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Features of the Labour Market

In: Social Issues

Submitted By sabdi12
Words 1150
Pages 5
The labour market is a market by which workers compete in order to obtain employment, it is the province of the world by which commodities are bought and sold. It is a place where employees and workers share interaction; it is the market that employers strive to be the best and to provide the best jobs. In addition, according to the Economic Times "without competition there would be no market” (2010), therefore it is crucial that there is economic movement in the market. There will be three features of the labour market discussed within this assignment in order to highlight the inequalities. It aims discuss the inequalities amongst the gender factor, the concept of child labour and the links these factors have with unemployment.
The argument which explains the gender inequalities within the labour market originates from the 1970s. However, it is fair to state that a lot has changed within society in particular the labour force since then. It is difficult to identify the particular factor that clarifies such segregation but many conclude on the basis of pay discrimination. Other factors to explain gender segregation could relate to comparative biological advantages, underinvestment in human capital, differential income role and entry barriers....(Bettio and Verashchagina (2009)
Examples of gender inequality within the work place are common amongst contemporary society and this is because there are continued obvious biases in the labour market. There are hidden practices within the procedures of such institutions. According to Bettio and Verashchagina (2009) organisations lack to identify females’ skills and this inevitably leads to the ‘poor visibility of female skills’. These key thinkers argue that due to these female-dominated roles are often seen to lack such professionalism. This is further explained by justifying that due to this gender segregation inequality is born as these particular roles fail to afford shorter occupational ladders.
Bettio and Verashchagina (2009) further argue that this gender inequality in the workplace often frequently take place lower down in the occupational pyramid. They suggest case studies that give examples of office cleaners in Germany or the police in Slovenia for over biases in job evaluation. This shows that vital organisations such as the police whom swear to serve the general public and promote security overtly participate in gender segregation. Such thinkers also identify the successful renowned care sector in Austria for insufficient professionalism. They suggest the latest market reform has ‘redefined the career ladder’ in order to attract a male audience. This alone suggests that gender segregation is prominent even in the reformation of policies in European countries. In the United States, in many high ranked roles it is perceived that the more ordinary areas of daily life such as cooking, the school run and grocery shopping is seen as less important. This commonly illustrates that women put more hours into these household activities than men. This results to a greater disadvantage for women in the job. It is argued that it is impractical to expect gender inequality if the workplace is demanding more availability from the women.
It is shown that the gender wage gap in the United States is substantially lower compared to other countries. Lober (2011:78) .Studies show that the gap has not shown any progression in narrowing since the mid 1990’s. Even though, some argue that the workplace requires more availability from women it has shown that the contribution of men to the household as grown significantly. Although, this isn’t a momentous result worldwide it rules out debates over inequality in occupational inequality. However, as this has been a change over the last 25 years it still happens to be far below women’s contribution.
Lober (2011:78) argues that so many ‘working women continue to have two jobs’ one which is in their workplace and one which is at home. She further argues that we lack in the providence of high quality care as childcare is expensive in the United States. It can be suggested that this particular work load of the female employee could lead to the prejudice of poor visibility of female skills.
Many differences occur and exist between the different types of work children do. Some are complicated and challenging while others are dangerous and ethically reprehensible. Children participate in a variety of tasks and activities during their employment. Child labour in an agricultural setting consists of farming, hunting, forestry and fishing. An industrialised setting may include heavy dangerous machinery work, mining etc. It is argued that not all work that is carried out by children is classified as child labour this is why it is difficult to eliminate them Blume, J. (2011). It is perceived that the participation in the work that these children carry out does not necessarily affect their ‘health and personal development’. This is because as long as it does not interfere in their well-being or schooling is generally viewed as being somewhat positive. For example, positive activities such assisting their parents around the household, engaging in family business or even earning money outside school hours can argue against inequality and exploitation in the workplace. Some argue that these sorts of roles subsidise with the child’s development and the welfare of their families. Through this ‘child labour’, children are provided with skills and experiences to contribute to the future of their society’s labour market ‘during their adult life’ Blume, J. (2011)
Allessandro and Fioroni (2011) state that it is easy to simply misinterpret the term ‘child labour’ as it is often used to define the work of ‘deprived children of their childhood’ and the damage that it causes to their dignity. Not to mention the harm it may bring to the physical and mental development of the child. Undoubtedly, the factor that plays the dominant role in child labour is indeed poverty. Families who are below the poverty line may force their children into the workforce early as they have no choice. Eroding poverty is the first step in eradicating child labour. Many factors drive a child into labour, cuts in social spending is included; this has a direct effect on poverty as children need to get into work in order to feed their basic needs. In areas that are industrialised, contractors are in dire need of cheap labour therefore they hire children who they can arguably pay less. In some cases, child labour may not even be recognised as children may be expected to work as part of the family unit. This is very common in agriculture; tasks include cleaning, cooking and possibly minding younger siblings whilst parents work.
Virtually all of the world’s economies which are advanced have all experienced unemployment due to the recession or for other reasons. Employment is a global problem but some countries suffer more than others. People under the age of 16, those in the armed forces or those who are incarcerated are not considered part of the work force.

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