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Description of the Course:
This course surveys the history of Europe from the beginning of the 18th century until the end of the 20th century. We will study major political, economic, social and intellectual developments that affected European societies during that time period and changed lives of people throughout the world. Major themes of the course will include the French and Industrial Revolutions, emergence of ideologies such as liberalism, nationalism and socialism as well as their practical impact on politics and culture, the rise and fall of European global dominance, wars and revolution of the 20th century.

Goals of the Course:
I. Understanding Historical Heritage of our Civilization:
The major purpose of this course is to familiarize you with heritage of the western civilization and help you understand significance of its impact on contemporary world. This class will aim to illustrate how the past impacts people’s lives in the present and how our actions, ideas, and self-image are shaped by historical developments.

II. Acquiring Critical Thinking:
History consists of more than just memorization of names, dates and narratives of historical events. Although knowledge of factual information is imperative, it is important to realize that history is interpretation of facts, trends and ideas. Therefore, neither professor nor Teaching Assistants will give you “right” or “wrong” answers. Instead, another major aim of this course is to help you develop critical thinking skills that will allow you to make your own informed conclusions and formulate your understanding of history independently from divergent interpretations that practitioners of this discipline will present to you.

III. Developing Historical Thinking:
Use of critical thinking in history entails reaching conclusions that are based on legitimate evidence. Otherwise, an opinion often becomes a prejudice based on emotions and one’s perceptions of morality rather than a rational analysis of historical facts. Therefore, to acquire critical thinking in history, it is necessary to examine original, or primary, sources that were written in the past and conflicting interpretation of these sources offered by later historians in their analytical works, or secondary sources.
Once you become aware of what people thought in the past and compare and contrast divergent points of view offered by historians, you will be in a position to make your own informed judgment.

Required Reading: • Coffin, Judith, Robert Stacy, Joshua Cole and Carol Symes, Western Civilizations, vol. C, 17th edition, Norton, 2011. • Brophy, James, Joshua Cole, John Robertson, Thomas Max Safley and Carol Symes, Perspectives From the Past, vol. 2. 5th edition, Norton, 2012. • Voltaire, Candide. • Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. • Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz.
These books are required reading for the course; they are available for purchase in the UCSB bookstore. Additionally, there will be a few readings and documents that will be posted on line on the course’s website or emailed directly to students.

Discussion Sections:
Discussion sections are an important component of History 4C. All students must be enrolled in a discussion section to complete this course. It will present you with an opportunity to discuss primary source documents and readings as well as explore some themes of the course to a greater extent. Attendance of sections is mandatory. Participation in discussions amounts for 20 percent of the final course grade. (Note that you are responsible for completing all assigned readings before coming to section. You can and will be tested on these readings even if some of them will not get a chance to be addressed during discussions). Students who do not attend the first meeting of the section in which they are enrolled will be dropped. Failure to attend the section in which students are officially enrolled will result in an F grade. Students who miss three or more section meetings will automatically fail the course as well.

Term Paper:
History 4C satisfies the GE writing requirement. Therefore, to complete this course and receive passing credit for it, students are required to write an analytical paper of at least 1800 but no more than 2000 words (which amounts to between six and eight double-spaced pages). To develop this paper, you will be required to submit an interim draft that will be graded and commented upon by your TA. The paper will give you an opportunity to practice critical historical thinking skills by analyzing one of the main themes that this course covers. You do not need to do additional research to write this paper other than required readings. Students must, however, use assigned primary documents as evidence to substantiate analysis presented in their papers and cite such evidence properly. The goal of the paper is to develop an argument and support it with pertinent evidence that is carefully selected. It is not an exercise in writing a straightforward narrative of historical events or demonstration of your eagerness to squeeze as much primary evidence as possible in a relatively limited space. Also note that your purpose is an analytical interpretation of issues evolved, not praise/condemnation of anybody/anything “right” or “wrong” or a search for causes of events/historical processes.

Paper Themes:
Choose one (1) of the following themes and write an essay of requisite length responding to all parts of the questions and presenting pertinent evidence from course readings to substantiate your analysis.

I. Belief in Progress.
Analyze evolving beliefs and perceptions of intellectuals, political/military leaders and common people on what constituted progress in the lives of European societies over the time period covered in this course. Did they believe that progress was possible and even desirable? How did such perceptions of desirability/possibility of progress or lack of thereof reveal itself in intellectual movements and practical actions of people of Europe?

II. Freedom and Equality:
Examine how belief in freedom and equality has been manifested in political and intellectual movements, institutions and human consciousness. Pay particular attention to whether intellectuals, political leaders and common people of each age thought freedom and equality were compatible. In the latter case, how did they try to reconcile the two notions or choose one over the other as more important?

III. The State and the Individual:
Trace evolution of relationship between the state and the individual during the time period covered by this course. Specifically, address what intellectuals, political leaders and common people thought about how far the individual can assert his/her rights in society as well as desirability, legitimacy or possible extent of state’s involvement in or control of individual lives. What role did the individual have within the state and how did the state affect lives of individuals during each historical period?

IV. Problems of War and Peace:
Explore evolution of warfare and its impact on European societies and people’s consciousness during the time period covered in this course. In addition to analyzing changing methods of warfare and their significance, examine policies and efforts of European statesmen and peoples to either wage wars successfully or prevent their outbreak in the first place through establishment of conditions that preserved peace. Without making moral value judgments of who was “wrong” or “right,” you can analyze success or failure of their efforts. In the process of analysis, present pertinent evidence at appropriate points of what political leaders, intellectuals and common people thought of issues of war and peace.

V. Nationalism:
Examine emergence and development of nationalism during the time period covered by this course. Specifically, analyze how nationalist ideologies emerged and spread among people of Europe while tracing evolution of forms of nationalism as well as changing meaning and perception of this ideology. Be sure to address and present evidence of what intellectuals, political leaders and common people of each historical age thought about this issue and its implications for their lives.

VI. Role of Women.
Describe evolution of the status of women during the period covered by this course. What did intellectuals, political leaders and common people (both men and women) think about the role of women should be in European societies? How did these perceptions change over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries? Were there any practical changes in the lives of women to correspond to evolution of ideas regarding their status?

Late Paper Penalty: The penalty for a late paper will be a full letter grade for each day after the deadline. If you have a legitimate cause as to why you cannot complete the paper on time, be sure to contact your Teaching Assistant in advance and secure his/her assent to turning it in late.

There will be a mid-term examination (Tuesday, October 30) and a final examination (Thursday, December 13). These two exams are designed to test your knowledge of basic themes and concepts, derived from your reading assignments and lectures.

Breakdown of the Course Grade: 1. Discussion Section……….. ..20 percent 2. Term Paper……………….....30 percent (interim draft…10 percent) (final draft……20 percent) 3. Mid-Term Exam………….....20 percent 4. Final Examination…………..30 percent

Lectures, Readings, and Discussions:
Lectures, readings, and discussions all constitute necessary components of this course. The Western Civilization serves as a textbook intended to provide you with a basic narrative of historical events and developments and help you place them in historical and chronological context. Perspectives from the Past introduces you to primary source documents that provide voices and opinions of the people from each historical period that we will cover. Books by Voltaire, Achebe and Primo Levi are also primary sources that will address and illustrate some key themes that they represent: the Enlightenment, Imperialism and the Holocaust/Genocide, respectively. Lectures will synthesize historical narrative of events with the main themes of the class, establishing connections between specific events and broader developments. Discussion sections present students with an opportunity to orally examine and exchange opinions on selected documents that illustrate major issues addressed by this course. Attendance of and active engagement with lectures and discussions, in addition to doing readings on your own, are crucial to your success in this class. Graded evaluation of your performance in this course will be based on the knowledge derived from lectures, readings, and discussions in relatively equal measure.

Course Web Site:
The course website is one of the resources that you can use to facilitate your successful study in this class. You will be able to access course syllabus, lecture outlines and some additional selected readings that might posted there. To access the course website, go to

Academic Honesty
All work that you submit for this course must be your own work, designed for submission exclusively for this course. Borrowing ideas, wording or information from another source, whether primary or secondary, must be acknowledged and given credit for in footnotes. This rule applies both to direct quotes as well as paraphrases and summaries of someone else’s work in your own words. You should be clearly aware that submission of whole or portions of the same academic work for credit in more than one course, the use of the research or writing of another person in preparation and submission of an assigned paper, including material taken from the web, the use of the services of a commercial term paper company, and the use of notes or prepared answers during an examination, are acts of academic dishonesty. Students submitting work that is not their own on any assignment will result in an F. All offenses will be reported to the Dean of Students and subject to disciplinary action. Reports to the Dean become part of your academic record at UCSB. Students should review the information regarding offenses and disciplinary action in the university’s academic regulations at: You also can, and are encouraged, to contact the professor and teaching assistants for any help and explanations on how to properly cite documents and use other people’s analysis and ideas while legitimately giving them credit for such.

Teaching Assistants:
Teaching Assistants constitute an invaluable source that you should use to the fullest possible extent to succeed in this class. All of them are advanced doctoral students who have been TAs for this class on multiple previous occasions. They will grade your papers and exams as well as lead discussion sections. They will not do your work for you, but they will help you clarify any material from the textbook or lectures, guide you in your discussion of primary documents and major themes of the course, and advise you in preparation for writing your term paper. You should consult them on any questions of academic and administrative nature that you may have about this course. Teaching Assistants for this course are:

Munther Alsabagh
David Baillargeon
Sarah Hanson
Christopher Kegerreis
AR Rezamand
Joshua Rocha
Kalina Yamboliev

Schedule of Lectures, Reading Assignments, and Discussion Topics:
Week I September 27 Introduction to the Study of Western Civilization. Readings: Voltaire’s Candide (begin reading, to be completed by Week II).

Week II

October 2: The Age of Enlightenment Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 17, pp. 517-544. Perspectives from the Past: John Locke, Two Treatises on Government, pp. 147-158 Jean-Jacque Rousseau, The Social Contract, pp. 244-253 Complete reading Candide

October 4: Enlightened Absolutism and the Coming of the French Revolution. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 18, pp. 545-552. Perspectives from the Past: Catherine the Great, Proposals for a New Code of Law, 166-168. Emmanuel Sieyès, What Is the Third Estate? pp. 279-281. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, pp. 285-286.

Discussion: Candide and the Enlightenment.

Week III October 9: The French Revolution: From Liberty and Equality to Terror. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 18, pp. 552-564. Perspectives from the Past: The Law of Suspects, pp. 289-290. Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, pp. 338-341. Maximilien Robespierre, Justification of the Use of Terror. (to be posted course website) Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman, pp. 291-293.

October 11: France and Europe during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 18, pp. 564-577. Perspectives from the Past: Levée en Masse Edict, pp. 288-289. The Code of Napoleon, pp. 298-300.

Discussion: The French Revolution.

Week IV October 16 The Industrial Revolution. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 19, pp. 578-611. Perspectives from the Past: Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of Manufactures. (to be posted course website) Rules of a Factory in Berlin, pp. 312-313. Frederick Engels, The Conditions of the Working Class in England, pp. 314-318. Isabella Beeton, Book of Household Management, pp. 367-369. Elizabeth Sanford, Woman in Her Social and Domestic Character, pp. 370-371.

October 18: Liberalism and Nationalism. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 20, pp. 620-626. Perspectives from the Past: Samuel Smiles, Self-Help, pp. 365-367. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, pp. 355-360 Johann Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation, pp. 377-380. Guiseppe Mazzini, Duties of Man, pp. 384-387. Ernest Renan, What is a Nation? Pp. 391-394.

Discussion: Liberalism and the Industrial Revolution.

Week V

October 23: Socialism and the Revolutions of 1848. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapters 20 and 21, pp. 635-656. Perspectives from the Past: Karl Marx/Frederick Engels, The Communist Manifesto, pp. 322-326. Robert Owen, A New View of Society, pp. 319-322.

October 25: National Unification of Germany and Italy. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 21, pp. 656-666. Perspectives from the Past: Edouard Drumont, Jewish France, pp. 439-442. Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State, pp. 455-459. Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant, pp. 442-446. Clara Zetkin, Women’s Work and the Organization of Trade Unions, pp. 429-432.

Discussion: Socialism and Nationalism.

Interim Draft of the Term Paper due in Lecture on October 25.

Week VI

October 30: Midterm Examination

November 1: The Age of Imperialism and Anxiety. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapters 22 and 23, pp. 678-745. Perspectives from the Past: David Livingstone, Cambridge Speech of 1857, pp. 399-402. Karl Pearson, Social Darwinism (to be posted course website) Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart

Discussion: Imperialism and the Age of Anxiety.

Week VII

November 6: World War I Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 24, pp. 746-769, 773-781. Perspectives from the Past: Ernst Junger, The Storm of Steel, pp. 475-478. Doregeles, Paris: “That Fabulous Day” (to be posted course website) Treitschke, The Greatness of War (to be posted course website)

November 8: The Russian Revolution. Readings: Western Civilizations, Chapter 24 and 25, pp. 769-773, 782-786. Perspectives from the Past: Vladimir Lenin, Our Programme, pp. 426-428; and What Is to Be Done? (to be posted on the course website).

Discussion: World War I and the Russian Revolution.


November 13: State Socialism under Stalin in the Soviet Union. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 25, pp. 786-793. Perspectives from the Past: Daily Life under Stalin, pp. 504-509. Joseph Stalin, Liquidation of Kulaks (to be posted course website)

November 15: The Rise of Totalitarianism: Fascism and Nazism. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 25, pp. 793-803. Perspectives from the Past: Benito Mussolini, Borne of a Need for Action, pp. 509-512. Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 513-517.

Discussion: Soviet Socialism and Hitler’s Nazism.

Week IX

November 20: World War II. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 26, pp. 814-831, 841-849. Perspectives from the Past: Neville Chamberlain, In Defense of Appeasement. (to be posted course website) Winston Churchill, Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat. (to be posted course website)

Discussion: World War II.

Week X November 27: The Holocaust and Genocides of World War II. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 26, pp. 831-841. Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz

November 29: The Cold War and the Nuclear Age. Readings: Western Civilizations, Chapter 27, pp. 850-883. Perspectives from the Past: Winston Churchill, The Sinews of Peace, pp. 555-557. Nikita Khrushchev, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, pp. 557-561.

Discussion: The Holocaust (Primo Levi’s Survival in Auschwitz)

Final Draft of the Term Paper Due in Lecture on November 29.

Week XI

December 4: The End of Communism in Europe. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 28, pp. 884-915. Perspectives from the Past: Vaclav Havel, Power of the Powerless, pp. 565-569. Mikhail Gorbachev, On Restructuring the Party’s Personnel Policy, pp. 569-574.

December 6: Conclusion: World at the Beginning of the 21st century. Readings: Western Civilizations: Chapter 29, pp. 916-943. Perspectives from the Past: Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, pp. 574-577. Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, pp. 584-588.

Discussion: The Cold War and the End of Communism.

Thursday, December 13, 8:00 am – 11:00 am. Final Examination.

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