Premium Essay

Feminist Theories

In: Social Issues

Submitted By rblack611
Words 792
Pages 4
1. FEMINIST THEORIES OF RELIGIONFOR A2 SOCIOLOGY:BELIEFS IN SOCIETY
2. • Feminists see society as patriarchal- based on male domination.• Many feminists regard religion as also patriarchal that reflects and perpetuates this inequality.• Religious beliefs function as a patriarchal ideology that legitimates female subordination.
3. EVIDENCE OF PATRIARCHYRELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS• They are mainly male dominated despite the fact that women often participate more than men in organisations. For example, Orthodox Judaism and Catholicism forbid women to become priests. Armstrong sees women’s exclusion from the priesthood of most religions as evidence of marginalisation. View slide
4. PLACES OF WORSHIP• They often separate the sexes and marginalise women, e.g. seating them behind screens while the men occupy the central and more sacred spaces.• Women’s participation may be restricted, for example, not being able to preach or to read from sacred texts. Taboos that regard menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth as polluting may also prevent participation. For example, in Islam, menstruating women are not allowed to touch the Qur’an. Holm describes this as the devaluation of women in contemporary religion. View slide
5. SACRED TEXTS• They largely feature the doings of male gods, prophets ect, and are usually written and interpreted by men. Stories often reflect anti-female stereotypes, such as that of Eve who in the Judaeo-Christian story of Genesis, caused by humanity’s fall from grace and expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
6. RELIGIOUS LAWS AND CUSTOMS• These may give women fewer rights than men, e.g. in access to divorce, how many spouses they may marry, decision making, dress codes ect. Religious influences on cultural norms may also lead to unequal treatment, such as genital mutilation or punishments for sexual transgressions.• Many religions legitimate and regulate...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Feminist Theories

...Marxist feminist Michelle Barrett (1980) argues that the role ideology plays in convincing women that unpaid domestic labour is fulfilling is important. Barrett discusses the ideology of ‘familism’ the notion that female fulfillment lies in the family. For Marxist feminists, the cause of female oppression is rooted in capitalism. They argue that although individual men benefit from women’s subordination, the main beneficiary is capitalism. Women are an unpaid labour force, as unpaid housewives, and have been used in WW1 as a reserve army of labour. This oppression is believed to be maintained by the role women adopt within the capitalist’s system as the unpaid homemaker in the family. Women are conceived that this unpaid role is natural and normal, through the ideology of ‘familism’ that promotes female fulfillment as achieved through motherhood intimacy and sexual satisfaction. Marxist feminists believe that in order to end female subordination, we must overthrow capitalism as well as the ideology of familism. This would free the sexes from restrictive family roles and ensure that domestic labour was shared equally. Strengths of Marxist feminists include the fact that they have demonstrated the power of structural factors, such as capitalism and ideology in constructing an explanation for women’s subordination. However, Marxist feminists have been criticised for failing to explain women’s subordination in non-capitalist societies. Marxist feminism also places insufficient......

Words: 2441 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Feminist Social Theory

...Name Course Tutor Date Feminist Social Theory. The feminist social theory calls for equality for both genders- men and women. It entails studying gender inequality, the roles of women in the society, their experiences, duties and their contribution in fields such as, among others, sociology, and literature. The theory has been studied examined and expanded by several analysts such as sociologist Dorothy Smith, Patricia Hill Collins and Judith Butler. They all have their distinct views regarding the topic. Their conclusions also contain differences as well as similarities. First, Dorothy Smith is a Canadian sociologist who involves neo-Marxist and phenomenological concepts and ideas in her work. She employs institutional ethnography approach that she sees as a way of acquiring knowledge of the way relations of ruling work from the perspective of the people upon which they work. Dorothy Smith is famous for coming up with the standpoint theory that states that the position held by an individual in the society affects what he or she knows. She argues that nobody is in a position to possess the complete knowledge and that two people cannot share a similar standpoint. She urges us to recognize our perspective and investigate it. Smith points out that the position of men is favored whereas that of women is ignored. She also claims that the post of the white male upper class is given more emphasis than that of the rest of the world. She employs the concept of bifurcated......

Words: 563 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Marxist Feminist Theory

...The objective of this paper is to evaluate why women are committing crime by using Marxist Feminist Theory. Marxist theory was that women commit crime due to capitalism and because of capitalism women feel oppressed and unequal in society. Marxist Feminist Theory Marxist Feminist theory is laid out by Friedrich Engels. Engels explains that a woman's subordinate role is not due to her biological disposition , but to her social relations. A big part of a woman's subordination is the role of a man in society and how a man controls the labor of woman and their sexual life in the home. Woman have to be subordinate in their families and must be submissive to their husbands. Gender oppression and class oppression and the relationship between and man and women in society is similar to Marxist feminist view on a capitalist society. In a capitalist society a woman' s subordinate role comes from class oppression because it is in the interest of the ruling class. Men and women are divided and different privileges while men get paid for their jobs women do not get paid for theirs( childrearing, cleaning, cooking, etc..). Men are taught by society to become dominant to the roles that have been handed to them. Understanding Why Women Commit Crime Woman murder rates have rose by eleven percent a year since the seventies. What started at six thousand in the seventies jumped to seventy-five thousand and this number is increasing. Some possible explanations for these crimes can be......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Feminist Legal Theory

...sacrificing? Has she not greater endurance? Has she not greater courage? Without her, man could not be. If non violence is the law of our being, the future is with women. Who can make a more effective appeal to the heart than women?’’ Mahatma Gandhi- Mind of Mahatma Gandhi, 1960 Feminist legal theory Women have been the core of discussions on the gender topic and still are, the question is if they will always be, when the ‘gender’ topic is discussed. This has happened and is happening due to the apprehension of the much imperative role that women are playing in society. The need to have women on a level playing ground as their male counterparts in the shaping of society has not been an easier task for the feminist theorists and still isn’t. Though, the little achievement seen today can’t just be swept under the carpet and be ignored to be. Feminist theorists have over the years championed for women’s rights through such paradigms as-sex/gender equality, public/private sphere of the women, and equality/difference between men and women. Still today with a slight vary from the patriarchal world, they can be said to be only ‘consciousness-raising’. The real triumph, according to feminists is yet to be achieved. The statements made by Mahatma Gandhi are yet to be realised fully while others have been realised in society. Violence against women in marital marriage has been dealt with, this has happened through the realisation that ‘marital rape’......

Words: 1102 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Feminist Theories and Uttar Predash

...Feminist Theories and Uttar Predash Sociology 100 McLaughlin Thesis In the world, men and women are treated differently. Men and women have different roles and responsibilities, relations, and identities. Men are perceived as the dominant and in-charge person of the two. Men are usually the head of household and make the important decisions for the family. Women are perceived as the submissive person and are under-appreciated. Many women realized this and began to stand and fight against the stereotypical view of women. From this, the feminist theory derived. The feminist theory is a generalized, wide-ranging system of ideas about social life and human experience developed from a woman-center perspective. The feminist theory has four main subgroups, consisting of gender difference, gender inequality, gender oppression, and structural oppression. These theories are evident in the world, especially in the small Himalayan village in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh described by Manjari Mehta in “Our Lives Are No Different From That of Our Buffaloes.” Feminist Theories Gender difference is a theory of feminism that argues that women’s perspectives of most situations are different from that of men’s perspectives of the same situation. Gender difference strives to answer the question “And what about the women?” by simply trying to show that women’s location in and experience of situations are different from that of men. Gender difference can be broken down......

Words: 1748 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Feminist Theories Notes A2

...Feminist Theories Liberal / Reformist Feminism * Concerned with civil rights and freedom of individuals * They believe that all human beings should have equal rights * Reformism is the progress towards equal rights and freedoms through gradual reforms * They feel that laws against sex discrimination will lead towards a rise in equal rights * Also they feel that changes in culture will help equality, e.g. stereotypes being abolished Sex and Gender * Like Ann Oakley liberal feminists find a difference between sex and gender; * Sex refers to biological differences * Gender refers to culturally constructed differences between masculine and feminine roles * While sex differences are fixed, gender is different for different cultures, this is the part Liberal feminists want to change * Want to promote equality in education and the media * Take political action to introduce anti-discriminatory laws * Liberal feminist criticise the Funtionalist views of Parsons, regarding the Instrumental and Expressive roles * They feel that men and women are equally capable of performing either role, however society is constructed to tell us which role to adhere to * Liberal feminists do have a consensus view on society – they accept that there are conflicts between men and women but argue that it’s a product of outdated attitudes Evaluation of liberal feminism * Experiments conducted by liberal feminists have produced evidence......

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Feminist Theory

...The feminist theory is concerned with equality of women but in turn it stands for equality in general. The theory presses for equal rights where both male and female roles are equal and unified. These are issues that range from equal opportunity to freedom from domestic violence. In turn this theory looks into the social roles that women perform in a traditional western setting. With this in mind the theory has changed and will continue to change until the equality is attained. The theories origin can be noticed as early as the 15th century by the writing of Christine de Pizan and will continue to evolve. The feminist theory is based upon caring and compassion. With this in mind Judgments are made cautiously, with the focus on moral sensitivity and perception. The question of right or wrong is considered in the sense of one-caring; the one-caring acts as one would for oneself (Freeman, 2000). Ethical judgment is viewed as a full spectrum of endless possibilities, responses, and solutions. Laws, rules, and rationale hold little regard in feminist judgment. The emphasis is placed on the justification and the motivation for the act in question. Moral dilemmas are handled as situations in need of caring and trust, not as problems in need of solutions. Feminist ethics has many elements. Some major elements are theories regarding “why women and men have held unequal power across time and place, why knowledge has historically been accumulated by and for men and excluded women...

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Feminist Theory

...In this unit, class, race, and sexual orientation have been overlooked in both the tradition and early feminist conceptions of the self. The two authors that have emphasized these topics are Monique Wittig and the Combahee River Collective. Monique Wittig writes about how gender should be destroyed in order to reach ‘freedom’. The Combahee River Collective help readers see the standpoint of black feminists and how it shapes us, as a society. Wittig introduces the fact of ‘destroying genders.’ Wittig wants more of non-categorized term for sexes rather than having a ‘woman’ and ‘man’ label. That is what she means by having freedom—the freedom from being labeled and categorized under stereotypical circumstances. “Women have been compelled in mind and body to an idea of nature that has been established for them.” This statement is saying that women are brought up knowing certain facts and rules about their status and authority in life. Wittig also believes that sciences that use these definitions should also be rejected. She sees that sexual orientation is categorized which leads to not having freedom. She also comes up with a Marxist perspective. She states there are two results for women that are lead from Marxism: the natural order of men and women and the disagreement between men and women were hidden behind a “natural division of labor”. It would be a great deal of threat to the Marxist society if women united as one. Wittig also denotes that gender covers......

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Feminism Perspectives

...Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of feminist standpoint theory. Feminist standpoint theory is a theory which argues that the social science which is feminism should be practiced from the standpoint of women, or from particular groups of women, as some believe that women are better equipped to understand and comprehend certain aspects of society and the world. A feminisms standpoint epistemology proposes that it makes women’s experiences the main point of thinking, rather than it being a man’s. Nancy Hartsock is a female philosopher and is widely known for her work in feminist epistemology and standpoint theory, particularly her Feminist Standpoint essays. Hartsock came up with the theory that standpoint feminism is founded in Marxist ideology. She argued that feminist standpoint could be developed from Marx’s understanding of experience, and could be used to criticise patriarchal theories. She also adds how a standpoint view of feminism is essential when examining the systematic oppressions in a society in which standpoint feminists claim devalues and disregards women’s knowledge. Standpoint feminism draws on the idea that because women in all different types of societies all have significantly different lives and roles to those than men have, they believe that because of this, women hold a different type of knowledge. As women are a subordinated group, it allows them to see and understand the world different and in ways that differ completely and......

Words: 1942 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Feminism

...Liberal Feminism 3.3.3 Second Wave Liberal Feminism 3.3.4 Weakness/Limitations of the Liberal Feminism 3.3.5 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.4 Marxist Feminism 3.4.1 Foundations of Marxist Feminism 3.4.2 Other Key Elements in Marxist Feminism 3.4.3 Limitations of Marxist Feminism 3.4.4 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.5 Psychoanalytic Feminism 3.5.1 The Beginnings of Psychoanalytic Feminism – Countering Freudian Theories 3.5.2 Explanation by other Theorists 3.5.3 Limitations of Psychoanalytic Feminism 3.5.4 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.6 Radical feminism 3.6.1 Definition 3.6.2 The influences that shaped Radical Feminism 3.6.3 What are the variations of Radical Feminism? 3.6.3.1 Radical- Libertarian Feminism 3.6.3.2 Radical-Cultural Feminism 3.6.4 Radical Feminism – Its Structure 3.6.5 The Outcomes of the Movement 3.6.6 Critiques of Radical Feminism 3.6.7 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.7 Postmodern Feminism 3.7.1 Postmodern Thought 3.7.2 Postmodern rethinking of psychological explanation of gender 3.7.3 Postmodern Feminist 3.7.4 Limitations of Postmodern feminism 3.7.5 Contribution to the women’s Movement 3.8 Black Feminism and Womanism 3.8.1 The Beginnings of Black Feminism 3.9 Cyber Feminism 3.9.1 Origin of Cyber Feminism 3.9.2 Definition of the 100 Anti Thesis 3.9.3 Cyber art and its relation to Cyber feminism 3.9.4 Cyber Feminism – Practical Manifestation 3.9.5 Cyber Feminism challenges and its future 3.10 Let Us Sum up 3.11 Answers to......

Words: 17769 - Pages: 72

Free Essay

Women and Communications

...Matt Klaus Professor Firestone Com 4030 4 March 2012 Feminist Criminology, Aileen Wuornos, and the Future of Third Wave Feminism Crime committed by women is on the rise, especially in the area of violent crimes such as murder (Balfour’ 739). This has produced a new form of feminist studies in an area called feminist criminology. What hasn’t been studied as extensively is the question of why women kill. I argue that by using the individuality concept of third wave feminism and doing more research in the field of feminist criminology, patterns of criminal behavior may be established which may prevent severe female crime such as murder. This paper seeks to explain how advancing the study of feminist criminology is good for the U.S. legal system and could have changed the outcome for Aileen Wuornos. In this paper I will discuss what third wave feminism is, then I will discuss what feminist criminology is and how it applies to the Aileen Wuornos case, and lastly I will show that with advanced studies into the field of feminist criminology, odds of severe crimes committed by women could decrease. The third wave of feminism is not easily describable. However, it can be framed by saying that it is a movement that continues to advance the women’s rights agenda of the second wave (Zimmerman et al. 77). Unlike the second wave which was intended to give a voice to all women, the third wave tends to reflect more on the individual. By focusing on personal narratives,......

Words: 1769 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Feminism In Nigeria

...This paper examines leadership practice in Nigeria from a feminist perspective. The paper briefly x-rayed Nigeria’s problems from a feminist perspective and come to the conclusion that, majority of these problems are caused by the default androcentric social practices allowed by patriarchy and masculinism, it is important to proffer solution to these problems using the same feminist theoretical frame-work. Hence, this paper attempts long lasting solution to the problem of leadership as it confronts Nigeria. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON SOME NIGERIA NATIONAL ISSUES This section looks at some of the issues that concern Nigeria leadership and development problems and try to look at them from a feminist perspective in order to chart a new paradigm at...

Words: 7319 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Feminism vs Igbo Culture

...Feminism or Igbo Culture? Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based and motivated by the experiences of women. Feminist theory tries to understand the nature of gender inequality and focuses on gender politics and relations. Subjects explored in feminism range from discrimination to stereotyping and many more. As the history of feminism has been studied, feminist movements began in the late 1800’s. Feminist ideas were not only observed in the work place or social life, but also in readings. In Things Fall Apart, there is clearly a feminist point of view. There are certain behaviors that women do not attain, they serve a specific role in the community, have arranged roles in the family, and are limited by the extended family. Although women are “Mother Supreme”, they were looked upon differently by the Igbo because of their feminist views. The opening sentence in Things Fall Apart begins with the description of an alpha male. It is hard not to have a feminist view when a role of masculinity is observed as early as the first sentence. Okonkwo is a self-made, well-respected member of the clan. He has become a wealthy farmer through his own hard work. Behaviors and attitudes that he considers masculine are to have a patriarch mindset, not show love and affection, have a great sense of personal pride, work hard, provide for your family, and being brave. Okonkwo believes that any slight show of weakness is feminine. For example...

Words: 622 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Assess the Usefulness of Feminist Contributions to Our Understanding of Society Today (33 Marks)

...Feminists study society today through the viewpoint of oppressed women who are seen to be subordinated by men. Their main aim is to liberate women from men, patriarchal society and the socially constructed stereotypes of women. In order to do so, there are different strands of Feminism, which are, Liberal, the least extreme or violent, Marxist, who link in capitalism to Feminism and Radical Feminists, the most extreme. These groups seek to bring about equality through different means and on different levels of severity. In addition to these, there are smaller and more modern groups of Feminism which are Dual Systems Feminists, who are similar to Marxist Feminists and Poststructuralists who believe other Feminists disregard differences between women. Liberal Feminists are concerned with the human civil rights, therefore they seek legal reforms and changes in attitudes and socialisation to bring about gender equality, which does not require a violent revolution. They are the closest Feminist theory to a consensus view on today’s society even though it focuses on the conflicts between men and women. Liberal Feminists reject the idea that biological differences make women less competent or rational than men or vice versa. They distinguish between sex and gender; whereby sex refers to the biological differences such as their reproductive role and physical differences and gender refers to culturally constructed differences between ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ roles. As gender is......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Feminist Views on Rape

...------------------------------------------------- Feminist Stances on Rape ------------------------------------------------- Causes, Activism and Prevention [Author] Abstract Understanding the many different studies and work done by feminists regarding rape and sexual violence. Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………….3 Anti-Rape Movement………………………………………………4 Feminist Perspective…………………………..…………………..7 Amelioration Vs. Backlash……………………………………...9 Conclusion………………………………………………………….…11 Bibliography……………………………………………….…………12 Introduction The definition of rape has been something of dispute for the last number of years. Rape usually is understood to involve some sort of sexual penetration of a person by force or without consent. Rape is committed more by males, usually on a female. In the last three decades, feminist have worked and studied rape with the collective agenda to work towards changing rape in a social and legal manor. Feminist thought and activism have challenges the myth that rape is rape, showing that it is a common experience among girls and women. Although feminists have different theories on why rape occurs, and how to eliminate it, they share the notion that rape is wrong and work towards learning and teaching about rape prevention. This paper will touch on the anti-rape movement, the feminist perspective, and different hypothesis in learning about the different feminist theories of rape. Anti-Rape Movement Feminists have been working for decades......

Words: 1571 - Pages: 7