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clxxi. Quicksort 134. Considered O(n logn) which is faster than O(n2) 135. Averages a faster time than other sorts 136. Does not require extra memory 137. Good cache performance 138. Good parallel performance 139. It is possible for it to be O(n2) in the worst case (e.g. if you pick the pivot as the first value and the list is already sorted) 140. Recursive 141. How it works: . Pick a pivot. Get all values smaller than the pivot on left of the pivot and all the values greater than the pivot on the right of it. Use recursion to sort the left and the right. XXVII. Command line arguments . What is sys.argv? XXVIII. Recursion . What is it? clxxii. A recursive definition is one which refers to itself as in the factorial and Fibonacci functions. clxxiii. Function calls itself 142. Each time the function calls itself, it gets a new set or parameters and local variables 143. The parameters and local variables from a previous call to the recursive function will still be preserved, on the call stack, until the function returns from the previous call. 144. Recursion can also occur indirectly by the invocation or a function that invokes the function that invoked it (e.g. A calls B which calls A…) 145. Recursion is an alternative to iteration. . Recursion can often provide a more elegant and a simpler solution compared to iteration . Recursive solutions are often less efficient than an iterative one . Some problems are difficult to solve without recursion (e.g. when the problem involves processing a recursively defined data structure) . How does it work? clxxiv. Recursion requires the following: 146. BASE CASE – there exists one or more simple solutions to the problem 147. GENERAL RULE – other cases of the problem can be expressed in terms of one or more reduced cases of the problem (i.e. closer to the known simple solutions) 148. Eventually the problem can be reduced to one of the simple solutions . Be able to analyze a recursive function XXIX. Binary search tree . Know how to make one . Inorder, preorder, postorder transversals XXX. Coupling, cohesion . Routine – a programming unit that performs a task, such as a function, procedure, method, or main class. (ex. getValidInt, append) . Module – a collection of objects that are logically related, such as constants, data types, variables, routines. . Component – a routine or module. In python, can also be an object or class. . Program structure clxxv. Every component should be clear about what it’s inputs and outputs are. clxxvi. This makes it so higher-level functions can use the lower-level functions, knowing that they will accomplish their intended goal. clxxvii. Examples of lower-level functions you have written are things such as getValidInt, enqueue, dequeue, pop, push, etc. clxxviii. This leads to component independence. . Component Coupling (the bad) clxxix. Coupling terminology: 149. Tightly coupled - many components rely on each other 150. Loosely coupled - some weak dependencies 151. Uncoupled - no connections clxxx. Our goal is always to MINIMIZE coupling. clxxxi. Ways things can be coupled: 152. One component calling another 153. One component passing data to another component clxxxii. Types of coupling 154. Content coupling – component directly modifying the control flow of another component. Very poor programming practice. 155. Common coupling – modifying a common data structure from different components. Accomplished by global variables. 156. Control coupling – Booleans or other controls passed between components. Passing of control flags as component parameters. Unnecessary way to program, and should be avoided. New components should be created to avoid this. 157. Stamp coupling – data structures (such as lists or stacks) are passed between components. Not as bad as previous kinds of coupling, but still not ideal and can often be eliminated. 158. Data coupling – primitive data is passed between components. Not a bad thing; as a matter of fact, it’s how functions are called that pass parameters. Minimizing this can be difficult and is unnecessary. . Component Cohesion clxxxiii. Coincidental cohesion – component parts are unrelated clxxxiv. Logical cohesion – logically related task in same component clxxxv. Temporal cohesion – performs tasks in sequence related by timing clxxxvi. Procedural cohesion – tasks grouped together to ensure mandatory ordering clxxxvii. Communicational cohesion – functions produce the same data set clxxxviii. Sequential cohesion – output from one function is input to next clxxxix. Functional cohesion – every processing element is essential to the function

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