities so if the fiscal climate changes, if child care needs increase, if the need for a center expands or if funds become available through public-private partnerships, than someone is positioned to build a program. Explore alterative formats to a child care center. Below are some ideas of what would be needed to make such an endeavor feasible:
1. There must be an individual or entity willing to invest the time and money it would take to start such a center.

Page 47

2. The center could start small, with preschool-age children (the income generators). If this is successful, expand and build on success. This is not as great a risk as a full-scale combination center. Preschool is in demand. The actual percentage of families who use preschool primarily for enrichment and school readiness verses for child care is unknown. However, from key informant interviews it is anticipated that families with one non-working parent or flexible work schedules (such as with parents who are selfemployed) represent the largest consumer of the local preschools due to their limited hours of operation. All 6 licensed preschools had a waiting list for the 2009-2010 school year. Many parents have their children on multiple preschool waiting lists to maximize their enrollment opportunity. A full-time preschool may help meet family’s child care needs. 3. Use a cooperative model, with parents volunteering to defray staff costs.
4. Partner with the county or school district for an appropriate space at an affordable lease rate. 5. Try to partner with a company like Bright Horizons, with the experience, administrative capacity and resources to be successful in such an endeavor.

Page 48

APPENDIXES
Appendix A
Child Care Needs Survey Results
June - September 2009
Surveys were distributed throughout Mariposa County from June to September 2009. Surveys were available in both paper and internet formats. In an attempt to capture a representative sample of the child care needs and interest in a child care center in Mariposa of all geographical regions, socioeconomic levels, and ethnic backgrounds in Mariposa County surveys were distributed at various community agencies and schools throughout the county. Distribution sites included the following: the Health Department; the Parks and Recreation day camp program; MCUSD summer school programs at Lake Don Pedro Elementary, Woodland Elementary, and Mariposa Elementary; Happy
Burger; Pioneer Market; the Chamber of Commerce Web Blast; e-mail lists of various play groups in the community; the Yosemite Daily Report; Mariposa County Employee e-mail list; the library;
Pioneer Market; three low-income apartment complexes in the Mariposa area; Mariposa Safe
Families’ Family Enrichment Center and Shared Leadership Programs; Community Preschools; clients of the Family Resource Center – an agency serving families who have children with special needs; and the Mariposa County Social Services Department. The survey was also advertised in the local newspaper, directing interested individuals to the locations of the survey within the community. One hundred-sixty-five surveys were returned and included in the final analysis.
Mariposa County Child Care Needs Survey Results
September 2009
Describe your relationship to the child(ren) you care for in your household.
Response Percent
92.7%
0.6%
0.6%
5.5%
0.6%

152
1
1
9
1

answered question

Parent
Foster Parent
Legal Guardian
Grandparent (not guardian)
Other Relative

Response Count

164

Which location in the county is closest to where you live?
Response Percent
46.3%
9.8%
1.8%
4.3%
14.6%
23.2%

Page 49

76
16
3
7
24
38

answered question

Mariposa
Catheys Valley-Hornitos
Greeley Hill-Coulterville
El Portal-Yosemite
Lake Don Pedro
Woodland

Response Count

164

Which of the following best describes your Work or School schedule?
Response Percent

Response Count

43.9%
19.5%
26.2%
1.2%
2.4%
6.7%

72
32
43
2
4
11

Full-time
Part-time
Stay-at-Home
Retired
Unemployed, seeking work
Self-employed

answered question
164
For each of the following age categories, write the number of children you have currently in Child Care (family/friend, licensed family care home, preschool, before/after school)?
Response Percent

Response Count

28.9%
44.1%
39.5%
6.6%
30.3%

44
67
60
10
46

Ages 0-2
Ages 3-5
Ages 6-13
Ages 14-17 (Special Needs children)
Not Applicable

answered question
152
In each age category, write the number of children you have that are in need of, or will need, Child Care within the next year? Answer Options

Response Percent

Response Count

29.3%
41.3%
32.7%
5.3%
33.3%

44
62
49
8
50

answered question

150

Age 0-2
Age 3-5
Age 6-13
Ages 14-17 (Special Needs children)
Not Applicable
Have your Child Care needs changed over the past year?

Response Percent

Response Count

7.7%
29.7%
4.5%
41.3%
16.8%

12
46
7
64
26

answered question

155

Decreased Hours
Increased Hours
Stopped completely
No change
Not Applicable

Which of the following types of Child Care do you currently use? Choose all that apply.
Don't use child care
Age 0-2
Age 3-5
Age 6-13
(14-17 special needs) Family/
Friend

47.2%
31.6%

33.3%
36.8%`

Licensed
Family
Home
12.5%
26.3%

46.4%

37.8%

15.9%

Pre-school/
Head Start

Private
Babysitter

After School
Program

7.0%
26.3%

9.7%
9.2%

0.0%
1.0%

0.0%

6.1%

10.9%

answered question

Page 50

148

Do you feel that all your Child Care needs are currently being met?
Not at
All

Somewhat

Mostly

Completely

N/A

12

29

34

53

25

answered question
Which of the following best describes your Child Care needs? Choose all that apply. (Full-time is 35+ hours per week; Part-time is less than 35 hrs per week).

153

Response Percent

Response Count

21.8%
25.6%
11.3%
25.6%
5.3%
7.5%
25.6%
15.0%
11.3%

29
34
15
34
7
10
34
20
15

Consistent, Full-time care
Consistent, Part-time care
Varying, Full-time care
Varying, Part-time care
Summer Only care
School Year Only
Occasional Drop-in Care
After/Before School Care
Enrichment primarily
Which of the following describes the days and times that you need Child Care? Choose all that apply.

answered question

133

Response Percent

Response Count

19.5%
76.4%
17.9%
9.8%
22.0%
23.6%
9.8%

24
94
22
12
27
29
12

Early morning hours (6:00am-7:30am)
Weekday Daytime hours (7:30am-6:00pm)
Weekday Evening/Night hours (6:00pm-6:00am)
Weekend Daytime Hours
Weekend Evening/Night Hours
After School
Holidays

Please check all barriers you have to using a Family Child Care Setting? (check all that apply)

No
Barriers

Child Age 0-2
Child Age 3-5
Child Age 6-13
(14-17 special needs) Location/
Transportation

Can't
Afford

Lack of
Availability

Quality of Care

Hours Open

Can't take all my children

Coordination w/other care

Vacation
Days

39.1%
43.1%

14.0%
14.8%

32.8%
28.5%

29.7%
25.0%

32.8%
23.9%

17.2%
18.2%

7.8%
5.7%

4.7%
3.4%

6.3%
5.7%

50.7%

10.4%

31.3%

26.9%

22.4%

19.4%

7.5%

4.5%

9.0%

answered question

107

Please check all barriers you have to using a drop-off Preschool? (check all that apply)

No Barriers

Location/
Transportation

Can't
Afford

Lack of
Availability

Quality of
Care

Hours Open

Can't take all my children

Coordination w/other care

PartTime
Only

49.5%

16.8%

23.4%

16.8%

11.2%

16.8%

0.1%

4.7%

7.5%

answered question

Page 51

107

Please share what type of Child Care services can better meet your Child Care needs? (This was an open-ended question.)
Response Count = 61
Back-up care = 1.6%
Drop-off care =6.6%
Summer program for older children = 1.6%
Weekends, evenings, night care = 16.4%
Earlier hours = 3.3%
Coordination of care for multiple children is difficult = 1.6%
Need more inexpensive care = 6.6%
Quality of in home care needs improvement = 2.3%
Nanny / In-home care referral system = 4.9%
Full-time preschool = 1.6%
Part–time working parents can’t afford care = 3.3%
Nurse = 1.6%
Healthy food = 1.6%
Need more drop off preschool = 9.9%
Need child care provider in Wawona = 4.9%
Need child care provider in Lake Don Pedro = 3.3%
Need affordable drop-off care in Cathey’s Valley = 1.6%
Part-time occasional care = 1.6%
Alternative to after- school program = 3.2%
Governmental child care center = 1.6%
High quality enrichment programs = 6.6%
More availability = 3.2%

Would you use a Child Care Center in the town of Mariposa?

Very Unlikely
Choose One

May Consider

Possibly

Very Likely

Response
Count

39.5%

23.8%

21.1%

15.6%

147

Very Likely

Response
Count

Would you use a Child Care Center co-located in a County building?
Very Unlikely

May Consider

Possibly

37.2%
20.0%
24.2%
18.6%
145
Choose One
Would you use a Child Care Center that allowed Drop-In Child Care to families that needed immediate or occasional care? Very Unlikely
Choose One

May Consider

Possibly

Very Likely

Response
Count

26.2%

23.5%

22.1%

28.2%

149

What concerns, if any, would you have? (This was an open-ended question.)
Response Count = 35
Disclosure from parents with sick kids and the ability to keep them separated.
Adult to child ratio. Would want to be sure my child was well looked after.
Good quality supervision of children and instructors that provide learning/growth opportunities...
Care takers not knowing my children well, perhaps too academic or video centered activities.
Quality of care; provider to child ratio; infectious disease screening.
Concerns: cost, staff, cleanliness of center.
Occasional use of a day care would fit my needs.
Safety of my children, quality of entertainment, quality of food (NO over processed junk).

Page 52

Staffing levels, cleanliness, enriching quality of equipment, cost.
The experience of the staff and the safety of my children.
It would depend entirely on two factors: affordability and quality of staff. The most important thing is that the people who watch my kids really care about them.
My concern is that the Mariposa Elementary School Kid's club (after-school program) will end due to lack of funding.
Quality of care; security and safety; availability.
Quality of Care.
Distance from home to daycare.
Quality of care and facilities- would be nice to have an option for occasional evenings or weekends.
Qualifications of care providers.
Ratio of providers to children.
Who is caring for my child?
Not knowing personnel.
How far?
I would need to see the regulations, policies, etc. to know.
Influence of children not there on a consistent basis.
Having children who are unfamiliar with structure in a program with my child. Also the increased likelihood of illness due to lack of having an ongoing knowledge of the child in a drop in situation.
It would have to be in Don Pedro.
Need it in Don Pedro.
Not being familiar with staff.
Quality of care; competency.
Don't like quality of care at daycare centers.
That the enrichment be positive and encouraging.
I like my in-home care provider.
I want to know that my children are not mixing with children of clients. I don’t think that is best practice for either my child or the other children.
1. Quality of care; 2. Quality of care givers; 3.Diversity of care for older kids (availability of quiet area for homework and/or play area for this age)
Unfamiliar kids bringing illnesses or other cooties.
How much can you afford to pay PER CHILD you have in Child Care? Choose daily or hourly, not both.
Per day (Fulltime/All day):
$

Per Hour (Parttime: 6hrs or less):$ Average
$21.58

Average
$6.03

Range
$0-50

Range
$1.50 - $15

Per Day (FT)
Percentages
$0 =
$10 > =
$15 =
$20 =
$24 =
$25 =
$30 =
$35 =
$50 =

17.9%
11.9%
8.9%
17.9%
1.7%
17.9%
7.5%
5.0%
1.5%

What is your Age?
Response
Percent
6.6%
39.7%
39.1%

18-25
26-35
36-45

Page 53

Response
Count
10
60
59

11.3%
3.3%
0.0%

46-55
56-65
66+

17
5
0

answered question skipped question

151
14

Response
Percent

Caucasian
African American
Asian
Native American
Hispanic
Multi-ethnic

Response
Count

85.3%
0.7%
2.8%
2.1%
7.0%
7.0%

What is your Ethnicity?

122
1
4
3
10
10

answered question skipped question

150
15

Please share your opinion regarding the need for a Child Care Center in Mariposa. (This was an open-ended question.) Response Count = 52
I think it's great, but the problem is always transportation.
I probably won't use it because I have child care in Cathey's Valley already.
It would make things more convenient for a lot of families.
Too far to drive.
Would not work out for my family. We live in Coulterville and I work in Coulterville. So to drive to Mariposa is too much out of the way.
Please open another school in Lake Don Pedro.
Since I don't live anywhere near Mariposa, there is no need for me to use a center in Mariposa.
Really good idea.
I think that it is a great idea, but I could not use it due to the fact that I have a special needs baby and it is too far.
It's a wonderful idea for those who need it. I am a lucky person who has family and friends in the community to help me.
I think it would be great. Not sure how much I could afford.
More please!
Extremely necessary! A child care center in Mariposa is needed that has quality staff and a safe environment.
There is a huge need for affordable child care in Mariposa. The child care right now takes too much of my income. It is a constant battle to find a friend or relative to watch the kids when I cannot afford to pay for child care.
I'm sure a child care center may be needed. However, I don't have any need for child care anymore as my children are older and my husband is home early enough for most days and we trade time with friends for occasional needs.
It would give people another option - some are not comfortable with having their child in someone's home. I think it would also be a more structured environment and get kids ready for school. Hopefully it would also be open early, 6am, and close later, 6pm and not penalize parents so drastically for being a little late. A lot of people in this community have to travel to other cities to work and things happen - a little late getting off of work or some traffic delay - people start getting anxiety when they are being charged for every minute they are late.
Something structured where kids are not allowed to have a bad influence on one another; open on weekends as well.
It would be beneficial for myself if there was a child care center in Mariposa but I am very happy with my daughters current day care provider, I am not sure if I would use the child care center.
I believe that there should be options for child care; that each parent should be able to choose the type of care which is best for their family members. I regularly used the Children's Center when it was still open in Mariposa (the last "Child Care
Center" in Mariposa). It is difficult to find quality available child care in Mariposa and it would be great to once again have a choice for child care in town.
Children are our most important resource. We are in desperate need of quality and consistent care for our children.
It is needed very badly. All child care/preschool centers are booked.
I drive my child to Coarsegold every day because it is the only child care that works around my schedule.
I think it is a great idea. I have had excellent care from the providers I have used and would continue using my current provider for our primary care. I think a center in Mariposa would benefit many households for the flexibility it may offer.

Page 54

I believe this would benefit many families in the area. I am unusual in that I am home with my kids most of the time and can work from home. Most families are not that fortunate. Affordable, reliable and safe daycare is difficult to find and at a premium in our county. Preschools are also limited in how many children are able to attend, according to 2000 census information, Mariposa county has 500 children under the age of five (I believe this has increased since then) and the town of Mariposa (where the bulk of the population lives has only 4 preschools including Head Start... approximately 125 spots open. That leaves about 375 children needing day care or preschool options.
We are looking for a center that can provide quality after school programs - AND - full time care during the summer months when school is not in session. We are currently looking for good summer options for our daughter that provide variety, learning, and growth opportunities in a fun environment; i.e., summer day camps, art/music, science, and/or physical ed programs. We live in Mariposa but work in El Portal so we are open to any options between Mariposa and
Yosemite. If you can pass on any information, we would sure appreciate it!
As mentioned, would love to see the Child Care Center play based and interactive. A place they want to go and I feel good taking them. I don't care for an academic setting.
I think it will be very good for the community and help parents with care for their children...
We need more providers that are willing to take children once in a while. I am a stay at home mom with 2 disabled children.
On occasion I take 1 or both of the kids out of school due to 1 child having a doctor’s appointment.
Fantastic! We need more quality care in Mariposa!
I think it is a great idea especially if it offers drop off ability. It needs to be centrally located in Mariposa to maximize the benefit to all members of the community. It would be great if the were regularly scheduled programs or classes that kids could be dropped of for so that they are not just in a holding pattern having to entertain themselves (i.e. tumbling classes, painting time, etc similar to preschools). That way if parents have flexibility in the time they can drop kids off they can choose their kids activities.
A child care center would be a great place for all parents and children if it offers high quality care with varied enrichment programs like arts, music and dance. These latter programs do not have to be part of child care per se, although that would be nice. I hear about and have met some qualified potential teachers for these programs and having a child care center as the central place for children's activities will help support these teachers while offering our children great learning opportunities. I think it is a great idea. I also think it is important to make it affordable for people to be able to afford it so they can go out and work, or more importantly go to college and get a degree.
It is needed in this community.
Think it is ok, but may impact local family day care businesses. Children may not get the one on one attention they get in a smaller family daycare environment. Probably financially good for low income families.
I think it a good idea, could give the incentive for women to get educated and employed if financially necessary.
When I first moved to mariposa in 1999, I had to be a stay home mom because child care was not available. The child care center (home businesses) scared me. My two older children had been in Montessori schools. A quality Child care center in
Mariposa is very much needed.
Need for day care is decreasing due to the economy.
They're great for people who need them.
I normally work nights, but if I was on a day shift I would maybe use on weekends only.
We need local centers.
Fantastic Idea, I think we really need one!
Many people would benefit. If drop-in is available I could use it when I or other family members have appointments in town. If it is needed, great.
If it could fit the needs of Mariposa, Great!
Very needed at a reasonable cost!
It might be good for people with child care needs who live in or near Mariposa.
Mariposa County is desperate for a full time child care center- 7 am to 6 pm. Although I do not think it is in the best interest to be in child care for any extended length of time, if the center had good ratios, a high quality curriculum and adhered to all the current early childhood educational practices, it would benefit the county immensely in terms of available options to parent with young children.
Child care is often 1) remote, 2) overbooked, and 3) limited in terms of hours, which makes it difficult to coordinate with work schedules. It is also expensive, but not more so than the urban places I have lived.
As a resident of Midpines, I think this would be a very nice option for my future needs.
What about Yosemite West, Wawona and Fish Camp? There are children in Yosemite West, Wawona and Fish Camp, don't you want to know about them? Is this another non-county service to these areas?
Lacking in areas away from the town.
I have heard a lot of parents expressing frustration with the child care situation in Mariposa. It would be useful for me to have an option for occasional evening or weekend drop off child care, if it was good quality and in a nice facility.
It would help a lot of parents.

Page 55

It might be very good for people living in or near Mariposa, having childcare needs.
Good.
Need more special help (sign language help).
Already have good daycare.
Almost like home rocks! Mariposa preschool rocks! All my children went there!
We definitely need a child care center in Mariposa.
Sliding scale and with possible extended hours which allow for different shifts.
Wonderful idea. My kids are almost past using day care, but I had a hard time finding good day care when they were little.
Because of this my children went to preschool in Oakhurst.
Please create one.
Would be excellent.
It's about time.
It would be a great benefit for out county.
There is none. In home only-won't do!
Need more in Don Pedro.
I live an hour away from Mariposa. We need services in our area.
It would be a great idea.
I like the summer day camp program-maybe they could do something like that year round?
Too far for us.
It would be great.

Page 56

Appendix B
Family Child Care Home Provider Survey Results
To further identify the current capacity and hours of child care services offered by existing family child care home providers, a questionnaire was distributed to the 30 providers identified by the
ICES mailing list. According to ICES, this represents approximately 96% of family child care home providers (approximately 2 providers have chosen not be on the ICES mailing list). Seventeen family child care home providers returned the survey.
Mariposa County Family Child Care Home Provider Survey Results
July 2009
What is your LICENSED child care capacity?
Response
Count

Response Percent
0.0%
58.8%
0.0%
41.2%

6
8
12
14

0
10
0
7
17

answered question skipped question

0

Some providers want to care for less children than their license allows. What is your
DESIRED capacity? Please write a number.
Response
Count

Response Total
129

Number

14
14

answered question
What are your child care rates?

Response
Count

Response Average
4.83
28.75
19.38
26.00
15.71
25.57
16.00
13.33

Hourly Rate
$
Infants (full day) $
Infants (half day) $
Preschooler (full day) $
Preschooler (half day) $
School Age (full day) $
School Age (half day) $
In Diaper Fee
$

6
16
8
16
7
14
5
3
17

answered question
How many years have you been in the child care field?
Response
Percent
0.0%
12.5%
25.0%

less than 2 years
2-5 years
6-10 years

Page 57

Response Count
0
2
4

25.0%
37.5%

11-20 years
20+ years

answered question

4
6
16

How long do you plan on continuing in the child care field?
Response
Percent

Response Count

6.7%
13.3%
0.0%
33.3%
46.7%

1
2
0
5
7 answered question
15
If you plan to stop providing child care services within the next 6 months, please tell us the reason for your decision. Check all that apply. Put NR it this does not apply to you. less than 6 months
6 mo -3 years
4-5 years
6-10 years
11+ years

Response
Percent
100.0%
33.3%
66.7%
33.3%

Decreased Enrollment
Not Financially Viable
Personal/Family
Career Change
Other (please specify)

answered question

Response Count
3
1
2
1
0
3

Do you offer child care to the following age groups?
Yes

No

16
17
17
9

Response Count

1
0
0
5

17
17
17
14
answered question
17
Based on your Desired Capacity, how many openings do you currently have in the following age categories? Infants (under 2)
Preschool (2-5)
School Age (6-13)
Special Needs - older children (13-17)

Response Total
17
42
27

Infant (0-1.9)
Preschool (2-5)
School Age (6-13 to 17 for special needs children)

Response Count
12
17
11
17

answered question
Are you open? (Check all that apply)
Response
Percent
100.0%
0.0%
0.0%
11.8%

12 months
School year only
Summer only
School vacations

answered question

Page 58

Response Count
17
0
0
2
17

Please check all of the days of the week that you are typically open.
Response
Percent

Response Count

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.8%
25.o%
25.0%
18.8%

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Holidays

16
16
16
16
15
4
4
3
16

answered question
Please choose all of the following alternative schedules you offer?
(Check all that apply)
No

Yes

Case by
Case Basis

7
3
7
7
0
1

5
9
5
5
10
7

3
3
5
5
5
6

Prior
Relationship
Required
2
1
4
4
2
1

Response
Count

14
15
16
16
15
14
answered question
17
If you currently offer, or have offered in the past, any of the services listed in the previous question, please tell us about any challenges you have experienced. (This was an open-ended question).
Response Count: 8
Parents will not go by the rules.
Parent's don't come at the time they say they are coming or don't show up at all and don't bother to call (for the varying care schedule).
Have watched enrolled children while mom is delivering a sibling, conferences, workshops, mom and dad get away, anniversary, fair. No challenges.
Varying schedule because I have to leave the "Days Off" open to accommodate the varied schedule. Have to change for days off.
It is hard on my own family, but I do it when needed. I have 2 kids over 10 of my own.
Weekend-my family feels there isn’t a break. Various schedule-no way to plan family needs and activities.
Evening - same as weekend but less so. Temp/drop in - not as financially viable.
Cuts into family time.
When doing late nights, sometimes parents don't show up until 3 or 5 am to pick up there children (for example one lady was a bartender at the miners. Bar closed at 1am and she wouldn't show up until 3 or 5am).
Weekend
Hourly Drop-In Care
Evening
Overnight
Varying Care Schedule
Temporary/Emergency Care

Are you willing to adjust your opening and closing hours to accommodate a parent’s needs?
Response
Percent
47.1%
17.6%
35.3%

Yes
No
Case by Case basis Only

answered question

Page 59

Response Count
8
3
6
17

We are exploring ways to increase child care during non-traditional hours. Would you be willing to offer non-traditional hour care for a PREMIUM fee above your normal rate?
Response
Percent

Response Count

31.3%
Would Not Consider
31.3%
May Consider
37.5%
Definitely Would Consider
If yes, what PREMIUM amount would you expect? (Please say if it is per day or per hour)

5
5
6
7

answered question
16
Over the past 12 months, have you experienced a change in your enrollment numbers? (Check all that apply)
Response Percent
Lower Enrollment
About the Same
Higher Enrollment
More Part-time Enrollment

Response Count

52.9%
29.4%
11.8%
23.5%

9
5
2
4
17

answered question

How many children do you have on a waiting list? If you don't maintain a waiting list write "NR."
Response Count
15
15
Over the past 12 months, have you made any creative changes to attract families? (Such as changing your curriculum, pricing, advertising, etc.)
Range 0-4

answered question

Response
Percent
28.6%
71.4%

Yes
No

answered question

Response Count
4
10
14

If yes, please tell us what changes you made.
Response Count: 7
Changing my schedule to meet their needs.
Changed hours, days open, decreased hourly rates.
Aggressive advertising, family rate, non-traditional hours.
On-line advertising, business cards, posters.
Haven't had but 2 calls in the last year. Just advertisements. I already run a great program with a preschool curriculum with my own program.
I have a lot of calls but because I’m raising my grandkids I don’t have room for more daycare children.
Been in the business 20 years and never advertised.
Do you currently have a child or children with special needs or disabilities enrolled in care?
Response
Percent
35.3%

Yes

Page 60

Response Count
6

70.6%

No
If yes, how many and what types of disabilities?
Response Count: 6
Just enrolled a deaf 10 year old
Autism
Speech
Anger, Autism, Asthma
One - Cerebral Palsy

12
17

answered question

Parents of children ages 0-17 with special needs report having trouble finding child care. Would you be interested in being identified as a provider who is experienced in caring for children with special needs? Response
Percent

Response Count

37.5%
31.3%
31.3%

Yes, I am already experienced
I am interested, but need more experience
No, I do not have experience in this area

6
5
5
16

answered question

If you are interested, what additional training would you need?
Response Count: 5
Learning Material
Minor Asthma, 1 Kidney, bowel problem
Mostly need experience and guidance
Depends on child's needs
I don't know if my house would be adequate for children with special needs Why did you enter into the child care field? (Check all that apply)
Response
Percent

Response Count

23.5%
29.4%
94.1%
41.2%

4
5
16
7
0 answered question
17
Have you recently been interested in working in any of the following positions in a Child Care
Center?
Financial
Career Path
Fit with family needs
Desired Self-employment
Other (please specify)

Yes
Owner/Operator
Executive Director
Teacher
Assistant Staff

Possibly

No

1
1
1
3

2
3
1
1

8
8
10
9

answered question

Response
Count
11
12
12
13
14

What types of services have you had families ask for that you are unable to provide?

answered question

Page 61

15

Overnight
None
Overnight very early hours, wanted 4am drop off
Location closer to town.
Night Care or Before 7:30
Weekend Care - Just cannot do anymore. I am getting older. Transportation with no compensation
Weekend Care
Weekend Care
NR
Weekends
None. I provide most all services.
Have not come across that yet.
None
The LCCPC is exploring the community's need for a Child Care Center in Mariposa. Please share your opinion on whether a Child Care Center is needed or not.
Response Count = 14
Most centers I have known do not have non-traditional hours. If a center could supply that 24/7 I would think yes. Most of us home providers do not offer that.
Most parents are struggling financially. If a child care center were built in Mariposa it would have to offer very low rates and transportation. And drop in care. Some parents have jobs where they are called at a moments notice to work and can only afford care when they work.
No
Not needed. A child care center could put many child care homes out of business. We as providers love what we do and most of us need more children, not less. This county is so concerned about firing school teachers that is essentially what would happen to family day care providers. I have worked in a center for years and appreciate working in my home teaching and loving the children more individually. Mom figures are so important. As far as "It takes a village," that is what you have "a wild village" with 24-36 kids. Been there, done that. I enjoy letting the children enjoy play dough, art, reading as long as the like, not being on such a schedule that you are just marking it off your daily to do list to move on to the next activity.
Not sure if it is needed. I do curriculum with the children so they are ready for school. Other daycares don't. Not sure how many do pre-k preps.?
I don't know where all the kids are going lately?? It is hard times for all. I don't think it is a necessary thing for Mariposa right now.
Mostly not. Child care centers are usually open during traditional hours only. While some providers are full often times they are not. Whether or not it is actually needed especially in these economic times needs to be explored very carefully before it actually goes in.
Being a provider, I feel it would harm my own day care.
I don't feel there is a need for a Center. A Center would put a lot of providers out of business.
Supporter for all that can be provided for child care.
I think there are many good daycare homes to fulfill the needs for Mariposa. I believe a center will take business away from Daycare's trying to make it and pay the bills. Most providers provide jobs for helpers and there won't be a need if not enough kids.
I feel there is no need. I personally run a great program and have plenty of openings and so do a lot of other day cares. I know for a fact there are openings in a lot of child care homes.
I would definitely say it would benefit the community.
I don't believe it is needed. I feel there are enough Child care licensed homes with availability and the center would be taking away from us.

Page 62

Appendix C
Sample Child Care Center Annual Budget
This budget is meant for illustrative purposes only. Please see Section IV: The Financial Costs of
Operating a Child Care Center, for the assumptions made to arrive at the following budget.
(This budget does not include start up costs. See Appendix E for an estimate of start up costs.)

ANNUAL EXPENSES
Personnel:

Total Budget

Director/Teacher
4 Teachers
Aide
Substitute Teacher
Administrative Assistant
Custodian

$47,840
$172,224
$28,704
$7,728
$11,700
$7,176

Personnel Total

$275,372

Operational:

Total Budget
Licensing fee
Insurance
Rent
Utilities/Trash
Telephone/Fax/Internet
Postage/shipping
Printing/advertising
Upkeep/Repairs
Professional Fees
(Accountant)
Office Supplies
Janitorial Supplies
Program Supplies
Memberships (Professional orgs, etc) Staff training/conferences

$400
$1,500
$21,960
$1,400
$420
$200
$400
$1,000
$750
$1,000
$250
$2,000
$200
$500

Operational Total
TOTAL ANNUAL EXPENDITURES

$31,980
$307,352

ANNUAL INCOME
Income
Tuition:
Infant

Total Budget
$265,200
8 x $30.00 day

Toddler
12 x $27.50 day
Preschool
18 x $25.00 day
Enrollment Fees
Grants
Fundraisers
CCD program income
Other government programs

Income Total
SURPLUS/DEFICITE
Required Reserve at Start-up (3 months of expenses)

Page 63

$62,400
$85,800
$117,000
$3,800

$269,000
-$38,352
$76,526

Appendix D
Sample Annual Budget with Tuition Needed to Cover Costs
This budget is meant for illustrative purposes only. Please see Section IV: The Financial Costs of
Operating a Child Care Center, for the assumptions made to arrive at the following budget.
(This budget does not include start up costs. See Appendix E for an estimate of start up costs.)

ANNUAL EXPENSES
Personnel:

Total Budget

Director/Teacher
4 Teachers
Aide
Substitute Teacher
Administrative Assistant
Custodian

$47,840
$172,224
$28,704
$7,728
$11,700
$7,176

Personnel Total

$275,372

Operational:

Total Budget

Licensing fee
Insurance
Rent
Utilities
Trash
Telephone/Fax/Internet
Postage/shipping
Printing/advertising
Upkeep/Repairs
Professional Fees (Accountant)
Office Supplies
Janitorial Supplies
Program Supplies
Memberships (Professional orgs, etc)
Staff training/conferences

$400
$1,500
$21,960
$1,200
$200
$420
$200
$400
$1,000
$750
$1,000
$250
$2,000
$200
$500

Operational Total
TOTAL ANNUAL EXPENDITURES

$31,980
$307,352

ANNUAL INCOME
Income
Tuition:
Infant
8 x $34 day
Toddler
12 x $33 day
Preschool
18 x $29 day
Enrollment Fees
Grants
Fundraisers
CCD program income
Other government programs

$309,400
$70,720
$102,960
$135,720
$3,800

Income Total
SURPLUS/DEFICITE
Required Reserve for Start-up (3 months of expenses)

Page 64

$313,200
$5,848
$76,526

Appendix E
Sample Child Care Center Start Up Costs Budget
This list is not all inclusive. It is meant as a starting point of (mostly) one-time costs to consider. Furniture and Supplies
Item

Quantity

Cost per item Tax

Total Costs

Office furniture, equipment, supplies
Desk

1

$799.00

$61.92

$860.92

Chair

1

$250.00

$19.38

$269.38

Filing cabinet

1

$215.49

$16.70

$232.19

Computer

1

$499.00

$38.67

$537.67

Printer

1

$179.00

$13.87

$192.87

Paper

1

$36.49

$2.83

$39.32

Ink

1

$99.99

$7.75

$107.74

Laminator

1

$78.99

$6.12

$85.11

Laminating rolls

1

$44.85

$3.48

$48.33

Paper cutter

1

$68.99

$5.35

$74.34

Pens, pencils, scissors….

1

$20.00

$1.55

$21.55

Paper clips, post its, …

1

$20.00

$1.55

$21.55

Paper holder (24 compartment)

1

$13.95

$1.08

$15.03

Subtotal

$2,506.00

Kitchen, bathroom, cleaning
Refrigerator

1

$499.99

$38.75

$538.74

Oven

1

$400.00

$31.00

$431.00

Microwave

1

$219.99

$17.05

$237.04

Food storage containers

1

$50.00

$3.88

$53.88

Washer

1

$650.00

$50.38

$700.38

Dryer

1

$650.00

$50.38

$700.38

Vacuum

1

$235.00

$18.21

$253.21

Mop and supplies

1

$125.00

$9.69

$134.69

Broom/dustpan

1

$20.75

$1.61

$22.36

Trash cans

3

$65.00

$5.04

$200.04

Paper towels

1

$55.00

$4.26

$59.26

Soap

1

$30.00

$2.33

$32.33

Toilet paper

1

$55.00

$4.26

$59.26

Stools

3

$26.70

$2.07

$82.17

First Aid kit

2

$30.99

$2.40

$64.38

Cleaning supplies

1

$30.00

$2.33

$32.33

Page 65

Subtotal

$3,601.43

Children's Area Furniture
10-section double locker (cubbies)

4

Communication center (sign-in)

$479.00

$37.12

$1,953.12

3

$446.00

$34.57

$1,372.57

Stackable school chairs

38

$27.99

$2.17

$1,065.79

Reading nook furniture

1

$691.95

$53.63

$745.58

Book browser

1

$272.00

$21.08

$293.08

Book cases

3

$281.00

$21.78

$864.78

Kidney Activity tables

3

$239.95

$18.60

$738.45

Writing center

1

$445.00

$34.49

$479.49

Art cart

1

$400.00

$31.00

$431.00

Double sided storage unit

1

$299.00

$23.17

$322.17

Fold and lock storage unit

1

$671.00

$52.00

$723.00

Blocks storage cart

1

$207.00

$16.04

$223.04

Phonograph stand

1

$211.17

$16.37

$227.54

Space saver listening center table

1

$249.00

$19.30

$268.30

Listening center headphones

3

$13.90

$1.08

$42.78

Cassette player

1

$49.50

$3.84

$53.34

Subtotal

$9,804.01

Infant and Toddler furniture
Cribs

8

$229.00

$17.75

$1,849.75

Changing table

2

$769.00

$59.60

$1,597.60

diaper pails

2

$35.00

$2.71

$72.71

Glider rocker

2

$359.00

$27.82

$745.82

Stroller--6 passenger

1

$600.00

$46.50

$646.50

Move and learn activity mat

1

$129.00

$10.00

$139.00

Toddler cots

12

$30.00

$2.33

$362.33

High chairs

12

$100.00

$7.75

$1,207.75

Subtotal

$6,621.45

Curriculum
Circle Time
Circle time rug

3

$314.95

$24.41

$969.26

Felt board/book stand

1

$300.00

$23.25

$323.25

Classroom calendar and Weather Center

1

$34.94

$2.71

$37.65

Question of the Day chart

1

$12.95

$1.00

$13.95

Big book collection--set 1

1

$129.95

$10.07

$140.02

Big book collection--set 2

1

$122.95

$9.53

$132.48

Big book collection--set 3

1

$108.95

$8.44

$117.39

Story Telling Collection

1

$119.95

$9.30

$129.25

Subtotal

Page 66

$1,863.25

Math
Attribute Blocks

1

$16.95

$1.31

$18.26

Attribute Blocks/Activity Cards

1

$12.95

$1.00

$13.95

Best Buy 6" Geoboards

1

$13.95

$1.08

$15.03

Extra rubber bands

1

$3.95

$0.31

$4.26

Discovering Math Learning Boxes--complete set

1

$98.50

$7.63

$106.13

Snake patterns

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Number puzzles

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Money sort

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Ship shapes

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Measuring mice

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Roll and count

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Fish sort

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Adding butterflies

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Number kites

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Counting cones

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Ready, set, count

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Number pizza

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Mixed up farm sorting kit

1

$49.95

$3.87

$53.82

Bugs on Parade counting kit

1

$49.95

$3.87

$53.82

Pattern block puzzles

1

$24.99

$1.94

$26.93

Jumping frog math game

1

$46.95

$3.64

$50.59

Subtotal

$471.45

Dramatic Play
3 piece kitchen set

1

$279.99

$21.70

$301.69

Round wooden table and chair set

1

$224.95

$17.43

$242.38

Housecleaning set and stand

1

$54.99

$4.26

$59.25

Classroom play food set

1

$123.00

$9.53

$132.53

Tender touch multicultural baby dolls set of 4

1

$55.99

$4.34

$60.33

Doll clothes

1

$50.00

$3.88

$53.88

Doll crib

1

$34.95

$2.71

$37.66

Doll high chair

1

$44.69

$3.46

$48.15

Dress Up Clothes set

1

$150.00

$11.63

$161.63

Dress Up Storage

1

$129.99

$10.07

$140.06

Subtotal

$1,237.56

Music
The Best of Raffi CD Collection

1

$49.95

$3.87

$53.82

Musical Instrument Set - 25 pieces

1

$89.42

$6.93

$96.35

18

$1.55

$2.16

$30.06

1

$15.20

$1.18

$16.38

Rhythm band instruments
Learning Basic Skills through Music

Page 67

We All Live Together CD Library

1

$65.00

$70.04

$19.18

Subtotal

$5.04

$266.65

Language Arts
Dramatic Play writing boxes, complete set

1

$69.50

$5.39

$74.89

Songs and Rhymes big book set

1

$69.50

$5.39

$74.89

More songs and rhymes big book set

1

$69.50

$5.39

$74.89

Question of the day chart kit

1

$49.95

$3.87

$53.82

Lakeshore vocab builder books

1

$39.95

$3.10

$43.05

Lakeshore literacy chest

1

$295.00

$22.86

$317.86

Early language concept kits--complete set

1

$95.00

$7.36

$102.36

Search and find alphabet bags

1

$95.00

$7.36

$102.36

Write and wipe lapboard erasers--set of 10

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Lakeshore Magic Board

5

$7.95

$0.62

$40.37

Complete beanbag learning center

1

$129.00

$10.00

$139.00

Teaching tiles reading center

1

$39.95

$3.10

$43.05

Pre-writing motor skills boards

1

$29.95

$2.32

$32.27

Fairy Tales read-alongs

1

$139.00

$10.77

$149.77

Phonemic awareness read-alongs

1

$135.00

$10.46

$145.46

Popular big book set

1

$142.95

$11.08

$154.03

Children's choice big book set

1

$124.95

$9.68

$134.63

Big book starter set

1

$115.95

$8.99

$124.94

The Things We Do set of 6

1

$40.95

$3.17

$44.12

Ladybug letters

1

$9.95

$0.77

$10.72

Story telling collection

1

$129.90

$10.07

$139.97

Building Community in the Classroom posters

1

$19.85

$1.54

$21.39

Come home, eat, ride, and play with us

1

$19.95

$1.55

$21.50

Listening lotto games--set of 3

1

$41.97

$3.25

$45.22

Subtotal

$2,101.27

Science
Magnifiers

10

$7.00

$5.43

$75.43

Classroom magnet kit

1

$30.12

$2.33

$32.45

Science center

1

$344.80

$26.72

$371.52

Lifecycle puzzles

3

$23.95

$5.57

$77.42

Science habitat center

1

$344.80

$26.72

$371.52

Root Farm

1

$27.96

$2.17

$30.13

Snow growing classroom kit

1

$49.95

$3.87

$53.82

Backyard birds in a nest

1

$23.95

$1.86

$25.81

Complete specimen set

1

$199.95

$15.50

$215.45

Lifecycle wooden peg puzzles

1

$24.95

$1.93

$26.88

Page 68

Science discoveries pocket chart kits

1

$79.50

$6.16

$85.66

Your senses book set

1

$29.50

$2.29

$31.79

My pyramid food banner with 30 foods

1

$34.95

$2.71

$37.66

Food group bingo

1

$7.95

$0.62

$8.57

Life cycle books--set of 4

1

$11.99

$0.93

$12.92

Tactile discovery box

1

$24.95

$1.93

$26.88

Live frog habitat

1

$24.95

$1.93

$26.88

Tadpole to frog metamorphosis--5 pieces

1

$3.99

$0.31

$4.30

Worm-vue wonders

1

$24.99

$1.94

$26.93

Subtotal

$1,062.61

Outside
Storage shed

1

$1,200.00

$90.00

$1,290.00

Fencing/gate, incl. installation

1

$5,000.00

$375.00

$5,375.00

Tricycles

6

$99.95

$44.98

$644.68

Sand box

1

$76.49

$5.74

$82.23

Sand

1

$200.00

$15.00

$215.00

Sand set

1

$21.42

$1.61

$23.03

Playhouse

1

$600.00

$45.00

$645.00

Water activity table

1

$73.80

$5.54

$79.34

Balance beams

1

$98.93

$7.42

$106.35

Traffic signs--set of 4

1

$93.56

$7.02

$100.58

Beginners basketball portable hoop

1

$129.50

$9.71

$139.21

10

$7.00

$5.25

$75.25

Balls
Big bubbles kit

1

$19.95

$1.50

$21.45

Parachute

1

$129.00

$9.68

$138.68

Soft flying discs--set of 6

1

$15.97

$1.20

$17.17

Subtotal

$8,952.94

Art and Manipulatives
Fiskars for kids class packs

1

$39.99

$3.10

$43.09

Paint aprons

10

$4.55

$0.35

$45.85

Trays

10

$5.38

$0.42

$54.22

Art drying rack

1

$200.00

$15.50

$215.50

Paint easels

3

$129.99

$10.07

$400.04

Jumbo circular washable pads--primary colors

1

$17.49

$1.36

$18.85

Wood sticks

1

$3.20

$0.25

$3.45

Multicolor sheets

1

$29.20

$2.26

$31.46

Imaginative play 10 stamp collection

1

$69.95

$5.42

$75.37

Dough cutters

3

$2.09

$0.16

$6.43

Box of art materials

1

$70.03

$5.43

$75.46

Building blocks

1

$129.00

$10.00

$139.00

Page 69

Letter and number beads

1

$3.49

$0.27

$3.76

ABC beads

1

$4.99

$0.39

$5.38

Jumbo alphabet beads

1

$7.95

$0.62

$8.57

Textured rolling pins

1

$8.29

$0.64

$8.93

Snap blocks with building base

1

$59.95

$4.65

$64.60

Dressing boards--set of 6

1

$79.95

$6.20

$86.15

Subtotal

$1,286.10

Teacher Resources
Literacy and the Youngest Learner book

1

$21.99

$1.70

$23.69

Circle Time and Group Activities

1

$32.28

$2.50

$34.78

Aprons

6

$10.78

$0.84

$65.52

Storage Containers, sets of various sizes

1

$169.17

$13.11

$182.28

Colored craft rolls

4

$16.50

$1.28

$67.28

Border storage

1

$12.99

$1.01

$14.00

$20.44

$387.55

Subtotal
Total
Plus shipping

Page 70

$37,774.06 unknown Appendix F
Sample Child Care Center Expenses and 3-Month Reserve Budget
Required for Open Doors
This is meant for illustrative purposes only. Licensing requires proof of 3 months of operational funds in the bank. Please see Section IV: The Financial Costs of Operating a Child Care Center, for more budget information.
START UP EXPENSES
Personnel (3 months coverage required by licensing):
Director/Teacher
4 Teachers
Aide
Substitute Teacher
Administrative Assistant
Custodian
Personnel Total

Operational (3 months coverage required by licensing):
Licensing fee
Insurance (typically paid annually)
Rent
Utilities/Trash
Telephone/Fax/Internet
Postage/shipping
Printing/advertising
Upkeep/Repairs
Professional Fees
(Accountant--end of year expense)
Office Supplies
Janitorial Supplies
Program Supplies
Memberships (Professional orgs, etc)
Staff training/conferences
Operational Total
Curriculum and Furniture Start-up Costs
(see Appendix E)

$11,960
$43,056
$7,176
$1,932
$2,925
$1,794
$68,843

$880
$1.500
$5,490
$350
$105
$50
$100
$250
$0
$250
$63
$500
$50
$0
$9,588
$37,774

Total Start Up Expenses and 3-month Reserve

Page 71

$116,205

Appendix G
Resources for Starting a Child Care Center,
Including Funding Sources
The following information is excerpted from the United States Department of Agriculture, National
Agricultural Library, Rural Information Center: http://desearch.nal.usda.gov/cgibin/dexpldcgi?qry1682935269;1
Introduction
Access to quality, affordable child care is a national priority as the number of two income and single parent families continue to increase. Most parents select one of three types of child care facilities: family care, home care, or day care. Each type has advantages and disadvantages to consider in establishing a child care facility along with the decision to establish either a nonprofit or for profit child care facility.
This resource guide was revised and updated by Patricia LaCaille John June 2005 and partially revised and modified by July 2008.
Types of Child Care Programs
1. Child Care Options. Mary Duncomb. WW-07268. St. Paul: University of Minnesota, Extension Service,
1998. 4 p. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/familydevelopment/components/7268i.html
2. Choosing Child Care: Child Care Options. Amy Fackler. Boise, ID: Healthwise, Inc., 2003. 3 p. http://www.pamf.org/health/healthinfo/index.cfm?section=healthinfo&page=article &sgml_id=aa43308

Child Care Partnerships and Cooperatives
1. About Cooperatives: Childcare and Preschools. Washington, DC: National Cooperative Business
Association. http://www.ncba.coop/abcoop_child.cfm
2. Child Care That Works: Child Care Cooperatives. Lesia Oesterreich. PM 1808. Ames: Iowa State
University, University Extension, 1999. 2 p. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/pm1808.pdf 3. A Guide to Successful Public-Private Partnerships for Child Care. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care
Information Center, n.d. 23 p. http://nccic.org/library/index.cfm?do=oll.viewitem&itemid=17935
4. Partnerships and Collaboration Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center. http://nccic.org/topics/topic/index.cfm?topicId=4 5. Public-Private Partnerships in Child Care. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2004. 11
p. http://nccic.org/poptopics/public-private.html

Page 72

Starting a Child Care Center
1. Child Care: An Action Manual for Communities. Lesia Oesterreich. PM-1739. Ames: Iowa State
University, University Extension, 1997. 52 p. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1739.pdf 2. Child Care Financial Basics. Lesia Oesterreich. PM-1751. Ames: Iowa State University, University
Extension, 1998. 24 p. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1751.pdf
3. Early Childhood Facilities. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2005. 28
p. http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/earlychildcenters.cfm
4. How to Start a Quality Child Care Business. MP-29. Washington, DC: U.S. Small Business
Administration, 1987? 69 p. http://www.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/pub_mp29.pdf 5. Liability Insurance and the Child Care Center. Carol Volker. Ames: Iowa State University Extension, 1995.
10 p. http://www.nncc.org/Business/liabil.ins.ccc.html
6. Perspectives on Rural Child Care. Betty A. Beach. ERIC Digest, ED403102, 1997. 4 p. http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/rural.html 7. SBA's Online Business Course: How to Start a Business. 12 Session Course. City of Industry, CA: My Own
Business, Inc. http://www.myownbusiness.org/course_sba.html
8. Small Business Planner. Washington, DC: Small Business Administration. http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/index.html 9. Starting and Operating a Child Care Business. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2008.
22 p. http://nccic.org/resources/index.cfm?do=resource.viewitem&resourceid=13558

Family Child Care Providers
1. Liability Insurance and the Family Child Care Provider. Brenda Cude, Carol Volker. NCR 395. Ames: Iowa
State University Extension, 1993. 12 p. http://www.nncc.org/Business/liabil.ins.fcc.html
2. Starting and Operating a Child Care Business. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2008.
22 p. http://nccic.org/resources/index.cfm?do=resource.viewitem&resourceid=13558

Employer Sponsored Child Care
1. Child Care Options for Employers. PM-1712. Ames: Iowa State University, University Extension, 1997.
56 p. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1712.pdf
2. Employer-Support Child Care. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2005. 6 p. http://nccic.org/poptopics/employersupportedcc.html 3. Employer Toolkit Template. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2005. 63 p. http://nccic.org/library/index.cfm?do=oll.viewitem&itemid=3777 4. Kids at Work: The Value of Employer-Sponsored On-Site Child Care Centers. Connelly, Rachel, Deborah S.
DeGraff, and Rachel A. Willis. Kalamazoo, MI: Bowdoin CollegeW.E. Upjohn Institute for
Employment Research, 2004. 175 p. http://www.upjohninst.org/publications/titles/kaw.html

Page 73

Funding Sources
When starting the funding search be sure to review federal, state, and private resources that you could use for your child care service. First determine your profit or nonprofit status, then develop a business plan, http://www.nal.usda.gov/ric/ricpubs/small_business.htm. Next consult Grant Writing Resources for assistance in preparing successful proposals and in obtaining funding applications and a DUNS number that is required of all organizations/entities applying for a federal grant or cooperative agreement.
Federal
CHILD CARE FACILITIES
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has two agencies with start-up/expansion funding programs. The
Rural Housing Service, http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/rhs/index.html, (RHS) has facility funding available for non profits or local governments that support child care facilities. The Rural Business-Cooperative Service, http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/index.html, has guaranteed loan programs for small business development available for profit child care programs. To determine eligibility or to apply for any of the programs listed below, contact your state or local Rural Development Office, http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/recd_map.html.
Community Facilities Direct Loan Program, RHS, USDA, http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/rhs/cf/cp.htm U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has funding programs that support child care services. The Child Care Bureau, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/ has several funding programs for child care facilities.
Details and contact information for the programs below are available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. Also, check with your state contact listed below for more information.
Child Care and Development Block Grant (93.575)
Child Care Mandatory and Matching Funds of the Child Care and Development Fund (93.596) o State Child Care and Development Fund Contacts, http://nccic.org/statedata/dirs/display.cfm?title=ccdf U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) supports child care facilities near or within public housing, EZ/EC's, or low-income areas through facility construction using block grants, programs, and networks. To determine eligibility or to apply for any of the programs listed below, contact your state
HUD office. http://www.hud.gov/local/index.cfm
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/communitydevelopment/programs/cdbg.cfm The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program (14.520), allows historically black colleges and universities to help in providing funding for community needs, including construction of local community facilities providing child care and after-school services through these institutions.
Details and contact information for the programs below are available in our Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information.
Neighborhood Networks, http://www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/mfh/nnw/nnwindex.cfm

Page 74

o

State Center Locations http://www-domino4.hud.gov/NN/contacts.nsf/centersearch?OpenForm U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) provides small businesses financing options, technical assistance, and child care resource information. Check you local SBA offices at http://www.sba.gov/localresources/index.html for more information and applications.
SBA's Financial Assistance page, http://www.sba.gov/services/financialassistance/index.html provides details on all their financial programs.
SBA's Most Asked Questions, http://www.sba.gov/mostrequesteditems/index.html, web site that provides clickable links to all the basics information on business startup and financing.
1-800-UASK-SBA (1-800-827-5722)
SBA's Office of Women's Business Ownership provides resources for child care businesses at
Business Center locations nationwide: http://www.sba.gov/aboutsba/sbaprograms/onlinewbc/index.html. U.S. General Services Administration has a program that allows the donation of surplus federal personal property (computers etc.) to state and local public agencies and qualifying nonprofits, which include child care centers. http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/channelView.do?pageTypeId=8211&channelId=-13016. Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas
Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information.
Donation of Federal Surplus Personal Property Program (39.003)
The U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section provides information to child care centers regarding compliance to the Americans with Disabilities Act. This program has an ADA
Information Line (1-800-514-0301) that provides answers to general and technical questions about ADA compliance. Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act, http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/chcaflyr.htm Commonly Asked Questions about Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act, http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/childq%26a.htm ADA and IT Technical Assistance Centers, http://www.adata.org/centers.aspx
FOOD PROGRAMS
The U.S. Department of Agriculture also has funding programs that support child care centers and family day care homes by providing assistance through the Food and Nutrition Service food programs. To determine eligibility or to apply for the program listed below, contact your state agency that administers the Child
Nutrition Programs, http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Contacts/StateDirectory.htm.
Child and Adult Care Food Program provides meals and/or after-school snacks http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Care/CACFP/cacfphome.htm. Additional Information on Food Programs:
Afterschool.gov - How to Get Money (includes food programs), http://www.afterschool.gov/xhtml/topic/t_29.html Page 75

Maximizing Federal Food and Nutrition Funds for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives. Barbara
Hanson Langford. Strategy Brief, vol. 1, no. 3. Washington, DC: The Finance Project, 2000. 19 p. http://prostores2.carrierzone.com/servlet/financeprojectorg/Detail?no=2685. CHILD CARE/YOUTH AND AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS
AfterSchool.gov web site has information on federal funding programs, http://www.afterschool.gov. o After-School Transportation Programs, http://www.afterschool.gov/xhtml/topic/t_14.html
Childcare.gov, http://www.childcare.gov/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Office of Head Start, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/ has programs that assist with nutrition, health, and education readiness for young children. To determine eligibility or to apply for any of the programs listed below, contact your regional office or the the National Child Care Information Center, http://nccic.org/.
Early Head Start National Resource Center, http://www.ehsnrc.org/ o Regional Offices for the Administration on Children and Families: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/
(Region 1: 617-565-1020; Region 2: 212-264-2890; Region 3: 215-861-4000; Region 4: 404562-2800; Region 5: 312-353-4237; Region 6: 214-767-9648; Region 7: 816-426-3981; Region
8: 303-844-3100; Region 9: 415-437-8400; Region 10: 206-615-2547)
Migrant and Seasonal Head Start Quality Improvement Centers, http://www.mhsqic.org/
Financing Strategies, http://www.nccic.org/topics/topic/index.cfm?topicId=14
U.S. Department of Education programs that assist with child care efforts:
The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (84.287) program offers an after-school environment that provides enrichment opportunities for children. http://www.ed.gov/programs/21stcclc/index.html Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. http://ric.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/ric/ffd.php The Child Care Access Means Parents in School (84.335) program provides funding to support or establish child care programs serving low-income students enrolled in college. Only institutions of higher education are eligible. http://www.ed.gov/programs/campisp/index.html Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. http://ric.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/ric/ffd.php U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has funding programs available that assist with the crime prevention aspect that some after-school care programs address. These programs are mainly set up for public entities, established youth programs and nonprofit organizations focusing on crime prevention in their communities. http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/programs/index.html
Additional After-School Program Resources:

Page 76

Out-of-School Time Project Overview. Washington, DC: The Finance Project. http://www.financeproject.org/index.cfm?page=25 "When School is Out," The Future of Children, 9, No.2, Fall (1999). http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info.htm?doc_id=71873 NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS
Indian Child and Family Education Program (15.043), Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. http://ric.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/ric/ffd.php Indian Child Welfare Act: Title II Grants (15.144), BIA
Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. http://ric.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/ric/ffd.php Indian Head Start Program, Indian Health Service, DHHS http://www.ihs.gov/NonMedicalPrograms/HeadStart/index.cfm Native American Employment and Training Program (17.265), ETA, DOL
Details and contact information for the program is available in our Federal Funding Sources for
Rural Areas Database. Please search in the database by name or number for more information. http://ric.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/ric/ffd.php o ETA Division of Indian and Native American Programs (DINAP), http://www.doleta.gov/DINAP/ Tribal Child Care Assistance Center (TriTAC), Child Care Bureau, DHHS http://nccic.org/tribal/ o Tribal Child Care Facilities: A Guide to Construction and Renovation, Child Care Bureau,
DHHS http://www.nccic.org/tribal/construction/.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Child Care in Rural Communities. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center, 2005. 8 p. http://nccic.org/poptopics/rural.html Child Care Technical Assistance Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Administration for Children & Families. http://nccic.acf.hhs.gov/cctan/
The Finance Project: Out-of-School Time Clearinhouse - Funding Funding http://www.financeproject.org/irc_pubs.cfm?p=25&id=62 National Network for Child Care. Supported by Cooperation Extension System. http://www.nncc.org State
Consult the child care resources and referral agency in your area for information on available state funding and/or technical assistance programs, licensing and regulations.
Child Care Information by State: Licensing, Statistical Data, and Program Contacts. Ames, IA:
National Network for Child Care. http://www.nncc.org/states/stateindex.html
State Child Care Profiles. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information Center. http://nccic.org/statedata/statepro/index.html Private
Most private funding is available to organizations and government entities

Page 77

Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD. http://www.aecf.org/AboutUs/GrantInformation.aspx
Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, Flint, MI. http://www.mott.org/grantseeker.aspx
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, CA. http://www.packard.org/categoryList.aspx?RootCatID=3&CategoryID=63 Foundations Supporting Early Childhood Care and Education, Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information
Center, 2005. 19 p. http://nccic.org/poptopics/foundations.html
Rural Community Assistance Corporation, West Sacramento, CA. http://www.rcac.org/
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Child Care Business Management. Ames, IA: National Network for Child Care. http://cyfernet.ces.ncsu.edu/cyfdb/browse_2pageAnncc.php?subcat= Child+Care+Business+Management&search=NNCC&search_type=browse
Local Initiatives Support Collaboration (LISC), New York, NY. http://www.lisc.org/ o LISC's Community Investment Collaboration for Kids (CICK), http://www.lisc.org/whatwedo/programs/cick/ Rural LISC Partnership, Washington, DC. http://www.ruralisc.org/partners/partners.htm
Funding Guides
"Child Care Financing," Child Care Bulletin. 10 (July/Aug 1996) 17 p. http://nccic.org/ccb/issue10.html "Financial Resources for Child Care." April Kaplan. Welfare Information Network Issue Notes. 2, No. 6
(1998): 10 p. http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/issuechild.htm
Financing Child Care. Scott Groginsky. Washington, DC: National Conference of State Legislatures,
2000. 14 p. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/cyf/finrpt.htm
Financing Child Care in the United States: An Expanded Catalog of Current Strategies. Anne Mitchell, Louise
Stoney, Harriet Dichter. Kansas City, MO: Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2001. 186 p. http://www.kauffman.org/education.cfm?topic=achievement&itemID=11 Finding Resources To Support Rural Out-of-School Initiatives, Elisabeth Wright. Strategy Brief. Washington,
DC: The Finance Project, Vol. 4, No. 1, February 2003. 20p. http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/ruralost.pdf Financing the Early Care and Education System. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information
Center, 2005. http://nccic.org/poptopics/funding.html

Child Care Statistics/Data
1. Child Daycare Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs032.htm 2. Children in the States. Washington, DC: Children Defense Fund. http://www.childrensdefense.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_state_information_children_ in_the_states
3. ChildStats.gov, Washington, DC. http://www.childstats.gov/
4. City & Rural Kids Count: Data Book. Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004. 206 p http://www.aecf.org/kidscount/rural_databook/ Page 78

Journals
Child Care Bulletin
National Child Care Information Center http://nccic.org/ccb/index.html The Future of Children
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation http://www.futureofchildren.org/ Organizations
Children's Defense Fund
25 E Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20001
202-628-8787
Email: cdfinfo@childrensdefense.org http://www.childrensdefense.org/ National Association for Family Child Care
5202 Pinemont Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84123
801-269-9338
Email: nafcc@nafcc.org http://www.nafcc.org/ National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives
46 Blackjack Road
P.O. Box 6013
Mississippi State, MS 39762
662-325-4954
Fax: 662-325-5436 http://ruralec.msstate.edu/ National Child Care Information Center
10530 Rosehaven St., Suite 400
Fairfax, VA 22030
800-616-2242
Fax: 800-716-2242
TTY: 800-516-2242
Email: info@nccic.org http://nccic.org USDA, Rural Information Center
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 ric@ars.usda.gov 1-800-633-7701

Page 79

Appendix H
California Department of Education
Subsidized Child Care Reimbursement Ceilings for 2009
The following is from the California Department of Education, Reimbursement Ceilings for
Subsidized Child Care as of 2009.

Child Care Centers for Mariposa County
For Child Care Centers Only:
For a five year old child enrolled in kindergarten, use the 2 through 5 Years category when the child is in a program/classroom that is licensed as a preschool program, or use the School-age category when the child is in a program/classroom that is licensed as a school-age program.

Maximum Reimbursement for Mariposa County
Age Group
Birth to 24 Months
2 through 5 Years
School Age

Full-time
Daily
52.76
37.83
32.53

Full-time
Weekly
209.37
159.88
138.29

Full-time
Monthly
889.22
643.07
527.60

Part-time
Hourly
8.71
6.23
7.90

Part-time
Weekly
172.80
156.23
79.55

Part-time
Monthly
659.47
633.09
328.80

Part-time
Weekly
143.03
95.23
63.90

Part-time
Monthly
560.84
363.82
256.82

Average Rate in Mariposa County
Age Group
Birth to 24 Months
2 through 5 Years
School Age

Full-time
Daily
42.17
28.01
23.62

Full-time
Weekly
185.91
128.93
110.75

Full-time
Monthly
754.75
513.68
414.62

Part-time
Hourly
6.61
4.74
6.17

This information is listed on their website: http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/aa/cd/ap/index.aspx

Page 80

Appendix I
Focus Groups and Case Studies
Child Care Provider Focus Group
On August 28, 2009, Consultant Megan Rogers facilitated a meeting with a group of individuals involved in the field of Child Care in Mariposa County.
In attendance:
Megan Rogers, Feasibility Study Contractor
Jill Harry, Feasibility Study Contractor, co-founder and former administrator of Cathey’s
Valley Preschool, Mariposa County First 5 Commissioner
Gussie Kidd, Lushmeadow playgroup moderator, Methodist Church ―Never Enough Time‖
(NET) child care director, founder and former director of Almost Like Home Before &
After School Center
Amber Chambers, ICES Alternative Payments Program Manager
Kristin Fiester, Former family child care home provider
Jackie Lee, current director Mariposa Co-op Preschool and Almost Like Home Before &
After School Center
Margaret Essary, Head Start Teacher, LPC representative
Susan Johnson, Former family child care home provider, LPC representative
Megan started the meeting with an overview of the results of the 2009 Needs Assessment, and then opened the floor for the discussion of such topics as alternative hours and drop in capacity, infant care, and other community needs.
Jackie Lee said that as long as parents have filled in all necessary forms and paid the $35 insurance fees ahead of time so that they are on file, she allows drop-in options for her programs at a rate of
$20 per day.
Jackie’s programs:
1. Mariposa Co-op Preschool: open 3 days per week. Tuition is $100 per month. Parents rotate staying and helping with the program so that the ratio is never less than 1 adult per 5 children. Jackie has a waiting list for preschool.
2. Almost Like Home: After school program open until 6:30 PM, 5 days per week, following the School District’s schedule.
Jackie rents space from the County Parks and Recreation Department. The cost is $300 per month.
This is under market value, and a good example of how well public-private partnerships can work.
The rent is divided between the two programs.
Kristin Fiester operated a family home child care home near Triangle Road and Hwy 140. She said she had a number of families who worked in Yosemite. Park employees typically need child care for
12 to 13 hours per day. She did what it took to accommodate these families and had a very successful program. Her philosophy was to incorporate the children into her daily family life.
Page 81

Amber Chambers said that ICES has been publishing articles in the Mariposa Gazette and actively trying to recruit additional family home providers willing to offer extended and alternative hours.
She said current providers are not happy with ICES for doing this, but at the same time, ICES has to continually recruit to make sure the community’s needs are met. This could be because parents are not communicating their needs, or because care givers have offered these services in the past and got taken advantage of with parents not paying for the extra care.
Amber feels current providers will see the addition of a child care center in Mariposa as a hardship.
Amber noted that families are looking for child care choices to fit their needs.
Susan Johnson asked if there are any parents attending the current preschools who might be interested in being providing family child care home services or extended care at a facility. For instance, Acorn Co-operative Preschool is only open in the mornings. Perhaps someone would be interested in staying later and expanding service to the afternoon.
Jill Harry noted that if someone was interested, they would have to have the proper qualifications to meet licensing requirements.
Kristin said that when she operated her family home care, she worked with the District to get a stop in front of her home as part of the bus route. She had a pool installed for day care and offered swim lessons. She had 12 four year olds taking part in this. In addition, Susan Johnson offered preschool at Kristin’s home. They had 36 children enrolled. Kristin’s mom taught Spanish.
Amber said that 19 children had stopped using the ICES’ subsidy in the last 3 weeks, and the same thing was happening in Tuolumne County. She said it could be because parents were losing jobs and no longer needed child care or it could be for other reasons. She said if family home providers were losing children, they should look at their programs and talk to parents on the reasons why.
Discussion moved toward a possible child care center in the Human Services complex that is slated to be built. Megan mentioned that Jim Rydingsword maybe interested in having drop-in slots available for families with Human Services appointments. She asked how the group felt such an arrangement would work.
The response was that drop-in slots should be fine, as long as all the paperwork is turned in ahead of time. If Human Services wanted to reserve slots to be sure they were always available, then Human
Services could pay for a number of slots to be reserved. The question arose that if slots were reserved that this may not be a responsible way to spend county dollars, since the slots would go unfilled at times.
All agreed that if a child care center were located in a Human Services building, it should provide a very welcoming environment.
Amber said that she worked for the Children’s Center in Mariposa a number of years ago run by
Pam Standen. She said, in the end, in order to keep costs down and only pay for staff when they were actually needed, she was often ―on-call,‖ waiting by the phone for Pam to call and say so many children had come in for the day, and she was needed. Sometimes she wouldn’t be needed right
Page 82

away, but would get a call later in the afternoon. This was a difficult way to keep the child care center going.
Amber said that for Human Service’s Welfare to Work program, child care providers could receive reimbursement for watching participants’ children, however, the participant would have to fill in the proper paperwork in order for this to happen. Too many times, participants would not do this and providers would not get paid. She started suggesting that providers ask for $15 in an envelope up front, and give the money back when the proper paperwork was completed.
Kristin said that she was often full, but would tell parents on her waiting list to call for day-by-day openings. Sometimes families were on vacation, or had sick kids (whom she wouldn’t watch), and so there were openings.
Margaret said that last year Head Start had a waiting list of 4 or 5 children. She said that for exceptional needs children, families could be as much as 10% over the income eligibility guidelines in order to qualify.
Gussie said that she had started Almost Like Home with $6,000 and MCUSD support. She said that, at the County Administrator’s suggestion, she had applied for bed tax money, and with the help of Steve Dahlem (then a private attorney and now County Counsel), she had incorporated as a nonprofit.
Amber said that ICES has a policy of limiting the number of child care slots to be filled by families receiving the alternative payments program (subsidy). ICES only allows the number of subsidized children to be equal to or less than the number of children the provider is licensed to care for. This is so that family child care home providers would remain financial solvent if the state’s subsidized funding program was no longer available. ICES policies have gotten more conservative about this in recent years.
Amber also said that there is money to be made in family home care. She recently cut a check to one provider for $6,000 in subsidized payments. She also said there are many tax write-offs that can be made, and this is added incentive.

Page 83

Case Study 1: Children’s Center
Mariposa, CA
Founding director: Pam Standen
Non-Profit organization. Five-member board.
Pam Standen provided child care in Mariposa County for 24 years, from 1979 to 2003. She had three different locations. Ms. Standen began her business in a little church at Mt. Bullion Cutoff Rd. in Mt.
Bullion, CA. She operated there for about 1 year and offered day care services to children ages 2 to
13, including before- and after-school care. She started off slowly with about 5 children and grew from there. Parents desired child care closer to town, so she eventually moved the Assembly of God
Church on Hwy 49N, where she resided for about 2 years while waiting for a larger building to be built. Her third building was built by a family member and was located on Hwy 49N, 2 miles outside of town. This building is now owned and occupied by Sievert Supply.

Physical Environment, Staffing, and Capacity
The building was a 60 foot by 40 foot clear span building that sat upon half an acre of land. There was 10,000 square feet of fenced outdoor space. The fence could be temporarily moved over unused cement parking spaces for bikes and tricycles. The rooms at the center were divided by 4 foot movable shelves. This allowed staff to remove the walls entirely for plays and other productions.
The hours of operation were 7 AM to 6 PM, Monday through Friday, year round, no holidays. As director of the center, Mrs. Standen wore multiple hats. She acted as a teacher, did all of the purchasing for the center, and the bookkeeping. She worked 9 hour per day, 5 days per week, plus did purchasing and paperwork on the weekends. The center had a low turnover of teachers.
Teachers typically earned about $1 more than minimum wage. The last two years of operation health benefits were provided to the director and one other staff.
The center was licensed for 74 children. However, the highest enrollment the center had lasted for one week, during one summer when 65 children were present at the center at one time. In her 15 years at the Sievert building, Ms. Standen never had 74 children enrolled.
The Children’s Center had a good working relationship with the school district. The center was located on a stop on the schools bus route so school-age children could take the bus to the center after school. After-school care began around 2:30 or 3 PM to closing. Mostly children from
Mariposa Elementary School attended the center. The senior citizen bus took the kindergartners to and from school. Despite Head Start opening 4 years prior to her closing, Ms. Standen was able to maintain operations during this time.
Enrollment
During high enrollment times the centers enrollment average was approximately 36 school-age children and 20 to 25 preschoolers. Summers typically had higher enrollment than the school year.
To her recollection, parents of enrolled children worked in the following occupations: 50 to 60 % were blue-collar workers or self-employed; 20% were white-collar workers; 20 to 30% were county

Page 84

employees. During the center’s best financial times, enrollment was about 35 preschoolers and 24 school-age children.
They had three licenses: preschool, school-age, and after-school care. The center did not serve infants because at that time licensing required full, non-movable walls to separate the infant room from other areas. Also, infants required more space for cribs and high chairs and required a 1:4 staff to infant ratio. Ms. Standen found that the center’s rates for infants could not be considerably higher than other children. The center did not accept children in diapers, but children in the process of potty training were accepted. The center did not provide evening care because she did not feel that there was enough demand to make it economically feasible.
In Mrs. Standen’s opinion, typically by 3rd grade children require a different type of care other than a child care center.
Meals
The center served two meals and two snacks per day in accordance with state nutritional standards.
The cost of the meals was subsidized by a program administered by ICES. However, some meal costs were incurred by the center.
Curriculum
They used the BECCA Program with 30-minute curriculum rotations.
Income
Competition between the center and local family child care home providers kept rates low. The center was operated as a non-profit agency to keep prices low and to be able to accept donations and other charitable support. The center never received any grant funding.
Full-time tuition for preschoolers was approximately $210 per month. There was no hourly rate, but the center did offer half-day rates. The full-time daily rate for school-age children was slightly lower.
Little less than half of the enrolled children could be subsidized through ICES. Rent for the building was $800 per month.
Reasons for Closing
When the center closed, there were about 15 to 20 school-age children and 20 preschoolers enrolled, with sporadic attendance. The after-school program slowed down due to an increase in sports, etc.
The board decided to close the Children’s Center due to decreased enrollment coupled with future large unforeseen financial expenses. The center did not have enough of a financial cushion to weather these expenses and the economy, which was in a downswing.
1) In 2002-2003, state requirements for playground structures safety standards were changing and many of their outdoor play structures had to be replaced to meet the new requirements. The center kept 2 to 3 months of operating costs in the bank, but this was going to be a huge cost.
2) December 2001 had been a hard winter with low economic times. When there was low economic times (especially in the construction field) enrollment was also lower. Mrs. Standen didn’t feel that the school-age child enrollment would increase.

Page 85

3) By September 2001 the spacers in the trestles of the building were in disrepair. The building was
15 years old and the original manufacturers were out of business.
Mrs. Standen needed funding for staff, playground equipment, and building upkeep. There were no funding sources for these categories at this time. First 5 was just getting started and they had stringent requirements on how funding could be used.
Recommendations
Drop-in care could be limited to a 4 to 5 hour block during the day, certain days per week, so staffing could be pre-arranged.
Build a multi-use space that can be easily converted into a child care center in the future.
Child-size toilets are beneficial.
The learning environment, food preparation, and playground space are all important points of consideration.

Page 86

Case Study 2: St. Luke’s School Preschool Program
St. Luke’s Elementary is located at 350 W. Yosemite Avenue in Merced, across the street from
Merced College.
The Preschool’s director is Judy Smith.
The preschool program is part of the school’s overall preschool through fifth grade program. It has classrooms on campus and its costs are figured into the overall costs of the school.

Physical Environment, Staffing, and Capacity
The preschool wing includes two classrooms, each with an attached bathroom, and a large outdoor activity space. There is a small food preparation area. Parents also have the option of allowing their children to stay for lunch, in which case parents can pack a lunch for their child or order a lunch from the school’s full service cafeteria. Parent rotate bringing snacks for the entire class.
One classroom is designated for children ages 30 months to 4 years. The second room is for pre-k children, ages 4 and 5. They have a third classroom available, but it is not currently in use. There is one teacher and one aide per classroom, for a capacity of 18 children in each of the two rooms in use. Income
The school’s income comes primarily from tuition fees, as outlined in the tables below. (The school has fundraisers to help purchase extra curriculum.) Payment plans are set up so that students can attend 2 to 5 days per week, with options for before school care (beginning at 7 AM); after preschool care (12 PM through 6 PM). The program also offers afternoon care for non-students, from 12 PM through 6 PM.
Annual Registration fee: $150 first student; $100 for each additional student.
Preschool tuition, 180 days per year, 8:30 AM to 12:00 PM
Days per week
Annual payment
11 payments
12 payments
5
$4,059
$369
$338
4
$3,488
$317
$290
3
$2,842
$258
$237
2
$1,964
$178
$164
In some instances, the school also allows a pro-rated daily rate calculated at $22.55 per day.

Page 87

ECE Extended Care Program for enrolled students. Includes before preschool care (beginning at
7 AM) and after preschool care (lunch recess 12 to 1 PM; nap/quiet time 1 to 3 PM; organized group activity until pickup (3 to 6 PM)
Days per week
Annual payment
11 payments
12 payments
5
$1,655
$150
$138
4
$1,235
$112
$103
3
$945
$84
$79
2
$709
$64
$59
Prorated daily rate calculated at $9.20 per day
ECE Extended Care Program for nonstudents. This is afternoon care, from 12:00 PM up to 6
PM. $2,337 annual tuition. Monthly payments calculated at $13 per day.
Classroom Environment and Curriculum
The rooms are set up into centers. Using a thematic approach, children learn pre-reading and math skills along with vocabulary building. In small group settings, the children also learn to work cooperatively by caring and sharing with others.
Curriculum includes: Circle time, gross-motor activities, fine motor activities, art, dramatic play, music, science, sand and water, block play and story time.

Page 88

Case Study 3: UC Merced Early Childhood Education Center
The UC Merced Early Childhood Education Center is located at the front of the campus on North
Lake Road.
The center’s director is Danielle Waite.
The center was built in cooperation with UC Merced, First 5 of Merced County, the Merced County
Employees Federal Credit Union, and the Packard Foundation for a final cost of $4.9 million. The
Center does not pay rent to UC Merced, but does pay utilities, grounds fees, and the like.
The center opened in June 2009.
Physical Environment, Staffing, and Capacity
The center includes 4 main building sections: o Administration, which includes front desk, conference room, adult bathrooms, staff room, lactation room, and observation rooms for UC Merced ECE students. (While families are welcomed at the front desk, children are signed in at the individual classrooms.) o Preschool wing, which is two rooms separated by a shared support space that includes bathroom, food preparation area, isolation area, and storage. Each room can accommodate up to 20 children, ages 30 months to school-age. o Infant wing, which is also two rooms separated by a shared support space. Each room can accommodate 8 children, ages 0 to 17 months. o Toddler wing, again two rooms separated by a shared support space. Each room can accommodate 12 children ages 18 to 30 months. o Each of the children’s classrooms leads to separate outside yards, each with a shaded area, as well as sand, water, and climbing areas. Fruit trees line the back of the property. o There are windows in most every wall, between rooms and outside, making line of site and observation very manageable.
While the facility includes food preparation spaces with refrigerators and microwaves, the center does not have a full kitchen. The director indicated, however, that it would be preferable to have a full kitchen. She would also recommend a central shared storage space and library, in addition to the storage spaces in the shared space of each wing.
There are two teachers for every classroom. Staffing at full capacity would include 1 director, 12 teachers, and 1 administrative assistant to the director.
Since the center only recently opened, it is running at about half capacity with one room open in each wing. The center has a capacity of 80 children in the following configuration: 16 infants, 24 toddlers, and 40 preschoolers.

Page 89

Income and Hours of Operation
The center did not apply for California Department of Education, Child Care Development funding because 1) they do not have enough low income families using the facility to make it worthwhile; and 2) they do not have the administrative capacity that it would take to comply with all of the reporting requirements and other paperwork.
Tuition Rates for UC Merced Affiliated Families (students, staff and faculty):
Infant (6 weeks – 17 months) - $975/month
Toddlers (18-29 months) - $850/month
PreK (30 months – Kindergarten entry) - $650/month
Tuition Rates for Community Families:
Infant (6 weeks – 17 months) - $1200/month
Toddlers (18-29 months) - $1000/month
PreK (30 months – Kindergarten entry) - $750/month
The program does have a scholarship available to income qualified UCM affiliated families which would reduce their monthly tuition by 25%.
Hours of Operation
The center is open from 7:30 AM to 5:30 PM. The director does allow children to be dropped off and picked up during the day, as convenient for the child’s guardian. In most cases, children are dropped off between 7:30 AM and 8:30 AM. Parents of infants are welcome to stop in any time to visit their children and/or use the lactation room. Around 3:30 PM, children start to be picked up and signed out.
Because this center is not yet operating at full capacity, the program allows families to come for half days, or only part of the week. But as the program fills with full time children and slots become limited, the families interested in part-time care will have to coordinate carefully with each other to fill a full-time slot, or are in danger of losing their child care spot. (Because the program is fully funded through tuition, the facility needs all slots filled with full-time children to pay salaries and other operating expenses.)
Classroom Environment
UC Merced ECE Center staff strives to make the classrooms a welcoming place for both the children and family, with home-like touches.
The room and playground allow the children to freely explore and experience, the only limitation being one of safety. Age appropriate materials that are interesting to the children are at the child’s level, for easy and accessible self service.
The classroom is divided into strategically located interest areas, so learning experiences do not interfere or interrupt one another. Noisy activities (blocks, dramatic play) are separate from quiet activities (book reading, writing, and art).
Page 90

The staff rotates materials often to keep the children interested in all areas, as well as to increase the difficulty to challenge them mentally and physically.
Curriculum
UC Merced Early Childhood Education Center uses a mixture of curriculum representing different philosophies and practices. Emergent Curriculum, Play Based, Project Approach and the Reggio
Emilia Approach are combined with the Creative Curriculum. The Creative Curriculum is used as the main blueprint for the teachers in the classrooms.
The director feels that using the Creative Curriculum as the foundation provides a thorough curriculum that supports the children in meeting the Desired Results, which are mandated by the
California Department of Education, Child Development Department. The Creative Curriculum also encourages teachers to individualize and make the learning experiences relevant to the children in the classroom.
Student/Faculty Research
The UC Merced ECE Center allows observers in the classroom: students, professionals and prospective parents. Observers are required to schedule their observation time and check in with the
Center staff. There are numerous observation rooms that students are encouraged to use, but there are also times that the students will conduct their observation in the classroom or play ground.
These students remain under a staff member’s constant supervision and are never left alone with any child. Page 91

Case Study 4: The Associated Students Children’s Center, Chico
State University
The Associated Students Children's Center & Child Development Lab provides child care for student, staff, faculty, and community families.
This facility is located on the Chico State University campus.
Wendy McCully, current Program Director for Acorn Co-operative Preschool in Mariposa County, was the director of the Associated Students Children’s Center at Chico State University from 1993 to 1998. She was interviewed for this case study.
Physical Environment, Staffing, Capacity
The building and land for this facility are owned by the University. The child care center space includes a reception area, a preschool wing, an infant wing, and a toddler wing. Each includes outdoor play space. The center also has shared food prep and isolation areas.
The student body government is the owner of the child care center program, and the employer of program staff. Staff includes a director, secretary, and teachers divided this way:
3 teachers for the infant area (there were 10 children enrolled when Ms. McCully left, with capacity for 2 more).
4 teachers for the toddler area (there were 18 children divided between two rooms, with capacity for 24 children).
4 teachers for the preschool area (33 children divided between two rooms, with a total capacity of 48 children).
In addition, there were 30 volunteers from CSU’s Early Childhood Education program each semester. These volunteers were under direct visual supervision at all times.
Ms. McCully said the program was constantly growing. According to this child care center’s website, their current capacity is 16 children eight weeks to two years old and 85 children 2 to 5 years of age.
Income and Hours of Operation
This program was completely funded by grants. There were no tuition fees.
The center is currently open from 7:45 AM to 5:30 PM. Parents and caregivers had the option of morning, afternoon, or all day sessions. If they did not arrive by a certain time, however, the door would be closed with a note that it was too late to enter, and they could try again the following day.
This was to avoid disruptions and to ensure the proper staff to child ratios.
Classroom Environment/Curriculum/Philosophy
The Associated Students Child Development Lab's philosophy is based on a respect for the uniqueness of each individual child, his/her family and culture. Children come to the center from varying backgrounds and bring with them their own family values, cultures and language. They also
Page 92

come with unique personalities and temperaments and are at varying levels of development and maturation. In partnership, staff and parents create a safe, nurturing environment that promotes the physical, social, emotional, creative, linguistic and cognitive development of each child.
Children's learning is a complex process that results from the interaction of a child's own thinking and their experiences in the external world. Children "learn by doing." Infants and toddlers learn primarily through their senses such as tasting, physical exploration and grasping. Preschoolers learn by interacting with materials and things. As children mature, they acquire new skills that facilitate the learning process.
Through a planned environment, curriculum, site personnel and parents, children are provided a wide assortment of hands-on experiences and have opportunities to learn through a variety of modalities (visual, auditory, sensory). The center offers children the freedom to explore and the opportunity to choose from many daily activities. These activities are age-appropriate and may be either teacher-planned or child-initiated. A wide variety of materials are available for child-initiated use. The environment is divided into learning centers. Each center/area is supplied with a broad assortment of developmentally appropriate and anti-biased materials. These materials are changed periodically depending upon the interest, individual needs, and developing skills of the children.
Curriculum experiences (planned, spontaneous and child-initiated) include, but are not limited to, dramatic play, language and literacy, pre-reading, pre-math, science, psychomotor, art, music movement, opportunities for large and small motor development, sensory, cooking, nutrition, literature, multicultural, cognitive and social-emotional.
This program is accredited by the National Academy of Childhood Programs.

Page 93

Case Study 5: Acorn Tree
The Acorn Tree child care center is located at 42107 Empty Creek Road in Oakhurst, off Hwy 41, near Bass Lake Road.
The center’s owner and director is Elaina Newcomb.
Acorn Tree Preschool is a for-profit child care center. Ms. Newcomb has 30 years experience teaching and directing child care centers in Fresno. She has worked for many for-profit centers, such as KinderCare. When Ms. Newcomb moved from Fresno to Oakhurst, she operated a family child care home for two years. She constantly had a waiting list, so she decided to open up a center.
Ms. Newcomb leased a building on January 2, 2009. She submitted her licensing application the same day. During the 3 to 4 month wait for her licensing inspection, Ms. Newcomb completed all decorating and construction changes. Ms. Newcomb was inspected and licensed on April 1, 2009.
She opened immediately thereafter.
Physical Environment, Staffing, and Capacity
Ms. Newcomb is leasing a 2,600 square foot building for $5,040 per month. [just for comparison, in our example, we used an estimate of $1,830 per month—minimum amount needed for 38 children times most common price per square foot.] She desired 3,000 square feet, but was unable to find a proper facility. She said the most important component for a child care center is the bathrooms. If a center includes a school-age component, there must be at least separate three bathrooms—one for staff, one for girls, and one for boys (children under 6 can share the same bathroom). Ms. Newcomb has one toilet and one sink for every 6 kids. She had to add a staff bathroom at a cost of $12,000.
She also pointed out that the facility has to be in multi-use zoning, not commercial zoning, or have a county use permit.
Ms. Newcomb maximizes all of her floor space. Her cubbies are suspended above the ground so the space below qualifies. Her rooms are divided by half walls. She does not have a director’s office, and feels that one is needed to hold confidential parent conferences.
Acorn Tree is licensed for 46 students: 8 infants, 24 preschoolers, and 14 school-age children. Ms.
Newcomb is currently getting licensed for a toddler component so she can maximize space by moving the 18 to 24 month old children into a different room and then add more infants (0 to 17 months). Currently, Acorn Tree is 80% full. At the height of enrollment, Ms. Newcomb’s enrollment for preschoolers was 22. Currently, she has 15 or 16 preschoolers. Her infant slots are 100% full (8 infants). She said that all the child care centers she has experience with offer infant care because they then become the center’s preschool enrollment. The infant component is a center’s ―garden‖ and allows parents with multiple children to be able to use one child care provider, which also grows a center’s cliental. The teacher to infant ratio is 1:4. The first three infants just covers expenses, it is the fourth infant that generates income. Therefore, the preschool component of the child care center must be profitable enough to financially support the infant program. However, Ms.
Newcomb feels that this service is worth the expense as she has never had a child turn 2 years of age and not enter her preschool program.
Page 94

Tuition
Acorn Tree charges weekly tuition rates, which includes 5 days of care, [Monday through Friday or
Monday through Sunday when seasonal weekend care is offered, 6:30 AM to 6:30 PM]. Tuition is due every Monday for the upcoming week. Full-time weekly tuition fees are as follows: infants $180 per week; preschool-age $135 per week (tuition for this age group will increase to $145 in January); school-age $100 per week (this figure may change after market price analysis).
Ms. Newcomb is currently conducting regional market rate analysis so Acorn Tree’s tuition prices can be in line with the regional market rates. If a child is sick, the parents do not get a refund from their weekly rate, however Ms. Newcomb will allow them to make up a day during a weekend when seasonal care is offered.
At present, Ms. Newcomb is breaking even; tuition fees are paying all of her expenses, including teacher salaries. However, Ms. Newcomb has been working 9 to 11 hour days for the last six months and has not taken a salary for herself. She believes it will take two years to recoup her initial investment of $50,000, the timeline of which she says is fairly standard. Ms. Newcomb feels she was able to keep her start up loan relatively low due to her experience in the industry. Ms. Newcomb anticipates profitability by March 2010, when the seasonal workers in the tourism industry return to work. She also anticipates a waiting list.
Hours of Operation
Acorn Tree is licensed to be open 7 days per week, 6:30 AM to 6:30 PM. Acorn Tree was open
Saturday and Sunday until October 2009. Employees in the tourism industry are laid off around this time and weekend enrollment declined, so Ms. Newcomb stopped providing this service until spring, at which time she anticipates resuming this service. Ms. Newcomb requires a minimum of 4 or 5 children enrolled on the weekends in order to break even. For Acorn Tree, it the enrollments of the sixth child and above that make providing weekend care profitable. Ms. Newcomb is dedicated to providing child care services that the community needs. Ms. Newcomb usually splits a weekend day shift between herself and another teacher, so as to not incur overtime charges for the teacher.
Drop-In Care
Acorn Tree provides drop in care. Ms. Newcomb says this is consistent with most for-profit child care center practices that she is familiar with. Drop in rates are premium rates and are calculated as approximately 1/5 of the highest weekly rate (In Acorn Tree’s case the highest weekly rate is $180).
Enrolled parents of preschool aged children can add an additional day of care during the week for
$30. Non-enrolled parents (those without a consistent, pre-established care schedule) pay a higher daily drop in rate of $40. Non-enrolled parents can utilize available drop-in slots if all the paperwork and the child shot records are provided.
Food
Acorn Tree offers breakfast, lunch, and end of day snack. The center was providing dinner, but Ms.
Newcomb dropped this service. Ms. Newcomb is now getting the food subsidized through the
Department of Education Federal Food Program. While it is paperwork intensive, she feels that the benefits outweigh the cost. The Federal Food Program pays for all the food, dishes, and paper products and will sometimes pay for the cook’s salary if a center has such a position.

Page 95

Other Subsidies and Partnerships
Acorn Tree does not receive any subsidized funding for student enrollment, but Ms. Newcomb does contract with Madera County and Chuckchansi to offer child care services. If Acorn Tree was providing drop in services for Department of Human Services clients would hold either a specific number of slots or a percentage (such as 5%) of her slots for the county at a premium rate – double the daily rate. She believes a partnership with a county could be a good relationship.

Page 96

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...Pre-Feasibility Study POTATO CHIPS MANUFACTURING UNIT Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority Government of Pakistan www.smeda.org.pk HEAD OFFICE 6th & 8th Floor LDA Plaza, Egerton Road, Lahore. Tel: (042) 111-111-456Fax: (042) 6304926-7 Helpdesk@smeda.org.pk REGIONAL OFFICE PUNJAB REGIONAL OFFICE SINDH 5TH Floor, Bahria Complex II, M.T. Khan Road, Karachi. Tel: (021) 111-111-456 Fax: (021) 5610572 Helpdesk-khi@smeda.org.pk REGIONAL OFFICE NWFP Ground Floor State Life Building The Mall, Peshawar. Tel: (091) 9213046-47 Fax: (091) 286908 helpdesk-pew@smeda.org.pk REGIONAL OFFICE BALOCHISTAN Bungalow No. 15-A Chaman Housing Scheme Airport Road, Quetta. Tel: (081) 831623, 831702 Fax: (081) 831922 helpdesk-qta@smeda.org.pk 8th Floor LDA Plaza, Egerton Road, Lahore. Tel: (042) 111-111-456 Fax: (042) 6304926-7 helpdesk@smeda.org.pk February, 2006 Pre-feasibility Study Potato Chips Manufacturing Unit 1 2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT ............................................................................................... 4 CRUCIAL FACTORS & STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT..................... 4 2.1 2.2 SWOT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................... 4 KEY SUCCESS FACTORS / PRACTICAL TIPS FOR SUCCESS .......................................................... 5 3 PROJECT PROFILE..............................................................................

Words: 7212 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...WHY I’M PASSIONATE ABOUT REAL ESTATE? Return: In most of the markets real estate investments perform better than equities and other asset classes. In emerging markets probably you have to go for development projects, as rental yield is not very attractive. In most of the developed markets real estate has performed better than stock market over time. And by leveraging your investment you can increase your return on equity many folds. Cash flow component in return: This one of the best thing about real estate investments – it behaves like a fixed income security, and with better yield. Rental income makes real estate more attractive even during tough time and many investors love to focus on the cash flow.  Depreciation: You can’t depreciate your stocks, bonds and mutual funds. Depreciation is a gift from the government for real estate investors. Dampening of volatility in the portfolio: Real estate prices don’t fluctuate on daily basis. Fully optimized portfolios with real estate component in it have much lower volatility. Inflation hedge: real estate investments provide a good hedge against inflation. Rents usually increase with inflation, while mortgage payments on the property remain stable. This increases cash flow component. WHY SHOULD YOU NOT INVEST IN REAL ESTATE? Illiquid: Many a times real estate investments behave like illiquid assets. Generally it takes time to execute an actual exit, and liquidity can completely disappear from the market in tough......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Feasibility Study

...Operational Feasibility The proposed system will be a big help for the company. The implementation of the proposed system aims to improve and switch the manual procedures to computer based operations. It will provide a fast way of purchasing goods that can both save time and effort of the buyers. This system can fit in to the needs of the customer and the establishment as well. The proposed system is technologically available and technologically practical given the availability of hardware and software resources. The proposed system is operationally feasible in such way that the system will operate efficient and average computer users will find it easy to use and understand. Economical Feasibility Cost is one of the major problems that must be considered in making a study. For the economic condition, they usually stick to manual process to be able to keep in expenses. But giving attention to the proposed system, it will provide a lot of benefits especially to the teachers and student. The implementation cost of the system will be reduce and they will receive return of investment after the implementation of the system. The company will just have to upgrade the system and maintained it. The Feasibility Study The information you need to find out if your project will work is call feasibility study. It will help you find out exactly what is involved, how much is cost; if it will work in the long run and of course, if it will be feasible for the entities......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...A feasibility study is a short, focused study that should take place early in the RE process. It should answer three key questions: a) does the system contribute to the overall objectives of the organization? b) can the system be implemented within schedule and budget using current technology? and c) can the system be integrated with other systems that are used? If the answer to any of these questions is no, you should probably not go ahead with the project. Feasibility study An estimate is made of whether the identified user needs may be satisfied using current software and hardware technologies. The study considers whether the proposed system will be cost-effective from a business point of view and if it can be developed within existing budgetary constraints. A feasibility study should be relatively cheap and quick. The result should inform the decision of whether or not to go ahead with a more detailed analysis. Feasibility studies The aims of a feasibility study are to find out whether the system is worth implementing and if it can be implemented, given the existing budget and schedule. The input to the feasibility study is a set of preliminary business requirements, an outline description of the system and how the system is intended to support business processes. The results of the feasibility study should be a report that recommends whether or not it is worth carrying on with the requirements engineering and system development process. If a system......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Feasibility Studies

...FINANCING OF FEASIBILITY STUDIES Through its MSME Support Fund, BIO grants subsidies to co-finance feasibility studies. The feasibility study is a necessaryphase prior to the creation or development of a company. It has to be conducted by a third partuy expert. It aims to prove the technical viability and profitability of a project, and is a prerequisite to draw up a business plan. SUBSIDIES The MSME Support Fund grants non-reimbursable subsidies to fund experts who will carry out feasibility studies. These studies include all technical, commercial, financial and regulatory information necessary for the investment decision process. This process should enable the creation and development of businesses in developing countries. Furthermore, the studies are conditioned by subsequent financing by BIO of the investment phase. AMOUNTS The subsidy granted by the MSME Support Fund may account for as much as 50% of the total cost, with a limit of EUR 100,000 per project. BENEFICIARIES Subsidies are granted to local enterprises, intermediary structures geared towards local SMEs, as well as infrastructure projects. CRITERIA Applications for feasibility studies must meet a certain number of formal criteria, such as the business’ sector or the estimated time-span of operations. BIO more specifically evaluates the sponsors’ quality (particularly their economic performance, their financial involvement in the project and their stance towards corporate governance),...

Words: 540 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Feasibility Studies

...FEASIBILITY STUDIES: WHY AND WHAT SHOULD THEY ENTAIL? P. Ries Asset Resource Management LLC I have been asked to present a paper addressing feasibility studies, as they relate to consideration of a digester project for large dairies. I am hoping to answer the following questions, so that you, as a dairy producer, can properly address whether or not a digester project fits within your overall business model, that is, successfully managing and operating a large scale dairy operation. As I said, the questions I hope to answer for you are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a feasibility study? Why is a feasibility study important? What should be included? Who should do a feasibility study? How much should they cost? 1. What is a feasibility study? A feasibility study is an analysis and evaluation of a proposed project to determine if it is a. technically feasible; b. is feasible within the estimated cost; and c. will be profitable. I am focusing my presentation on feasibility studies of digester projects, because that is why I’ve been asked to make this presentation. However, one should be able to use these same concepts when considering any opportunity your farm might consider, especially where large sums of money are at stake. With respect to digester projects, the technical concepts of collecting the cow manure, pumping it into a digester, producing methane gas, and using this methane gas to power turbines, which in turn produce electricity, is a proven technology, and......

Words: 3556 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...FEASIBILITY STUDY TEMPLATE This Feasibility Study Template is free for you to copy and use on your project and within your organization. We hope that you find this template useful and welcome your comments. Public distribution of this document is only permitted from the Project Management Docs official website at: www.ProjectManagementDocs.com FEASIBILITY STUDY COMPANY NAME STREET ADDRESS CITY, STATE ZIP CODE DATE Feasibility Study Template www.ProjectManagementDocs.com TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 2 DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES .......................................................................... 2 TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................................... 2 PRODUCT/SERVICE MARKETPLACE....................................................................................... 3 MARKETING STRATEGY ........................................................................................................ 4 ORGANIZATION AND STAFFING ............................................................................................. 4 SCHEDULE............................................................................................................................. 5 FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS .....................................................

Words: 2510 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...Feasibility Study Outline for New Manufacturing Project There is a saying, hindsight is 20-20. Smart business people, however, do not rely on hindsight but on foresight. A feasibility study is more of a scientific foresight, a way of reducing guessing as to what things should be considered. The following is an outline of a feasibility study based on new manufacturing business. There are hundreds of variations of a feasibility study but this is good because it is applicable to big and small businesses, either domestic and international. Feasibility Study Outline for New Manufacturing Project A. Project Summary 1. Brief description of the project 2. Summary of the findings and conclusions a. Project timetables and status b. Management aspects c. Marketing aspects d. Technical aspects e. Taxation aspects f. Financing aspects g. Financial aspects h. Social aspects B. Project Timetable and Status 1. General project planning 2. Incorporation 3. Preparation of engineering specifications 4. Building construction 5.......

Words: 2131 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...Project Summary In this chapter, the group presents the highlights, descriptive definition, long- range objectives, feasibility criteria, history and basic conclusions of studying the business viability of “Biba Lavendera” laundry shop. A. Name of the Enterprise Biba Lavandera Laundry Shop A business name is one of the most essential things to be prepared in starting a business. Biba Lavandera as the primary name of the business, originated from the noun word “bibo” that means smart or bubbly. It is used to refer a person that is active and has energy. “lavandera” came upon the suggestion of Professor Patriarca as it appeals more to the target audience. Biba Lavendera somehow gives an extraordinary attention The name “Biba Lavandera” is unique, simple and easy to remember. People will easily visualize what the business is about and it will aid to their memory. It includes the information that the business does and can easily be understood by various target market. The business logo shows a bubbly girl to represent Biba, a sun to denote a bright day for doing laundry with the name of the enterprise. The colors used are on the light shades to be more attractive and leave a clean and fresh image. B. Location The location of the business is at Blk 79 lot 3 Ginseng Road, Robinsons Homes East Bgy. San Jose, Antipolo City. Biba Lavandera is inside the Robinsons Homes. Basically, the business is intended for the residents of the......

Words: 2892 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...PILOT CLASS:Jehann Farinah AbutazilRichmond Ferrer AlderiteLendl Sam DelinSabrina FallerIan Scott Gerona Jade Marie JabagatMary Grace Marilao Wilfred John PilapilJane Erin PinsoyAlvin Recososa Lorence TapizAnne Margaret Veran Submitted to:Mrs. Euckene Shayne Y. Dolino | | May 22, 2013 | | Table of Contents Contents: | Pages: | I. Business Description ……………………………………………………… | 3 | II. Feasibility Study Conclusions ……………………………………………. | 3 | III. Market Feasibility ………………………………………………………… a. Description of the Industry b. Current Market Analysis and AnticipatedFuture Market Potential c. Industry Competitiveness d. Market Share and Sales Projection | 4 | IV. Technical Feasibility ……………………………………………………... a. Place of Business b. Plant Layout c. Machines and Equipments | 8 | V. Organizational Feasibility ……………………………………………….. d. Professional Skills and Resumes e. Business Founders f. Internal & External Principles and Practices of Business | 10 | VI. Financial Feasibility ……………………………………………………… | 12 | | | I. Business Description We plan to put up a cart in Davao Doctor’s College (DDC) renting a small space and selling a wide variety of shakes. Basically, we turn various fruits and vegetables, like carrots, cucumbers, apples, mangoes, bananas, oranges and the like into healthy, cool and refreshing beverages. We will take on the requests of the customers for the flavor......

Words: 2872 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...Feasibility Study Name University of Phoenix System Analysis and Development CMGT/555 Instructor January 9, 2015 Feasibility Study A feasibility study is an essential part of any software development project. The feasibility study can, and should, help answer the question “Should we even attempt this project and why?” Completing an effective feasibility study can prevent unnecessary commitments of valuable company resources by determining the potential success rate of any project. This project, designing and implementing a bulletin board type forum for wireless technical support representatives, is no different and a proper feasibility study will determine whether this is a worthwhile, cost effective project. According to Tim Bryce from the Project Smart Company, a good feasibility study will address the following issues (Bryce, 2008): 1) Project Scope 2) Current Analysis 3) Requirements 4) Approach 5) Evaluation 6) Review The first section determines the scope of the project. This is where the current problem or improvement is clearly stated. A well-defined scope will keep the project on target and help prevent “scope creep” where the project loses sight of the intended goal. Stake-holders, end users, project participants, and the project owner or sponsor is also clearly stated in this section. The current analysis is an outline of how the process is done now. Without a clear outline and analysis of the current method, it is hard to...

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

..."fast-food”. So why ice cream? Ice cream doesn’t have a specific market; it can cater to everyone, kids, teens and adults. Since our location has a big market for adults, we decided to add coffee in our menu. Because coffee is the trend nowadays, we take this opportunity to accommodate to this coffee lover people and add coffee ice cream flavors and a special espresso mud pie just for them. Another part of our market is the kids and teens; we cater them by adding colorful ice creams, different kinds of toppings and encourage testing their creativity by letting them self service in what toppings to put in their ice cream. With all this perks, the Fuzione is starting a trend regarding food service and food trucks . I. BACKGROUND a feasibility study revolving around the concept of food trucks in a fast food service. The idea behind this novelty concept of bringing food trucks as a new trend here in the Philippines came from six undergraduate hotel and restaurant management students from the Cavite State University – Imus Campus. This is in partial fulfillment...

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...FEASIBILITY STUDY OUTLINE 1. The Preliminary Section a. Title Page b. Approval Sheet c. Acknowledgements (if any) d. Table of contents e. List of tables (if any) f. List of Figures (if any) g. List of Annexes/Appendices 2.0 THE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3.1 Highlights 2.1.1 Project Background Name of the Proposed project: Type of Business Organization: Location: Proponents: 2.1.2 Management Feasibility Summary 2.1.3 Marketing Feasibility Summary 2.1.4 Technical Feasibility Summary 2.1.5 Financial Feasibility Summary 2.1.6 Socio-Economic Feasibility Summary 2.1 Conclusions (state here, the chances of implementing your project; the advantages of implementing it; and your final analysis and conclusion of the feasibility of your project) 2 Project Background 3.2 Project Proponents Name Address % Ownership 3.3 Proposed Name of the Business/Logo * Here you could state the reason/s four your choice of name or the significance of the name and the logo chosen 3.4 Type of Business Organization * State here if your proposed project is a Single Proprietorship, a Limited or General Partnership, a Corporation, a Subsidiary/Branch/ohers. Indicate the reasons for your choice. 3.4 Location of...

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Feasibility Study

...1. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES The IT department requires a system that will alert users when their desktop computer is no longer in compliance with current security standards; customer would be instructed to call the IT Help Desk for assistance before their service is cut off. System would need to be expandable to multiple networks and be compatible with Windows and Linux operating systems. There are no proposed changes to the current baseline of the network. 2. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Upgraded technological capability may be required for the IT department to move toward a product which will automatically notify customers to contact the IT Service Desk if their systems are found to be non-compliant with the current security baseline. However, it should be feasible to take the existing technology and modify functionality or add a pug-in module in order to obtain the desired effect. This technology does exist and is in use in other organizations with similar network structures and components which mean this solution should not be a totally new concept and a variety of options should be available. The automation of this process will save thousands of man-hours per year for both technicians and customers. 3. TECHNOLOGY CONSIDERATIONS IT managers desire a simple and easy way to ensure system meet intended security requirements while minimizing customer service interruption to the extent possible. While the IT department maintains the current set of network......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Feasibility Study

...Title: A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE RENOVATION OF SENSORY EVALUATION ROOM 1. General Objectives 2.1 Project Description The Sensory Evaluation Room renovation project proposal is being proposed to help cater to more students and faculties of this University. The proposed room will have a wider area to accommodate more people. The main prospects of this project would be those who are currently taking their sensory evaluation, product development and thesis subjects. This would help them have a better evaluation of their products to gather more reliable data from their evaluators. There would also be a door connecting the room to the adjacent laboratory room, where most of the equipments for processing are located. 2.2 Projected timeline The project is projected to be done within a period of 7 weeks. The target for each week is as follows: 1st week- removal of impaired materials - ordering of materials needed 2nd week- receiving of ordered materials - planning of the arrangement of materials 3rd week- cleaning and removal of unnecessary objects 4th week-5th week - measuring of arrangement of chairs and tables -changing of lights, repainting of walls and ceiling 6th week-7th week - replacement/arranging of chairs and tables addition of proper light at the cubicle/table according to the design 2. Technical Aspect 3.3 Location Sector The said project will be at the Sensory evaluation room inside the CIT building. Costs and......

Words: 686 - Pages: 3