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Figurative Language

In: English and Literature

Submitted By khoiriadzam
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Figurative language has been widely examined by linguist in the study of literature in recent years. It is because figurative language has the essence of style and beauty. Figurative language often provides a more effective means of saying what we mean than direct statement. In the specific sense, figurative language may take the form of figures of speech. Figurative language is used in any form of communication, such as in daily conversation, articles in newspaper, advertisements, novels, poems, etc. The effectiveness of figurative language in four main reasons, Perrine (1982) First, figurative language affords readers imaginative pleasure of literary works. Second, it is a way of bringing additional imagery into verse, making the abstract concrete, making literary works more sensuous. The third, figurative is a way of adding emotional intensity to otherwise merely informative statements and conveying attitudes along with information. And the last, it is a way of saying much in brief compass. She divides figurative language into seven types, namely metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, paradox, overstatement,

understatement, irony and illusion.

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Keraf (1998: 129) divided majas (figures of speech) into two classifications, namely majas retoris (rhetoric) and majas kiasan (analogy). The first classification covers illiteracy, assonances, anastrophe, apophasis,

apostrophe, asyndeton, polycyndenton, chiasmus, ellipsis, euphemism, litotes, paradox, hyperbole and oxymoron. Meanwhile the later covers simile, metaphor, allegory, personification, allusion, metonymy, irony and synecdoche. Another Indonesian linguist, Muliono (1989) divided majas or gaya bahasa into three categories. They are majas kiasan or

perumpamaan/perbandingan (analogy/comparison) which consists of simile, metaphor and personification, majas pertentangan (contradiction), which consists of hyperbole, litotes and irony and majas pertautan (association) which consists of metonymy, synecdoche and euphemism. Metaphor and simile are the two figures of speech which are commonly thought to be similar, while they are actually different. A figure of speech cannot be taken literally. As a result, to translate it into different languages may cause misinterpretation. If it is translated literally, wordfor-word, onto a second language, it will often be completely misunderstood. Although, there are always possibilities for translator to analyze, understand and translate it correctly. To analyze metaphors, it is very helpful to write out the propositions which are basic to the comparison. The topic (the thing really being talked about), the image (what is being compared to) and the point of similarity (found in the comments of both propositions) involved should be all included.

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When these have been identified, an adequate translation can be made into a second language (Larson, 1998:275). A metaphor, or what is called metafora in Indonesia, is the expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept, where there is similarity or correlation between the two. It is the understanding itself of one concept in terms of another. Metaphor compares two unlike things the verb “to be”. The simplest form of it is the first person as a second subject. For example, “She is a flower”. “She” as the third person is considered being equal to “flower” as the second subject. The comparison is direct, without using words “like” or ‘as’ (SIL, 2004). If the translator cannot understand the meaning of the metaphors in the source text and fails to analyze them correctly, then the risk will be a misunderstanding. Larson (1998: 276-277) proposes some reasons why metaphors are hard to understand and cannot be translated literally. One of them is that the image used may be unknown in the receptor language. For example, a metaphor based on snow would be meaningless to people living in tropical countries in which snow does not exist. In this case, to make a similar comparison, another image should be taken. The use of figures of speech involves a risk misinterpretation. Moreover, it would be a challenge for a translator to be able to translate the meanings of figures of speech in the source language into their equivalence in the receptor language.

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Based on the phenomenon above, then it is interesting to identify translations of figures of speech, particularly the translation of metaphor in English into Indonesian. The focus of this study is on the first category of Muliono’s classification, particularly metaphor. The aims of this study are finding out the strategies and the procedures used in translating the novel, The Stars Shine Down, by Sydney Sheldon which was translated into Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi by Drs. Budijanto T. Pramono, furthermore finding out the most dominantly strategies applied and identifying the procedures of translations. 1.2 Problems of the Study Based on the background above, there are some questions that need to be answered through this research; they are: 1. What strategies are applied by the translator in the process of translating metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down, by Sydney Sheldon and their translations in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi? 2. Which strategies are the most dominantly found in the process of translating metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down, by Sydney Sheldon and their translations in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi? 3. What procedures are used to translate the metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down by Sydney Sheldon into Indonesian in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi?

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1.3 Objectives of the Study 1. To find out the strategies applied in the translation of the metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down by Sydney Sheldon and their translations in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi. 2. To find out the strategies most dominantly used to translate the metaphors found in the novel The Stars Shine Down by Sydney Sheldon into Indonesian in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi. 3. To identify the procedures applied to translate the metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down by Sydney Sheldon into Indonesian in Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi. 1.4 Scope of the Study This study focuses on analyzing the translation of the metaphors in the novel The Stars Shine Down into their Indonesian equivalences and identifying the translation procedures applied by the translator. 1.5 Significance of the Study The significance of the study is presented as follows: 1.5.1 Theoretical Significance 1. The findings of the study are expected to give some positive contributions to the study of translation, especially in translating English metaphors into their Indonesian equivalences.

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2. This study is useful for learning the translation of metaphor particularly from English into Indonesian. 3. This study will inspire those who would like to do similar research along with the progress of science in general. 1.5.2 Practical Significance The study is expected to give constructive feedback to the translator and students of English, particularly those who are much involved in the translation of English works.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCEPTS, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH MODEL

2.1 Literature Review This study was conducted by reviewing some relevant thesis concerned with metaphors, particularly written by some students. The investigation on the translating strategies of English metaphors found in the novel Master of the Game into Indonesian was also conducted by Sudrama (2003). The purpose of his study was to identify the types of metaphors and the strategies applied to translate English metaphors into Indonesian. In the first conclusion of his study he stated that there are two classifications of metaphors, namely dead metaphors and live metaphors. Dead metaphor is a kind of metaphor that can be directly understood as it has commonly been explained in the dictionaries. On the other hand, live metaphor is a kind of metaphor that needs context of implied comparison and point of similarity. In the second conclusion, quoting the theory of Larson, he argued that there are three strategies; they are translating the metaphor into metaphor, translating the metaphor into simile and translating the metaphor into non-figurative speech. In the last conclusion he states that among those figurative speeches, the majority of metaphors are translated into metaphors in the target language. This research is very useful to give some contribution to the mastery of the type of translating strategies applied in the work of translating.

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Suardana (2007) in his study about the translation of figures of speech in an Indonesian novel “Saman” into its English version stated that there are four strategies that the translator used. They are: translating the figures of speech into the same image, translating the figures of speech into different image, translating the figures of speech into non-figurative expressions and translating non figurative expressions into metaphors. It appears that the first strategy is the most frequently used. Anggraeni (2006) conducted a research of which the objectives are to find out how the metaphors in the source language are translated into the target language in the novel ‘Lone Eagle’ and to find out the strategies applied in the translation of the metaphors into Indonesian in its Indonesian version ‘Cinta Pertama’. The research concluded that firstly, relating the metaphors to their contexts was really needed in order to understand them well. Secondly, the strategies applied by the translator are translating the metaphor into simile, which is the most frequently used strategy, translating the metaphor into nonfigurative language, which secondly comes after translating the metaphor into simile, and translating the metaphor into metaphor, which is the least used strategy. Beratha (2003) in her professorship inaugural emphasized that a translator must not be able to identify the meaning types evoked in the text but also by the extra linguistic factor. There are some requirements that should be mastered by a translator. According to her, as a translator one must have enough knowledge of both the source and target language words. It is necessary for the translator to know the words in the two languages semantically and stylistically. A translator

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must be able to recognize the difference in the language structures. And the most important skills that must be mastered by a translator is the ability to re-express the meaning of the source language text into the target language by providing the closest and the most natural equivalence. This article is very important for this study, especially in analyzing the meaning of the metaphors found in this study. Metaphor is a key way in which writers express their style, build their themes and create emotive effect. Its translation poses difficulties because of its sensitivity to the communicative context, often relying on the author and reader having shared linguistic and cultural frames of reference (Dobrzynska, 1995). Therefore, by examining how metaphorical expressions are rendered in translation, it is possible to analyze the effectiveness of translation strategies in dealing with cultural and stylistic considerations and enabling target language (TL) readers to form a similar interpretation of the text. Those above theses and of the international journal above have some similarities with this analysis. But, this analysis digs deeper about translation of metaphor. The theses previously stated that the translation of metaphor often used the strategies of translating metaphor into simile. However, it was different to this analysis; it was found that metaphor in the source language mostly translated into metaphors in the target language. In the translation procedure as well, it was found that more than one procedure can be seen in one translation, and some translations may result from a cluster of procedures that is difficult to discern.

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2.2 Concepts The concepts of the study based on the ideas proposed by the experts in the field of translation studies. The concepts presented here are the concepts of metaphor, translation, the strategies and the procedures of translating metaphors. 2.2.1 Metaphor Metaphor is a figure of speech which concisely compares two things by saying that the one is the other. It is considered implied comparison (without using ‘like’ or ‘as’ / bagaikan, seperti, laksana, umpama, serupa, sebagai). Larson (1998: 279). Metaphor consists of three elements: topic, which is the thing being compared, image, which is the best thing that the topic is compared to, and point of similarity, that is, the same characteristic that topic and image share. 2.2.2 Translation Vinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which 'replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording' (ibid: 342). They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. 2.2.3 Strategies of Translating Metaphor Larson (1998:279) stated that a translator must identify the elements of metaphor namely topic, image and point of similarity in order to translate it. Those elements are frequently found to be implied in the metaphor itself. At this

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level, the translation should find out the whole context of the text in order to be able to grasp the meaning of the metaphor. 2.2.4 Procedures of Translation Procedures of translation referred to in this study are the ones proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (in Venuti, 2000: 84-93); they are borrowing, calque, literal translation, modulation, transposition, equivalence and adaptation. 2.3 Theoretical Framework This study draws on some theoretical frameworks related to translation and figures of speech that have been put forward by various writers, such as Bell (1991), Larson (1998), and Muliono (1989) 2.3.1 Figure of Speech and Its Classification McArthur (1992: 402) explained that figurative language is the language in which figures of speech such as metaphors freely occur. He also states that figures of speech are a rhetorical device using words in distinctive ways to achieve a special effect. McAcrthur classified figures of speech into four main groups; they are: 1. Phonological onomatopoeia. 2. Orthographic features; they are visual forms created for effects. 3. Syntactic figures; they may bring the non-standard into standard language. figures which include alliteration, assonance and

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4. Lexical figures; they extend the conventional so as to surprise or entertain. Even though some linguists have different classifications of figures of speech, the concept and principle are almost the same. Meanwhile Perrine (1982) defined figures of speech as a way of saying one thing and meaning another. She argued that figures of speech should not be taken literally only and that they serve function of giving extended meanings to words, phrases or sentences from their literal expressions. She also claimed that figures of speech can be more effective means of saying what we mean rather that direct statements. Further, she proposed seven classifications of figures of speech, namely metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, paradox, overstatement, understatement, irony and allusion. As has been mentioned earlier, a single word may have a primary sense, secondary sense, and figurative senses. A literary work such as a poem almost always contains figurative expressions which help to convey in a more precise way the message contained in the poem. Before analyzing the translation of figurative expressions in the poem under study, it is important to understand the term “figurative language” itself. McArthur (1992:402) explained that figurative language is that language in which figures of speech such as metaphor and similes freely occur. He also considers a figure of speech as a rhetorical device using words in distinctive ways that achieves a special effect.

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In his discussion about metaphor, he described metaphor as rhetorical figures with two senses, namely wider sense and more specific sense. In its wider sense, it includes all figures of speech that achieve their effect through associations, comparison, and resemblance, and in that way this type includes such figures as antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy, and simile. In a more specific sense metaphor is a figure of speech which concisely compares two things by saying that the one is the other. With respect to the translation of a poem in which figurative expressions are intensively used, the analysis of the figurative expressions should necessarily be based on the theme of the poem, since the use of figurative expressions is quite likely motivated by the construction of the theme as the central force in the poem. Therefore, theme is a central aspect or element necessarily given priority in its determination, other aspects or elements being relatable to or motivated by the theme. 2.3.2 Kinds of Figurative Expressions The description of the figurative expressions below is derived from Holman (1992), Halliday (1985), Martinich (1996), McArthur (1992), Larson (1998) and Keraf (2002), and will be presented in alphabetical order for some practicality. 1. Antithesis Antithesis is a construction in which words are opposed but balanced in opposition (McArthur, 1996:72).

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For example: God and beast. Ignorance and reason, To err is human, to forgive, divine. 2. Euphemism It is the use of a mild, comforting, or evasive expression that takes the place of one that is taboo, negative, offensive, or too directs (McArthur, 1996:387). For example: Terminate, kill She terminated her pregnancy. Everyone knows she sleeps with the boss. I think he’s passing water.

Sleep with, have sex Pass water, urinate 3. Hyperbole

Hyperbole is an exaggeration or over statement, usually deliberate and not meant to be taken literally (see Larson 1998). For example: She rushed out of the room in floods of tears Let’s have dinner, I am starving crying a lot

very hungry. a lot of money.

When she was in Paris, she spent ton of money

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4. Idioms Idioms are expressions of at least two words which cannot be translated literally and which function as a single unit semantically (see Holman 1992). For example: We spent two weeks in the hotel living in the lap of luxury a rich person. He kicked the bucket. You steal my heart 5. Irony Irony refers to words with an implication opposite to their usual meaning. Ironic comment may be humorous or mildly sarcastic (McArthur, 1996:532). For example: At a difficult moment, an act of kindness makes things worse, and someone says, “Well, that’s a lot better, isn’t it?” Someone says to his friend “you are very slim” whereas the fact is that his friend is very fat. 6. Metaphor Metaphor is a figure of speech which concisely compares two things by saying that the one is the other (McArthur, 1996:653). He died. you make me fall in love with you the life style of

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For example: My lover is a treasure. My home is heaven. Business is a game. 7. Metonymy It is a word which is used for something related to that which it usually refers to (Halliday, 1985:319). For example; It won’t happen while I still breathe (breathe is used figuratively to mean live) The kettle is boiling (the kettle is used in a figurative sense to mean water) He bought a Chevrolet (Chevrolet is used to mean a car) 8. Paradox Paradox is a term in rhetoric for a situation or statement that is or seems selfcontradictory and even absurd, but may contain an insight into life (McArthur, 1996:348). For example: The child is father of the man (the nature of one’s earlier life affects later ideas and attitude).

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9. Personification Personification is the assigning of human characteristics to non humans (see Keraf, 2002). For example: The moon smiles at us. The trees are waving to the tiger. The wind touched my skin. 10. Pleonasm Pleonasm is the use of more words than necessary; either for effect or more usually as a fault of style (see Keraf, 2002). For example: Free gift. Plan for the future 11. Sarcasm It is a term in rhetoric and general use for sneeringly ironical remarks (McArthur, 1996:887). For example: Oh yes, we know how clever you are. Well, Mr. Know-it-all, what is the answer this time?

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You are a son of a bitch. 12. Simile Simile is a figure of speech, in which a more or less fanciful or unrealistic comparison is made, using like or as (McArthur, 1996:935). For example: Rumours of his death spread like wildfire (to become known to more and more people very quickly). She is like a fish out of water she is uneasy in an unfamiliar situation.

You’re not going to go storming in there like a bull in a china shop, aren’t you? A person who is clumsy, careless or move in a very awkward way.

Her skin is as white as snow 13. Synecdoche It is a figure of speech concerned with parts and wholes (McArthur, 1996:1014). For example: His word can be trusted He is a person that can be trusted. I won’t let him come to my house.

I won’t let him come under my roof

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2.3.3 Figure of Speech in Indonesian Muliono (1989) divides majas or gaya bahasa into three categories. They are majas kiasan or perumpamaan/perbandingan (analogy/comparison) which consists of simile, metaphor and personification, majas pertentangan

(contradiction), which consists of hyperbole, litotes and irony and majas pertautan (association) which consists of metonymy, synecdoche and euphemism. Metaphor and simile are the two figures of speech which are commonly thought to be similar, while are actually different. Keraf (1998: 129) divides majas (figures speech) into two classifications, namely majas retoris (rhetoric) and majas kiasan (analogy). The first classification covers illiteracy, assonances, anastrophe, apophasis, apostrophe, asyndeton, polycyndenton, chiasmus, ellipsis, euphemism, litotes, paradox, hyperbole and oxymoron. Meanwhile the letter covers simile, metaphor, allegory, personification, allusion, metonymy, irony and synecdoche. 2.3.4 Comparative Figure of Speech Comparative figure of speech is the first classification of figures of speech based on Muliono’s classification. This category consists of three sub-categories. 1. Simile (Majas Perumpamaan) Simile is figure of speech, in which two unrelated things are shown to be similar in some way. The comparison is shown by using ‘like’ or ‘as’.

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For example: a. She is like an angel; kind and generous. 2. Metaphor (Majas Kiasan / Metafora) Metaphor is a figure of speech which concisely compares two things by saying that the one is the other. It is considered as implied comparison; without using ‘like’ or ‘as’. For example: a. Just ignore them, their ideas are rubbish 3. Personification (Majas Pengingsanan / Personifikasi) Personification is a figure of speech which assigns human quantities to non human (object, concept or animal). For example: a. The wind whispers in my ear. 2.3.5 The Principle of Metaphor Originally, the term metaphor comes from Greek word meaning ‘transfer’. It derives from ‘meta’ implying a change, and ‘pherein’ meaning to bear, to carry. In Modern Greek, the word metaphor also means transfer or transport. Metaphor is a figure of speech which concisely compares two things by saying that the one

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is the other. It is considered implied comparison (without using ‘like’ or ‘as’ / bagaikan, seperti, laksana, umpama, serupa, sebagai). For example: The tongue is fire ‘lidah adalah api’ In the above example, a tongue (lidah) is compared to fire (api) because they share the same characteristic, which is able to destroy things. A tongue can do it by the words it utters and fire can do it by the destructive power that it has. 2.3.6 Types of Metaphor According to Larson (1998: 274), there are two types of metaphor, namely dead metaphor and live metaphor. Dead metaphors are those which are a part of constructions of lexicon of the language. When they are used, the person who listens or reads does not think about the primary sense of the words, but only the idiomatic sense directly. The dead metaphor is commonly defined as a metaphor which has lost its metaphorical sense. For example, ’leg of the table’ is an idiom. There is a comparison between the table and the leg of person or animal. Such idiom is called a dead metaphor because the reader does not think of the comparison on which it was based.

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Live metaphor, on the contrary, is defined as a metaphor which can be identified by its readers after they give special attention to the primary meaning of the words which are used metaphorically. For example: ‘Ina’s decision is a nightmare for his brother’ ‘Keputusan Ina adalah sebuah mimpi buruk untuk saudaranya. To understand the metaphor above, special attention has to be paid to the primary meaning of ‘nightmare’. Relating to the topic, ‘Ina’s decision’, the readers will capture the message of this sentence, that the decision, whatever it is, is something that makes her brother unhappy. Newmark (1988b) was still a faithful believer in the dead/live metaphor classification, as he distinguishes six types of metaphors, beginning with dead metaphors: 1. Dead metaphor This type of metaphor "frequently relates to universal terms of space and time, the main part of the body, general ecological features and the main human activities" (ibid, p.106). Dead metaphors have lost their figurative value through overuse and their images are hardly evident. Some examples of a dead metaphor include 'at the bottom of the hill', 'face of the mountains', and 'crown of glory'.

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2. Cliché metaphor This type of metaphor is known to have outlived its usefulness, and is "used as a substitute for clear thought, often emotively, but without corresponding to the facts of the matter" (ibid, p. 107). Some examples include 'a jewel in the crown', 'to make one's mark', and 'backwater'. 3. Stock or standard metaphor This type of metaphor is defined by Newmark (1988b, p.108) as "an established metaphor, which in an informal context is an efficient and concise method of covering a physical and/or mental situation both referentially and pragmatically." He also states that stock metaphors, in contrast to dead metaphors, are "not deadened by overuse" (ibid). The examples of this type also mentioned by Newmark are: 'to oil the wheels', 'he's in a giving humour', and 'he's on the eve of getting married'. 4. Adapted metaphor This type of metaphor is actually a stock metaphor that has been adapted into a new context by its speaker or writer, for example, the stock metaphor 'carrying coals to Newcastle' can be turned into an adapted metaphor by saying ' almost carrying coals to Newcastle'. 5. Recent metaphor This type of metaphor is produced through coining and is spread in the SL rapidly. Examples of this kind are 'spastic', meaning stupid, and 'skint', meaning without money.

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6. Original metaphor This type of metaphor is "created or quoted by the SL writer", and in the broadest sense, "contains the core of an important writer's message, his personality, his comment on life" (ibid, p.112). 2.3.7 Strategies of Translating Metaphor Larson (1998:279) stated that a translator must identify the elements of the metaphor namely topic, image and point of similarity in order to translate it. Those elements are frequently found to be implied in the metaphor itself. At this level, the translation should find out the whole context of the text in order to be able to grasp the meaning of the metaphor. It is further stated that the metaphor can be translated in one of the ways below. 1. The metaphor can be kept if the target language allows; it means that if it sounds natural and is understood correctly by the reader. 2. A metaphor can be translated as a simile by adding ‘like’ or ‘as’ 3. A metaphor of the target language which has the same meaning can be used. 4. The metaphor can be kept and the meaning explained. The topic and or point of similarity may be more explicit. 5. The meaning of the metaphor can be translated without keeping the metaphorical imagery.

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2.3.8 The Function of Metaphor Metaphor is a common figure of speech in many languages. Of course, the writers use metaphor in their works (usually in the form of art works such as poetry, fork-tale story, novel, etc.) with many different purposes. In line with the function of metaphor, Newmark (1958:292) states there are three functions of metaphor, namely: 1. It is used to describe entities (objects or person), events, qualities, concepts or states of mind more comprehensively, concisely, vividly, and in a more complex way, than using literal language. 2. It is sometimes used to please aesthetically, to entertain, to amuse, often to draw attention to a technical and “physical” subject; 3. It is also used to indicate a resemblance between two more or less disparate objects 2.3.9 The Problems of Translating Metaphors When metaphors of the source language are translated into the target language, not all the metaphors are easily understood. If the metaphor is translated word for word in the target language, it will be nonsensical. Therefore, it will be difficult to be understood by the target languages’ audience.

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According to Larson (1998:275) there are eight reasons why metaphors are hard to be translated literary, namely: 1. The image used in the metaphor or simile may be unknown in the target

language. For example, a simile based on snow would be meaningless to people who live in some parts of the South Pacific where snow is unknown. In English it can be said “We washed my clothes as white as snow.” But in South Pacific language, to make the same comparison some other image would probably be used as as white as seashells or as white as bone. 2. The fact that the topic of metaphor is not always clearly stated. For example, in the sentence the tide turned against the government, the topic, public opinion is left implicit. 3. Sometimes the point of similarity that is implicit and hard to be identified. When the point of similarity is not stated, it is often hard to interpret metaphor. For example, the sentence he is a pig does not include the point of similarity. In some cultures, a reference to pig would give the idea of dirty. But in other cultures it might mean someone who does not listen to people. 4. One of the most serious problems is the fact that the point of similarity may be understood differently in some culture from another. The same image may be used with different meanings. For example, John is a rock might mean he is still, that is, he does not move. But in another culture it might mean he cannot talk or in some other cultures, it might mean that he is very strong.

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5. There are also the possibilities that the receptor language does not make comparison of the type which occur in the source text metaphor. For example, in the sentence there was a storm in the national parliament yesterday. But it may be that the receptor language does not use storm to talk about a heated debate. The appropriate comparison might be with fire as heated debate. 6. Language differs in how frequently metaphors are used and in how easily new metaphors are created in the language. Concerning Pijin of the Salomon Island, Simons and Young say, “In Pijin literal statements are taken as such and a bold statement that something is something else tend to be rejected outright. Similes are used in the case. 7. There are some languages in which new metaphors are seldom created, and to translate the metaphors into such a language could cause serious problems of understanding. In language where metaphors are not used a great deal, it may be difficult for the readers to understand a metaphor translated directly from the source language. 8. In languages where metaphors are used very frequently, many of the images will already have a metaphorical meaning in the language. If the source text uses the images in a different way, there can be misunderstanding since the point of similarity commonly thought in the receptor language will be the natural interpretation. For example, to translate John is a rock literally, when the source text means he is severe and the receptor language metaphorical meaning for rock is to have hard muscles, could only lead to a wrong meaning.

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2.3.10 Procedures of Translation Translation, as Catford (1965) defines it, is "an act of transference, in which a text from the source language is replaced by its equivalent in the target language" (p.20). Newmark's (1988b, p.5) more modern version of the term is "often, though not by any means always, rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text." Even the mere thought of inferring from these two definitions that the task of a translator and the whole translation process is a simple one seems a naiveté on the part of the inexperienced. Any given source text intended for translation, regardless of its text-type, is required to undergo a close reading in order to understand what it is about, and then an analysis from the point of view of the translator. The analysis stage consists of determining the intention of the text which, according to Newmark (1988a), represents the SL writer's attitude to the subject matter – and also the style in which it is written. Being attentive to the selected lexicon, the syntax, figures of speech, neologisms, punctuations, names, and many more is a vital role the translator plays in the process of translation. In the case of poetry, apart from all the above features there is a surplus of sound effects such as rhyme, meter, assonance, alliteration, stress, onomatopoeia. The most common goal among translators is, and always should be, to create the same effect on the target reader as the original writer had intended for his readers. In Nida's own words, "the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message" (Nida, 1964a, p.159).

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Understanding and analyzing figurative language in a text, as mentioned above, is one of the difficult processes in translation. One of these figures of speech is metaphor which is considered by linguists as the most basic where one object is used to describe another object and both objects are essentially disparate entities, but common in one or more attributes. Procedures of translation referred to in this study are the ones proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (in Venuti, 2000: 84-93); they are borrowing, calque, literal translation, modulation, transposition, equivalence and adaptation. As has been hinted previously, this study is concerned with the translation of figurative expressions in metaphors. In analyzing the translation, it is necessary to find out what method or procedure seems to have been applied by the translator. The procedures commonly involved in translation as proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (in Venuti (ed.) 2000:84-93) have been identified as consisting of seven types, and these will be adopted as an evaluative or critical standard in this study. According to Vinay and Darbelnet, the seven procedures can be further categorized into only two methods of translations, namely direct or literal translation and oblique translation. The first three procedures discussed below belong to the type of direct or literal and the others to the type of oblique translation. To present them in outline, the seven procedures are as follows.

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1. Borrowing To overcome a gap, usually a metalinguistic one (e.g. an unknown concept in the culture of the target language), borrowing is the simplest of all translation methods. Borrowing is mostly applied to introduce the flavor of the source language culture into a translation. The decision to borrow a source language word or expression for introducing an element of source language color is a matter of style, but at the same time it may have a significant effects on the message contained. For example: The visitor wanted to taste “babi guling”. In this case “babi guling” is a borrowing from the Balinese language and in using this borrowing in the translation into English; the Balinese local color becomes introduced. 2. Calque A calque is a special kind of borrowing whereby a language borrows an expression form of another, but the translator translates literally each of its elements. The result is either a lexical calque i.e. one which respects the syntactic structure of the target language while introducing a new mode of expression (e.g. honey moon bulan madu) or a structural calque, i.e. one which introduces a

new construction into the language (e.g. Bali TV, Media Foto Studio). 3. Literal Translation What is meant by literal or word-for-word translation is the direct transfer of a source language text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate target language text in which the translator translates each element from the source

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language (e.g. Life in the troubled area in Aceh is very cheap daerah konflik Aceh sangat murah. 4. Transposition

Kehidupan di

Transposition involves replacing one word class with another without changing the meaning of the message. There are two types of transposition, namely obligatory and optional transposition. Obligatory transposition occurs when the target language has no other choices because of the language system. For example: A pair of glasses sebuah kacamata

An optional transposition is a transposition that, for the sake of style, can be chosen by the translator if it fits better into the utterance. For example: After he comes back to Bali Bali. 5. Modulation Modulation is a variation of the form of the message, obtained by a shift in the point of view. This change can be justified when the close translation results in a grammatically correct utterance, but is considered unsuitable, unidiomatic or awkward in the target language. There are two types of modulation, namely free or optional modulation and fixed or obligatory modulation. setelah kedatangannya kembali ke

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Free or optional modulation is generally adopted because of nonlinguistic reason. It is mostly used to stress the meaning, to affect coherence or to find out the natural form in the TL. For example: By the will of the God di luar kemampuan manusia.

Fixed or obligatory modulation occurs when a word, phrase or a structure cannot be found in the TL. An active sentence translated into a passive one is an instance of this type. For example: I grew up in Jakarta 6. Equivalence It is often desirable for the translator to use an entirely different structure with different meaning from that of the source language text so long as it is considered appropriate in the communicative situation equivalent to that of the source language text. For example: Sambil menyelam minum air 7. Adaptation This procedure is adopted when the object or situation referred to in the source language message is unknown in the target language culture. In such a case the translator has to create a new expression for a new situation that can be considered equivalent. For example: Yours faithfully Hormat saya killing two birds with one stone. Saya dibesarkan di Jakarta

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2.3.11 Types of Translation Larson (1998:23) defined translation as transfer of meaning from one form of language to the other language. She classified two types of translation namely: form-based translation, and meaning-based translation. The form-based or literal translation is the form of translation that is mainly in accordance with the form of the source language. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. The literal translation can be understood if the general grammatical forms of the two languages are similar. Meanwhile meaning-based translation or idiomatic translation is a type of translation that attempts to make every effort to transform the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. An idiomatic translation uses the natural form both in grammatical construction and in the choice of lexical items. She adds that an idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. But it sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. Catford (in Choliludin, 2005:25) classified the translation into three terms, namely: extent, levels and ranks. Based on the extent of translation there are two classifications of translation there are: a full translation, and restrict translation. And based on ranks of translation there are two kinds of translation, namely: rank bound and unbounded translation. In a full translation, the entire text is submitted to the translation process that is every part of the text is replaced by text material. On the other hand, in partial translation some parts of the source language text are left untranslated.

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A total translation means the replacement of source language grammar and lexis by equivalent target language grammar and lexis with consequential replacement of source language phonology or graphology. Meanwhile a restricted translation means replacement of source language textual material by equivalent target language textual material at only on level, that is, translation performed only at the phonological or at the graphological level, or at only one of the two levels of grammar and lexis. Rank- bound translation is a translation in which the selection of the target language equivalents is deliberately confined to one rank or few ranks in the word- to-word or morpheme-to-morpheme equivalents. Meanwhile unbounded translation is normal translation in which the equivalence shifts freely up and down the rank scale. Based on the types of the text to be translated, Brislin (in Choliludin, 2005:26-29) differentiated translation into two types, namely: factual translation, and literary translation. Factual translation is a translation which refers to translating which is only based on the real fact. The examples of this type of translation are translating scientific fields, reports, newspaper, etc. Meanwhile, literary translation is the type of translation which refers to the translation of art works. In this type of translation, the translator involves his or her emotions, or feelings. The translator tends to be subjective when he or she translates these types of translation. The example of this type of translation includes the translation of drama, poem, and novel and so on.

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2.4 Research Model The research model shows the model of the research in form of chart to show the relation between the topic, problem, theoretical framework, and the result of the analysis.

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Translation

Figurative language

Metaphors

Qualitative Method

English (SL) (Metaphor)

Indonesian (TL) (Metafora)

Translation strategies

Translation procedures in metaphors Results

Figure 2.1

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Catford (1978:1) stated that translation is an operation performed on language: a process of subtitling a text in one language for a text in another. He argues that we do not transfer meaning between both languages, but we merely replace a source language (SL) meaning by target language meaning (TL). Translation involves many aspects such as translation in literary works, medical, cultural term, etc. Furthermore, the analysis on this thesis is related to the translation of literary work, which, in this case, is the translation of English figurative language as the (SL) into Indonesian (TL). Figurative language is widely used in any form of communication such as in daily conversations, articles in newspaper, advertisements, novels, poems, etc. Perrine (1982) stated the effectiveness of figurative language in four main reasons. First, figurative language affords the reader’s imaginative pleasure of literary works. Second, it is a way of bringing additional imagery into verse, of making the abstract concrete, of making literary works more sensuous. The third, figurative is a way of adding emotional intensity to otherwise merely informative statements and conveying attitudes along with information. And the last, it is a way of saying much in brief compass. She divides figurative language into seven types, namely metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, paradox,

overstatement, understatement, irony and illusion.

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One of the figurative languages that are discussed here is metaphor. A metaphor, or metafora in Indonesia, is the expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept, where there is similarity or correlation between the two. It is the understanding itself of one concept in terms of another. Metaphor compares two unlike things the verb “to be”. The simplest form of it is the first person as a second subject. For example: “She is a flower”. “She” as the first person is considered as being equal to “flower” as the second subject. The comparison is direct, without using words “like” or ‘as’ (SIL, 2004). The translation of metaphors can be investigated by using the translation strategies in which the metaphors in SL are categorized based on the linguistic theory of metaphors and compared to their translation equivalents in TL. The data in both languages were analyzed by translation theory in terms of translation procedure and strategies particularly in the translation of metaphors. The theory proposed by Larson (1998) was used to analyze the strategies applied in translating the English metaphor into Indonesian. Furthermore, the most strategies used for translation English metaphor were counted. Then, the procedures of translation that seem to be applied by the translator were identified. The novel, The Stars Shine Down was used as the data source. It was written by Sydney Sheldon and it was translated into Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi by Drs. Budijanto T. Pramono, published by PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

The research method in this study deals with the data source, method and technique of collecting data, method and technique of analyzing and presenting the analysis. 3.1 Data Source The data in this study which are in the form of metaphors were taken from the novel, The Stars Shine Down, by Sydney Sheldon which was translated into Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi by Drs. Budijanto T. Pramono, published by PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. This novel was chosen as the data source because it was one of the bestselling novels of Sydney Sheldon and it had a lot of figurative languages, including metaphors which were the emphasis of this study. 3.2 Method and Technique of Collecting Data The data were collected through a library research, which means that the data source was read repeatedly to identify the metaphors and determine their types as well as how they were translated into Indonesian. The method of collecting the data here involved observing the data source.

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3.3 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data In this study, qualitative methods were applied. The data were recorded, classified and analyzed descriptively. Firstly, they were classified on the basis whether they are metaphors. Secondly, the analysis was on the strategies applied in translating them into Indonesian. The metaphors in the source text were compared to their translation equivalences in Indonesian to see whether they were translated into the same type, into simile or translated non-figuratively. Thirdly, the data were classified and counted before divided by all the total data metaphors then multiplied by100% to get its percentage. Lastly, the procedures of translation that seem to be applied by the translator were identified. 3.4 Method and Technique of Presenting Analysis The analysis was presented in forms of words and sentences. The analysis presented in two aspects, namely metaphor analysis and translation analysis. In metaphor analysis, the topic, image and point of similarity of the metaphor were analyzed. In translation analysis, the strategy of translating the metaphor and the procedures in translating them were analyzed. Moreover, the frequency of the strategies applied in the translation was counted so that finally its percentage out of the total number of strategies could be presented.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF METAPHORS

This chapter deals with the analysis on strategies translating English metaphor as the main concern of the study. Answering the problem of the study stated in the previous chapter that this study analyzed the strategies applied in translating English metaphors in the novel “The Stars Shine Down”, to identify the most translating strategies applied, and analyzed the procedures applied in translating English metaphors into Indonesian. The process of analyzing the data of this study was conducted mainly in three sections, namely: (1) Metaphor that was translated into metaphor, (2) Metaphor translated into simile, and (3) Metaphor translated non-figuratively. Each of those sections above analyzed in two ways, namely: (1) Metaphor analysis and (2) Translation analysis. In Metaphor analysis, the topic, image and point of similarity of the metaphors were analyzed. In the translation analysis, the analysis focused on the strategy of translating the metaphors and the procedures in translating English metaphors into Indonesian. The analysis of metaphor applied the theory of metaphor proposed by Larson (1998:272) that each metaphor consists of topic, image, and point of similarity. Meanwhile the procedure of translation was taken from the theory by Vinay and Darbelnet in Venuti (2000:84 - 49).

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4.1 The Translation of Metaphor The difficulty in discovering the meaning of metaphors in the source language and the misunderstanding makes the translator must give careful consideration whether a metaphor is found in the source language. Larson stated that a metaphor could be translated into some strategies. The first strategy is metaphor translated into metaphor, the second is metaphor translated into simile and the last is metaphor translated non – figuratively. 4.1.1 Metaphor Translated into Metaphor Larson (1998: 272) emphasized that a metaphor of one language can be kept in the target language if the receptor language permits. However, she further adds that one of the significant problems in translating metaphors into the target language is the fact that the topic of metaphor is not always clearly stated. In order to be able to master the metaphor well, it is necessary to recognize the topic, image, and point of similarity. Unfortunately, the image used in a metaphor may be unknown in the target language. As mentioned in the previous chapter, investigating whether or not there is something semantically anomalous in the sentence can be done to identify the existence or inexistence of metaphor in a sentence. The sentence cannot be constructed word-for-word or literally. By recognizing three elements of the comparison, it is then possible to infer that the sentence has a metaphor or not. Metaphors in one language can be transferred into metaphor in the target language

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as long as the receptor language permits, provided it sounds natural and is understood correctly by the readers (Larson, 1998:279). The following is the metaphor which is translated into metaphor in the target language text. Analysis of Data (1) SL: “At this moment you're arguably the most successful builder in New York. Your name is plastered on half the real estate in his town. You’re putting up the world’s tallest skyscraper. Your competitors call you the Iron Butterfly. You’ve made big in a business traditionally dominated by men.” (Page 17 line 10 – 11) TL: “Saat ini anda tak pelak lagi adalah developer yang paling sukses di New York. Nama anda terpampang pada separuh real estate di kota ini. Anda sedang membangun gedung pencakar langit yang tertinggi di dunia. Pesaing – pesaing anda menamai anda si Kupu – Kupu Besi. Anda telah meraih sukses besar dalam bisnis yang biasanya didominasi oleh pria. (Page 32 line 22 -28)

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Metaphor Analysis In order to translate metaphor, the appropriate strategies are needed by a translator. The strategies proposed by Larson (1998:279); she suggested that the translator can show the elements of the metaphor such as the topic, image and the point of similarity explicitly. In some cases, those elements are found to be implied in the metaphor. The SL data above is a metaphor as its shows implied comparison without the use of word comparison, such as “like”, looks like, etc. The phrase the “iron butterfly” is translated into “si Kupu – Kupu Besi” in TL. According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition, iron is defined as a chemical element. Iron is a hard strong metal used to make steel and is also found in small quantities in blood and food. Butterfly is defined as a flying insect with a long thin body and four large, usually brightly colored, wings. So from those definitions above, Iron Butterfly could be defined as the flying insect that has a great body like an iron. Considering the context of the story, the topic of the metaphor is “You” which refers to Lara who is the main character of the story. Meanwhile the image of the metaphor is “iron butterfly”. Seeing from the sentence Lara is compared to an iron butterfly. Lara is called butterfly because of her strong wills and dedication on her job. She was a successful developer; she built up many buildings and the tallest skyscrapers in the world. She could compete on the business in which the business is particularly done by man. Lara is not an animal but she is a human

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being. But she is called the “iron butterfly”. According to the explanation in the previous chapter, the phrase “iron butterfly” is absolutely a metaphor. So, the point of similarity of the metaphor is people who have extraordinary powers to fight in his life. The image of “iron butterfly” was chosen because of the characteristic of the butterfly that always flies freely everywhere to suck the nectar of flowers, and looking for everything that smells good in the flower. In addition, Lara is then equated with the butterfly; wherever she went to open a business always get a lot of luck and a satisfactory and much profit. Lara also had the characteristics such as iron that is strong and unbreakable, so the nature and character Lara who fought strongly, built up a business and growing rapidly just like butterfly that flew everywhere to get the nectar. Translation Analysis The SL metaphor “Iron Butterfly” is translated into “si Kupu – Kupu Besi”, which is also a metaphor in the TL. It shows that the same image is used to translate the SL. The comparison is implied with no word of comparison is added. It says that the topic is ‘you’ which is addressed to Lara as the main character and the image is “iron butterfly”. The image on the SL is also translated into metaphor in TL.

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In the above translation “Iron Butterfly” is translated into “si Kupu – Kupu Besi”. The procedure of translation applied here is literal translation. There is a direct transfer of the SL text into grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text. Analysis of Data (2) SL: “I can’t tell you how thrilled I am, “she said. “It’s going to be the most beautiful hotel in Chicago.” “Easy,” Keller warned,” there’s a long way to go,” He hesitated. “May I be frank with you, Miss Cameron?” “Lara” “Lara. You’re a dark horse. You have no track record.” (Page 87 line 25) TL: “Tak bisa saya ungkapkan betapa senangnya saya,” kata Lara. “Itu akan jadi hotel yang paling bagus di Chicago.” “Sabar Keller mengingatkan,” masih banyak yang harus dilakukan.” Ia Nampak ragu. “Boleh saya berterus terang,Miss Cameron?” “Lara”“Lara. Kau adalah kuda hitam. Reputasimu tidak jelas.” (Page 133 line) Metaphor Analysis When metaphors of the source language are translated into the target language not all the metaphors are easily understood. If they are translated word for word in the target language they will be nonsensical. Therefore, they will be difficult to be understood by the target language audience.

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According to Larson (1998:275) there are eight reasons why metaphors are hard to be translated literally, in the data below, some words that could collocate with the word “horse” are included. So, to make the analysis easier to be understood a network called the meaning web used here. Based on the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition, “horse” is defined as: a large animal with four legs, a mane (long thick hair on its neck) and a tail. Horses are used for riding on, pulling carriages; etc.The word “horse” has some collocation with other words. It can be seen as follows:

Horse about / around Horsewoman Horsebox

Horsewhip

Horsefly

Horse-trading

Horse

Horsehair

Horseshoe

Horseman

Horseradish Horse power

Horsemanship

Dark horse

Figure 4.1 Meaning web

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Those are some words that may collocate with the word ‘horse’. This kind of identification can be used as the key to find out whether the word above is categorized as metaphor or not. There are some ways to identify the metaphor in the specific sense. It has been mentioned in the previous chapter that the simplest way is the use of copula be (is, am, and are) and the metaphor is comparing two unlike things which become the same. According to the examples above, each of the words has its own meaning and we could find the meaning on the dictionary as well. But, in the data above the word “horse” was collocated with the word “dark” which is mentioned in the data “dark horse”. The meaning of “dark horse” could not be found in the dictionary as well. It has the figurative meaning or metaphorical sense. In the data Lara is being compared to a “dark horse”. The SL data above is metaphor, it showed implied comparison without the use of the word of comparison such as ‘like’, ‘as’, ‘look like’ etc. The topic ‘You’ here refers to the topic of the metaphor which, in this case is Lara. The image is ‘dark horse’. Seeing from the context in which the sentence occurs, it is known that Lara was being under estimated by Keller. Keller assumed that Lara’s business was just a non sense and a small business. He did not agree that the hotel that built up by Lara could amaze people; Keller said that Lara did not have any experience on it. So, the point of similarity between “dark horse” and “Lara” is someone who’s considered inexperienced and untruthful.

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Translation Analysis The SL metaphor “Lara” ‘you’re a dark horse’ is translated into ‘Lara kau adalah kuda hitam’ which is a metaphor as well. ‘Lara’ is the topic and ‘kuda hitam’ is the image. The comparison is implied with no word of comparison. The same image used by the translator; ‘a dark horse’ is translated into ‘kuda hitam’. Both the SL and TL have the figurative meaning. The procedure of translation used is literal translation. There is a direct transfer of SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text. Analysis of Data (3) SL: He had never forgotten the feeling he had when he walked out onto the stage, and the audience began to applaud him. He sat down at the piano, and his nervousness vanished in an instant. After that his life became a marathon of concerts. He toured all over Europe and Asia, and after each tour his reputation grew. (Page 241 line 3-8) TL: Ia tidak pernah bisa melupakan bagaimana rasanya berjalan naik ke panggung dan hadirin mulai bertepuk tangan. Ia duduk di depan piano, dan rasa tegangnya langsung lenyap. Setelah itu kehidupannya merupakan maraton konser – konser. Ia melakukan tur ke seluruh Eropa dan Asia, dan tur mereka membuat reputasinya semakin bagus. (Page 345 line 5 – 11)

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Metaphor Analysis The sentence ‘his life became a marathon of concerts’ is semantically anomalous. This is a metaphorical sentence. Based on the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition, “marathon” is defined as: Marathon : a long running race of about 42 kilometers or 26 miles. : An activity or a piece of work that lasts a long time and requires a lot of effort and patience. Therefore, the sentence ‘his life became a marathon of concerts’ cannot be understood literally. As stated by Larson (1998:272) in order to be able to master metaphor well, it is necessary to recognize the topic, image and the point of similarity. The topic of the metaphor is ‘his life’ which refers to Philip Adler’s life and the image of the metaphor is ‘a marathon of concerts’. It says that Philip Adler’s life began fully hectic day after his first concert when he was 18 years old. His life changed dramatically. He toured around Europe and Asia almost every time. He became very popular in a short time and had a good reputation and he should do many performances. As mentioned on the definition above that “marathon” means an activity or a piece of work that lasts a long time and requires a lot of effort and patience. So, the point of similarity here is long lasting journey of concerts and performances.

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Translation Analysis The metaphor ‘After that his life became a marathon of concerts’ is translated into‘Setelah itu kehidupannya merupakan maraton konser – konser’. The strategy of translating used here is a metaphor translated into metaphor in the target language. The metaphor in the target language has the same sense as in the source language metaphor. It can be identified after we compare the target language metaphor with the context. From the point of view of the comparison, the target language metaphor has the same kind of comparison as the source language metaphor does, that is, a metaphor in implied comparison. The source language metaphor above is translated into metaphor in the target language. Seeing from the translation procedure, a literal translation and borrowing had taken place, It is based on the procedure of translation stated by Vinay and Darbelnet (Venuti 2000:84-93) that in literal translation there is a direct transfer of a source language text into grammatically and idiomatically appropriate target language text in which the translator translates each element from the source language. In the above metaphor the clause ‘After that his life became a marathon of concerts’ was translated into ‘Setelah itu kehidupannya merupakan maraton konser – konser’. There had been a direct transfer from the message in the SL text into the same TL message. Furthermore, borrowing could be seen from the word “marathon”. Borrowing is mostly applied to introduce the flavor of the source language culture into a translation. The decision to borrow a source language word or expression to introduce an element of source language

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color is a matter of style, but at the same time it may have a significant effects on the message contained. Analysis of Data (4) SL: Philip played roulette and within half an hour had won two thousand dollars. He turned to Lara. “I’ve never won before. You’re my goodluck charm.” (Page 277 line 1 – 3) TL: Philip main roulette dan dalam waktu setengah jam ia telah menang dua ribu dolar. Ia menoleh kepada Lara. “Aku belum pernah menang sebelum ini. Kau adalah maskot pembawa untungku. (Page 394 line 2 – 5) Metaphor Analysis Based on the elements that form a metaphor, Larson stated in chapter II that a metaphor is comprised of topic, image, and point of similarity. Topic is the thing that is really talked about. Meanwhile, image is what it is compared with. The sentence ‘You’re my good-luck charm’ in the above example cannot be translated literally; the target language form became ‘Kau adalah maskot pembawa untungku’. The SL ‘You’re my good-luck charm’ is clearly a metaphor. There is an implied comparison shown in the clause. The topic of this metaphor is ‘you’ which refers to Lara, the main character in the novel. The image is ‘good-luck charm’. Lara is considered as ‘good-luck charm’.

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Based on the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition, “good luck charm” is defined as: Luck : things that happen to you by chance, not because of your own efforts or abilities. Charm : the power of pleasing or attracting people. From the definition above “good luck charm” can be defined as the power giving much pleasure to gain good efforts or abilities. On the data metaphor above Lara was compared to ‘good-luck charm’ because she had accompanied Philip on the roulette’s play. Then, surprisingly within half an hour Philip won two thousand dollars. That is why she was called “good luck charm”. So, the example above is metaphorical expression. Translation Analysis The SL data ‘you’re my good-luck charm’ is translated into ‘Kau adalah maskot pembawa untungku’. Both the SL and TL are metaphors. ‘You’ is the topic that is addressed to Lara and ‘good-luck charm’ is the image. The same image is used by the translator; ‘good-luck charm’ is translated into ‘maskot pembawa untung’. Literal translation was adopted by the translator in this case; there has been a direct transfer of the SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text.

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4.1.2 Metaphor Translated into Simile As Larson (1998:279) stated that the metaphor in a language can be translated into simile in the target language by using ‘like’ or ‘as’. It is also supported by Miller (1979:220) that simile is a comparison statement that involves two different things that can be recognized by the use of copula of similitude ‘like’, in order to transfer the message of the source language metaphor into the target language text; a metaphor can also be translated into simile by adding ‘like’, ‘as’, ‘as + adj. + as’. Analysis of Data (1) SL: When I was eight years old, I had my own horse, my dresses were bought in London, and we lived in an enormous house with a lot of servants. It was a fairy tale for a little girl.” (Page 18 line 19 – 20) TL: Waktu saya berumur delapan tahun, saya sudah punya kuda sendiri, pakaian – pakaian yang dibeli di London, kami hidup di rumah yang sangat besar dengan banyak pelayan, Bagaikan anak kecil yang hidup di negeri dongeng. (Page 34 line 27 – 28)

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Metaphor Analysis The SL data above is a metaphorical phrase “It was a fairy tale for a little girl” which is translated into “Bagaikan anak kecil yang hidup di negeri dongeng”. The metaphor was translated into simile in TL. As stated by Larson (1998:273) that a metaphor is constructed by three elements namely, topic, image, and the point of similarity. According to the metaphor analysis, the data metaphor above is a metaphor in implied comparison, the topic of the metaphor is ‘it’ which is addressed to the ‘Lara’s life’. In this case, Lara’s life is being discussed as the topic. Therefore, the image of the metaphor is ‘fairy tale’. The image is used to describe the topic in the metaphor. ‘Fairy tale’ is defined as a story about magic or fairies, usually for children. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s 7th Edition Dictionary). By looking at the two elements above, the topic and the image, which are compared, observing the context, the point of similarity between Lara’s life and fairy tale is happy life with lots of luxuries, glamorous and full of joy. It can be seen from the explanation above that fairy tale is a story about magic or fairies, the fairy stories or a fairy life is the life considered in a palace, having many servants to serve us many things that we want to. It could also be seen in the conversation between Lara and the reporter Hugh Thompson; she said she had everything when she was eight years old such as private horse and all of her dresses were bought in London. So, it can be concluded that Lara’s life is the same as the life of the fairies that is so much joy and happiness.

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Translation Analysis The metaphor ‘It was a fairy tale for a little girl’ is translated into ‘“Bagaikan anak kecil yang hidup di negeri dongeng”. Seeing from the context, the metaphor in SL is translated into simile in TL. It can be seen from the use of the word ‘bagaikan’ (in English it is ‘like’) in the TL to show the comparison. The simile is a bit different from metaphor. It consists of two elements. They are the comparandum and the comparatum. Comparandum is the thing to be compared, and comparatum is the thing to which the comparison is made. According to the theory of the simile above, the comparandum is ‘kehidupan Lara waktu berumur delapan tahun’ which is implicitly explained in TL and the comparatum is ‘hidup di negeri dongeng’. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s 7th Edition Dictionary, fairy tale is defined as a story about magic or fairies, usually for children. In term of translation procedure used for translating the metaphor into a simile itself is a realization of modulation since it means making some meaning clearer by looking at it, as it were, from a different side.

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Analysis of Data (2) SL: His name was Mungo McSween, and he was a huge bear of a man. (Page 28 line 16 – 17) TL: Namanya Mungo McSween, dan ia adalah pria yang berperawakan sangat besar bagaikan beruang. (Page 48 line 9 -11) Metaphor Analysis The metaphorical sentence ‘he was a huge bear of a man’ is translated into simile in the target language. It can be seen from the use of the word “bagaikan” (‘like’ in English) in TL. The metaphorical sentence ‘he was a huge bear of a man’ in the data above is pragmatically anomalous. If it is translated literally, it will have no sense. ‘He’ here refers to the topic of the metaphor which in this case is Mungo McSween. Mungo McSween is a man who was a new boarder in Lara’s boardinghouse when Lara was six year old. It means that he is a person or he is not an animal. Therefore, the statement ‘he was a huge bear of a man’ cannot be translated literally. As stated by Larson (1998:273) that a metaphor is constructed by three elements namely, topic, image, and point of similarity. Based on the metaphor analysis, it is observed that the data above is a metaphor in implied comparison, the topic and the image are explicit but the point of similarity is implicit. The topic of ‘he was a huge bear of a man’ is ‘He’. In this context ‘He ‘refers to Mungo McSween. In this case he is being discussed as the topic. Meanwhile, the image of this metaphor is a huge bear; the animal is used to

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describe what the topic Mungo McSween is like. A metaphor is a grammatical form that represents two prepositions, He (Mungo McSween) is someone being compared to a huge bear, and the animal is used to describe the topic figuratively. It means that Mungo McSween, in this case, is considered to have some similarities to the characteristics of a bear. It could be seen that the topic and the image in the metaphor are explicitly stated. They are implicitly compared without using the word as or like on a certain similarity. Observing the two elements, the topic and the image, which are being compared and considering the context, the point of similarity between Mungo McSween and a huge bear. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s7th Edition, bear is defined as a wild animal with thick fur and sharp claws (pointed parts on the ends of its feet). Meanwhile ‘huge’ is defined as extremely large in size or amount; great in degree a heavy. So, in this case the point of similarity between Mungo McSween and a huge bear is on the appearance or characteristic they have each other. Mungo McSween is considered to have the same appearance as a huge bear, which is, in this case, very big or heavy. He was described as a major figure like a bear. Through the context, it can be concluded that both Mungo McSween and a huge bear are big and heavy. Translation Analysis The metaphor ‘he was a huge bear of a man’ is translated into ‘ia adalah pria yang berperawakan sangat besar bagaikan beruang’. In this case, the metaphor in the source language is translated into simile.

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As mentioned in chapter II, simile is a figure of speech in which the subject is compared to another subject. The feature of simile is the use of words “like” and ‘as’ or ‘so’. The simile is composed of two parts, namely comparandum and comparatum. Comparandum is the thing to be compared, and comparatum is the thing with which the comparison is made. The comparison is explicitly stated by adding the term ‘like’ or bagaikan in the target language. Ia is the comparandum while beruang is the comparatum. The translating procedure applied is modulation. Since, it means making some meaning clearer by looking at it, as it were, from a different side and to make coherence or to find out the natural form in the target language. Analysis of Data (3) SL: Howard Keller had been living in a small apartment in Washington Square, and when Lara had visited him one evening, she had looked around the tiny apartment and said, “This is a rattrap. You’ve got to move out of here.” At Lara’s urging, he had moved into a condominium uptown. (Page 256 line 14 – 17) TL: Howard Keller selama ini tinggal di sebuah apartemen kecil di Washington Square, dan waktu Lara datang ke tempatnya di suatu petang, ia melihat ke sekeliling apartemen sempit itu dan berkata, “Ini seperti kandang tikus. Kau harus pindah dari sini.” Lalu atas desakan Lara, ia pindah ke sebuah condominium agak jauh dari kota. (Page 365 line 1 – 7)

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Metaphor Analysis The phrase ‘this is a rattrap’ is a metaphor as it is seen from the implied comparison it shows. There is no comparison word used in the above SL data. The topic of this metaphor is ‘this’ which refers to the Howard Keller’s small apartment, one of the character in this novel. The image is ‘rattrap’. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s 7th Edition, ‘rat’ is a small animal with a long tail, which looks like a large mouse, usually considered a pest (an animal which is disliked because it destroys food or spreads disease). Meanwhile ‘trap’ is a piece of equipment for catching animal. So, it can be concluded that ‘rattrap’ is considered the thing used for catching animal, specific to the rat. In this case, it is dirty and spreads disease. Based on the novel it is told that Howard Keller’s apartment is the same as the rattrap. It is very small, simple, absolutely dirty and inconvenient. Lara asked Keller to move from a place that is more feasible. Eventually, he would move to a condominium. Translation Analysis The SL data above ‘this is a rattrap’ is translated into ‘Ini seperti kandang tikus’ which is a simile as it has the word ‘seperti’ (in English ‘like’) to show the comparison. The comparandum of this simile is ‘ini’ which refers to the Howard Keller’s apartment. Although not stated explicitly in the sentence, it can be seen from the context. The comparatum is ‘kandang tikus’; the image chosen by the translator is the same as the one used by the author, which is ‘rattrap’ (a kind of equipment used for catching a rat.

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The procedure of translation applied here is free modulation. Free or optional modulation is used by the translator to stress the meaning, to make coherence or to find out the natural form in the target language. 4.1.3 Metaphor Translated Non-Figuratively As stated in the previous chapter, there are also other possibilities that the receptor language does not make comparisons of the type which occur in the source text metaphor. We should not assume that every metaphor must be translated into metaphor, or simile into the target language. Larson (1998:279) proposes that metaphor of one language can also be translated without keeping the metaphorical imagery. A metaphor is translated non-figuratively when the translation does not apply figures of speech. The examples of the data in which the metaphors are translated non-figuratively can be seen in the following data:

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Analysis of Data (1) SL: “It’s pretty true, isn’t it? You’ve put up buildings all over this fair country of ours. You own apartment buildings, office buildings, a hotel chain…How do you do it?” She smiles. “With mirror.” “You’re a puzzle.” “Am I? Why?” (Page 17 line 5) TL: “Itu benar, bukan? Anda telah mendirikan gedung – gedung di seluruh pelosok negeri kita yang indah ini. Anda memiliki gedung apartemen, perkantoran, rangkaian hotel….Bagaimana anda melakukan semua itu? Lara tersenyum. “Dengan cermin ajaib.” “Anda penuh dengan teka – teki.” “Masa? Mengapa? (Page 32 line 22) Metaphor Analysis An implied comparison is obviously seen in the SL clause ‘You’re a puzzle’. The topic of the metaphor is ‘You’ which refers to ‘Lara’ who is the main character in the novel that is described as an extraordinary smart beautiful and optimistic woman. ‘Lara’ is certainly a person/a human being, she is not a thing. The image in this metaphor is ‘a puzzle’. Puzzle is defined a game, etc that you have to think about carefully in order to answer it or do it or something that is difficult to understand or explain. Looking at the metaphor above, the topic is ‘Lara’ with the image ‘a puzzle’. It means that Lara is being compared to a

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puzzle. However, she is not a thing; she is supposed to have similar characteristics to ‘a puzzle’. By considering the context, the point of similarity between Lara and puzzle is complicated. She is considered the woman who has an extraordinary character. It is told in the novel that Hugh Thompson was talking to Lara; He said that Lara was an extraordinary woman who had an amazing character and ability. She was a woman who could fight among man’s business. Hugh Thompson, who was Fortune’s reporter that had the chance for interviewing Lara, was astonished to see what Lara had been done. She could build up the world’s tallest skyscrapers; she had a great success and much profit in her businesses. Lara, therefore, considered such puzzles, which were hiding a lot of mystery but, hard to guess then very complicated. But, in TL the metaphor is translated non-figuratively. The figurative sense is lost in TL and we cannot find the use of any figure of speech in the TL text. Translation Analysis The SL metaphor is translated using the strategy of translating that a metaphor is translated non-figuratively, ‘anda penuh dengan teka – teki’. A metaphor can be said to be translated into non-figuratively in the target language if there is no figure of speech with figurative meaning. There is no hidden meaning that needs to be uncovered. The procedure of translation applied in the translation process is modulation. Free or optional modulation is used by the

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translator to stress the meaning, to make coherence or to find out the natural form in the target language. Analysis of Data (2) SL: “You bet I do. He’s a cockroach, Bill. I’m going to step on him.” (Page 152 line 7) TL: “Tentu aku sadar. Dia itu bajingan, Bill. Aku akan membuatnya susah. (Page 220 line 16 -17) Metaphor Analysis The clause ‘He’s a cockroach’ in the data above cannot be translated literally. It has no literal meaning because it is semantically anomalous. Based on the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition ‘cockroach’ is a large brown insect with wings that lives in houses, especially where there is dirt. The topic of this metaphor is ‘He’ which, in this case, refers to Paul Martin. In the novel it is mentioned that, on Sunday John Hammond was playing golf with Bill Rohan. At that time John asked Bill Rohan about Paul Martin, then Bill answered that he did not meet Paul for a couple of weeks. It seemed in the conversation that John Hammond did not like Paul. He would inform some important information related to Paul to the district attorney. In this case, Paul Martin is considered ‘a cockroach’. He is being compared to the characteristic of ‘a cockroach’. Seeing from the context, the image of the metaphor is ‘a cockroach’. The point of similarity between Paul and cockroach mentioned here is the characteristic of the

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person who is mentioned to be similar to ‘a cockroach’ that is like an insect that always lives in the dirty place and always behaves unpleasantly. Translation Analysis In the SL phrase, the metaphor ‘He’s a cockroach’ is translated into Dia itu bajingan. It is an implied comparison in SL. To find out the elements of this metaphor, it can be expressed that the topic is ‘He’ which refers to Paul Martin. The image in the SL is ‘cockroach’ but it is translated into non- figuratively in TL; ‘cockroach’ is translated into ‘bajingan’. The sense of the metaphorical phrase is lost in TL. In terms of the procedure of translation, a free modulation was applied here. Hence, modulation is generally adopted because of nonlinguistic reason. It is mostly used to stress the meaning, to affect coherence or to find out the natural form in TL.

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Analysis of Data (3) SL: They stopped at a small bar on Third Avenue. They talked, but afterward neither of them would remember what they talked about. The words were camouflage for the sexual tension between them. (Page 159 line 1- 2) TL: Mereka berhenti di depan sebuah bar kecil di Third Avenue. Mereka berbicara, tapi setelah itu masing – masing tidak ada lagi yang ingat apa saja yang baru dibicarakan. Kata – kata hanyalah sekadar basa – basi untuk menutupi saling ketertarikan sensual yang makin membara diantara keduanya. (Page 229 line 1- 5) Metaphor analysis The expression in the SL above is categorized as metaphor in which the comparison is expressed explicitly. In the SL “the words were camouflage” is translated into “Kata – kata hanyalah sekadar basa – basi”. In which the sense of metaphor in TL is lost. By observing the context, the topic of the metaphor above is “the words” and the image is “camouflage”. Both the topic and the image were expressed explicitly. Based on the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition Camouflage is defined as a way of hiding soldiers and military equipment, using paint, leaves or nets, so that they look like part of their surroundings and the second definition is the way in which an animal’s color or shape matches its surroundings and makes it difficult to see.

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According to those definitions, the most suitable meaning for the metaphor above is an animal’s color or shape which matches its surroundings and makes it difficult to see. So the point of similarity in the metaphor above is the behavior that is deliberately meant to hide the truth or feigned. It is told in the story that Lara and Paul Martin were hiding their feeling and interest. It can be said that the words they expressed were only camouflage or just a feigned for them. Just pretending that there was nothing between them but actually they had the same feeling and admiration. Translation Analysis The metaphorical phrase “the words were camouflage” in SL is translated using the strategy of translating that a metaphor is translated non-figuratively, “Kata – kata hanyalah sekadar basa – basi”. It can be said translated into nonfiguratively in the TL if there is no figure of speech with figurative meaning. The procedure of translation applied here is free modulation. Free or optional modulation is used by the translator to stress the meaning, to effect coherence or to find out the natural form in the target language. The image of the source language text “camouflage” is translated into “sekadar basa – basi” in the target language text. This metaphorical phrase due to a different point of view in the target language.

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Analysis of Data (4) SL: “Right, “Murchison had become one of the most ruthless and successful real estate developers in New York. Keller said,” Lara, he’s bad news. He enjoys destroying people.” “You worry too much.” (Page 193 line 9 -12) TL: “Benar”. Murchison telah menjadi salah satu developer real estate yang paling kejam dan paling sukses di New York. Keller berkata, “Lara dia itu berbahaya. Dia senang menghancurkan orang lain. “Kau terlalu kuatir.” (Page 276 line 24 – 26) Metaphor Analysis The metaphor above shows the implied comparison in the SL. “He” in the data above is addressed to ‘Steve Murchison’. It was explained in the novel that Lara had a small discussion with Edward Keller talking about their new planning. Lara was telling Edward Keller about her new negotiation with Steve Murchison. Keller seemed disbelieved with Murchison. He warned Lara about Murchison’s reputation when he was in New York. He is one of the most ruthless and successful real estate developers in New York. By observing the explanation above the topic of the metaphor is ‘‘Steve Murchison’. The image of the metaphor is ‘bad news. Steve is considered bad news because he had got bad reputation in his business. It is absolutely a metaphor in the SL but the figurative sense is lost in TL. Bad news is translated into ‘berbahaya’. It has no figurative sense particularly metaphor. Seen from the

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context, the point of similarity of the metaphor is unpleasant. It is according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition that bad is defined as unpleasant while bad is defined as new information about something that has happened recently. So, it could be concluded that “bad news” is considered unpleasant information. Translation Analysis The translation of the above metaphor is ‘dia itu berbahaya’. The phrase can be understood literarily. There is no hidden meaning that needs to be examined in order to understand the phrase itself. The procedure of the translation that seems to be applied here is modulation. Modulation is employed by changing the implicit condition. 4.2 The Strategies Applied in Translating the Metaphors A table showing the strategies applied in translating the metaphors in the novel into their Indonesian equivalences is displayed below.

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Table 4. 1 The Strategies Applied in Translating the Metaphors

No

The Strategies of Translating Metaphors

The Quantity (No of Data)

The Percentage of the translation of metaphors 74, 2 %

1.

Into metaphor

46 (1,2,4,6,9,12,13,15, 18,19,20,21,22,23, 24,25,26,27,29,30, 32,37,38,39,40,41, 42,43,44,45,46,47, 49,50,51,52,53,54, 55,56,57,58,59,60, 61,62)

2.

Into simile

7 (5,7,8,10,14,28,48)

11, 3 %

3.

Non-figuratively

9 (3,11,16,17,31,33, 34, 35, 36)

14, 5%

Total metaphors

62

100%

As shown in the table above, the SL metaphors total was 62 data and most of them were translated into metaphors.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

To understand metaphor, the context in which it occurs needs to be examined closely. It is because figures of speech in this case particularly metaphor cannot be translated literary. To translate them, needs some understandings and steps. Larson stated that discovering the topic, image and the point of similarity. Those common steps enable the translator to find the SL’s equivalence in the target language. This thesis digs deeper about metaphor. It is proved that the translation of metaphor from the source language into target language is better if the metaphor is translated in the form of metaphorical sense as well as in the target language. Therefore, to avoid the misunderstanding the used of the metaphorical word or phrase must be understood in the target language cultures. It was found that metaphor in the source language mostly translated into metaphors in the target language. In the translation procedure as well, it was found that more than one procedure can be seen in one translation, and some translations may result from a cluster of procedures that is difficult to discern. 5.1 Conclusion From the analysis of the metaphors in the source language data and their translations in Indonesia, some conclusion can be drawn as follows: 1. Based on the theory proposed by Larson (1984), the strategies that used by the translator in translating the SL metaphors are as follow:

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1.1 Metaphor translated into metaphor (74, 2 %) 1.2 Metaphor translated into simile (11, 3 %) 1.3 Metaphor translated into non-figuratively (14, 5%) 2. The data shows that the most dominantly strategies applied were the metaphors translated into metaphors. 3. As far the translation procedures are concerned, literal translation was very commonly applied. In addition, there were also borrowing, modulation, transposition and equivalence procedures. Furthermore, there were some translations using more than one translation procedures in translating English metaphors into Indonesian. 5.2 Suggestion Figurative speech, in this case, metaphor has a prominent position in the study of linguistics, particularly in the study of translation. This thesis examines only a limited aspect of the figurative speech, in this case, metaphors which were found in the novel The Stars Shine Down. Metaphors cannot be understood literarily. Moreover, if they are translated into another language, the topic, the image, and the point of similarity need to be carefully examined in order to keep the original massage in the target language. In order to enrich our comprehension about metaphor and to get a more reliable justification, a wider and further scope of the study needs to be conducted.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Anggaraeni, N.K.D.2006. “The Translation of Metaphors in Lone Eagle into Indonesian Cinta Pertama”. (Thesis) Denpasar: Udayana University. Bell, R.1991. Translation and Translating. London and New York: Longman. Catford,J.C.1994. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press. Choliludin, 2006. The Technique of Making Idiomatic Translation. Bekasi-Indonesia: Kesaint Blanc. Hornby, A.S. 2. Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary 7th Edition. London: Oxford University Press. Keraf, G. 1984. Diksi dan Gaya Bahasa. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Larson, M.L.1998. Meaning-based Translation. Lanham: University Press of America Inc. Leech, G. 1974. Semantics. UK: Penguin Book Newmark, Peter. 1998. Text book of Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press McArthur, Tom (ed). 1992. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press. Miller, G.A. 1997. Images and Models. In Ortony (ed). 1979: 92-135. Muliono, A.M. Diksi atau Pilihan Kata. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Jaya Nida, E. A. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating. Leiden: E.J.Brill. Nida, E.A and Taber. 1974. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden:E.J.Brill Perrine, L. 1982. Sound and Sense. An Introduction to Poetry. Sixth Addition. USA: Harcourt Brave Jovanovich. Pramono, Budijanto T. 1993. Kilau Bintang Menerangi Bumi. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

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Suardana,M. 2007. “The Strategies of Translating Indonesian Figures of Speech Into English Found in the Novel Saman”. (Thesis). Denpasar : Udayana University. Sudana, A.P.P. 2008 “The Strategies of Translating Metaphors and Similes with Reference to The Translation of The Novel The Other Side of Midnight into Lewat Tengah Malam.” (Thesis) Denpasar: Udayana University. Sudrama K. 2003 “Strategies for Translating into Indonesian English Metaphor in the Novel Master of the Game”. A Case Study (Thesis). Denpasar : Udayana University Sheldon, S. 1993. The Stars Shine Down. New York: Warner Book Inc. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō. 2009. Translation & Interpreting. The International Journal of Translation and Interpreting Research, Vol. 1, No. 1 Vinay, J.P. and Darbelnet, J.2000. A Methodology for Translation. In Venuti (ed). 2000: 84-93 Wikipedia, 2010. Metaphor, [cited 2010 Nov, 12], Available from :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphor.

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