Free Essay

Films

In: Film and Music

Submitted By dory123
Words 1318
Pages 6
A major change that has occurred in the development of film is the linearity of narrative. The history of film spans over one hundred years ago, with classical narrative emerging in Hollywood around the nineteen thirties. The classical narrative period had a strong emphasis on linearity and coherence, where characters where goal centred and consistent in personality and action. In the nineteen sixties a change began to emerge in Hollywood, with Breathless (Jean-Luc Godard, 1960) breaking the editing rules, and narrative coherence, with the introduction of jump cuts. This film among others greatly contributed to the outburst of non-linear narratives, a narrative technique wherein events are portrayed out of chronological order. In the twenty-first century a range of independent films with a variety of non-linear narratives have been getting mainstream release. Within this essay I will briefly explain the different types of narratives and the reasons for their popularity. The directorial intent for many non-linear narratives can be to evoke mood, maintain suspense, indicate the malleability of memory, signify dream, and above all to provide visual pleasure. The involvement that a spectator can feel from a non-linear narrative can offer both a sense of pleasure and relation. The fact that it is up to the viewer to keep up, put things together, and make sense of the narrative provides a sense of satisfaction, and can become the reason they are watching the film. Removing the chronological order of a story and rearranging its components can make a it more compelling than if the scenes progressed in chronological order. An advantage of non-linear narrative is its ability to involuntarily feed the viewer information. This means that there is no need for characters, and therefore the audience, to passively receive information. Instead the viewer is engaged with the dramatization and is left to take in material along with the character. Rather than accepting the outlined narrative, as with classical narrative, the unpredictability and shifting structure of non-linear narrative forces the viewer to question and evaluate the sequence of events. Sudden shifts in scenes or stories keep the viewers concentration. Media, for example news headlines and YouTube, provide bursts of information in a very short period of time. When browsing the internet, the twenty-first century has become accustomed to skimming, and flipping between different matter. As we have become accustom to Medias influences, our desire to concentrate on one subject for a long period of time is diminishing. This has contributed to the popularity of non-linear films in the twenty-first century as many people are finding the suspense more pleasing than the classical narrative structure. This shifting of structure can also greatly help to portray how we remember things. Memory is our ability to store, retain and recall information and experiences. As memories are not always accurate and different points of view can lead to different interpretation of situations, stories are often complicated and therefore can be difficult to portray in a linear fashion. Non-linear narratives, especially perceptible in thriller or detective films, provide bursts of memories, and previously accumulated emotions, in order to place the viewer in the characters shoes. ‘Sometimes [narrative] needs to be presented as a bucketful of jagged shrapnel from minds shattered by grief; its resemblance to the fragmentary way a traumatised memory works is what makes it so powerful and effective. It also gives us, to use a phrase coined by film academic Murray Smith, "architectural pleasure".’(1) Classifying such highly complex narrative structures into categories can be a complex procedure. Although many different techniques are being adapted into today’s film and gaming industry, narrative critiques have established a number of assorting groups. Some of these include platform, split-screen, anachronic, forking-path, and episodic narratives. Platform narrative is the most contemporary of the post classical narrative forms. This particular structure can often, yet not exclusively, be found in gaming narrative. The tale of each level can often appear linear, yet there is a lack of connective tissue between the different narrative events. This is evident in many games when a character is permitted access to another level where the narrative differs from the previous stages. Split-screen narrative similarly is non classical due to its spatial rather than temporal distinction. These films divide the screen into two or more frames, juxtaposing simultaneous or prior events within the same visual field. ’The conspicuous example here is Mike Figgis’ Timecode (2000), which follows a number of characters simultaneously by splitting the screen into four quadrants, allowing for the exploration of memory and simultaneity.’ (4) Timecode’s four continuous 90-minute takes were filmed and shown simultaneously, with the four quadrants showing the interaction and conflict of several groups of people who are preparing for the shooting of a movie. Anachronic narrative involves a departure from the first temporality of a narrative into a flashback or flash-forward. This first narrative then provides a temporal grounding to any secondary narratives. A recent augmentation to anachronic narratives is a display of sequential ordering that creates a sense of uncertainty regarding the primacy of one narrative in relation to another. The flash-forwards and flash-backs allow for slippage between illusion and reality, and for emotion and logic, rather than realism. Christopher Nolan’s Memento (2000) employs an anachronic structure. The film is fashioned in the form of a backwards narrative featuring two different sequences of scenes, a series in black-and-white that are shown in chronological order, and a series of colour sequences shown in reverse order. Nolan incorporates a conceptual twist by linking the flow of the narrative to the condition of the protagonist. The film tells the story of a man, Leonard, whom suffers from short-term memory loss, and who is trying to track down his wife's murderer. The reverse narrative of the film forces the viewer to become implicated in the investigation as it progressively reveals what Leonard is unable to remember. For most of the film, it is unclear when the scenes are set, and how they relate to the other scenes, causing the viewer to struggle as much as Leonard does to create a coherent narrative.

Forking-path narrative is the juxtaposition of alternate versions of a story, often introducing a number of plotlines that represent the possible futures of the central characters. Anachronic and forking-path narratives share certain qualities. ‘Just as the anachronic narrative invites reflection upon the organization and experience of time (by raising questions around the notions of past, present and future), the forking-path narrative presents us with ways of thinking of time in terms of simultaneity and causal linkage.’ (5) Although it is uncommon, anachronic narrative has been combined with forking-path structure in Hollywood films such as Mulholland Drive (2001). Due to uncertainty if we are witnessing a memory, hallucination or an alternate reality, this combined narrative structure is also debated in recent films such as Donnie Darko (2001) and Fight Club (1999). Episodic narrative is constructed of two or more tales and can be organised into two groups: abstract series and anthology. Abstract series acts independently or semi-independently of the conventional relationship of narrative time, space, and causality whilst anthology, or multi-strand narrative, consist of a series of short stories which originally appear to be detached, yet turn out to share the same world in which the events occur. Dissimilar to other narrative structures, anthology shifts from a central character to a multi-character narrative where characters shift in and out of prominence. This type of narrative assists in maintaining suspense throughout the entire film. An ostentatious example of an anthological narrative is Love Actually (Richard Curtis 2003). The romantic comedy delves into different aspects of love as shown through ten separate stories involving a wide variety of individuals, many of whom are discovered to be interlinked as the film progresses.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Film

... The scholarly literature has shown that Black men academically underperform all groups throughout the educational pipeline (Hood, 1992; Jackson, 2003; Polite, 1994; Watson & Hodges, 1991).  Jameson (1991) explains that film can be a useful vehicle for unveiling harsh realities about the lived experiences of sundry people.  In Boyz N The Hood (1991), John Singleton offers an alarming account of the survived experiences of Black people, particularly Black men, in a poverty-ravaged South Central Los Angeles neighborhood.  At the center of the film’s narrative is the relationship and interactions between three young Black males: Tre Styles, Darrin “Doughboy” Baker, and Ricky Baker. The audience sees how racism, indifference, rampant violence, and the increasing disintegration of the Black family in South Central Los Angeles militate against the coming of age of these three Black males.  As a contribution to the scholarly discourse on Boyz N The Hood, this paper provides an examination of how structural dimensions of the setting in which the film is set (South Central Los Angeles) have a damaging impact on the progression of these Black males.  The structural frame championed by Bolman and Deal (2008) serves as the dominant lens through which this film is analyzed. John Singleton's movie Boyz N The Hood is the story of three young men who are forced to deal with the reality of life in South Central, Los Angeles. Singleton uses this setting to illustrate the obstacles......

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Film

...Choosing a film to watch can be very personal and emotional. When I choose a film I always go with how I am feeling that day, whether I am sad and want to cry, happy and want to laugh, have a lot of energy and want to see an action film it all depends on how I am feeling at the moment. Other than how I am feeling, there are also a lot of different things that make a film enjoyable for me and very unenjoyable. When I go to see a movie I will take a fair amount of time to decide what movie to see, with the prices of a movie ticket I don’t want to choose something that I will not really enjoy. Some of the things that really make a film enjoyable for me are the plot, the music and actors. As I said before I am a very emotional person and the right kind of film can make me really happy, one thing that I really enjoy about certain movies is when there is a well thought out plot. I appreciate when someone has taken the time to really think about the plot of a film. When the plot has substance the film is usually a pretty successful and enjoyable film to watch. The right music can make a film very enjoyable. I think music can convey many different emotions and with the right soundtrack you are able to really feel what is going on in the film. The last thing that makes a film enjoyable for me is the actors in the film, when I find an actor that I really love I will be more likely to see a film they are in. Most of the actors I really like are able to be very versatile and can play......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Film

...For over a century now, film has risen as a medium of choice to present war information. War films has risen as a genre particularly depicting warfare using themes and concepts such as naval, air or land battles. War films also focus on the themes of prisoners of war, covert operations and military training. War films do not always, however, depict battles. Sometimes, war films may choose to focus on the day to day military or civilian life in wartime without necessarily depicting battles. War film may be fictional, based on history, biographical, alternative history, or even docudrama. Many historical events particularly since mid 1800’s to the end of the cold war have inspired this film genre. The shifting political climate in America in the last half of the 1930’s for instance influenced the rise of the war film genre (Maland 159). War films more often than not been categorized as wartime propagandas other than classic war films or historical documents. Maland also describes the shift of attention was a change in the Communist party's political strategy that influenced war films during that era. War films that rose in the Second World War era were particularly very much associated with war propaganda. Why we Fight (1942-1945), Air force (1943) and Men at War (1957) are three war films from this time that were thought to be tools of wartime propaganda. A famous actor during that era, Charlie Chaplin, depicted the role of Adolf Hitler in the war film The Great Dictator.......

Words: 1102 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Film

...What made this a “good” story? The beginning of the film when the narrator was describing the background of Iran, the people, the Shah and the current leader. This was very informative because it educated me on certain events and how the people of Iran felt about the Shah. What the Shah put everyone who was a citizen of Iran through and how America gave him asylum but he was dying of cancer so they really didn’t feel the need to give him back. The people of Iran wanted him to come back so he could pay for the pain and anguish he put the people of Iran through. He damaged many innocent lives. I never knew so much problems were going on in Iran, and I never thought the leader of Iran could turn his back on his own people and when he deserves to be punished for his action, there is nothing they can do. I learned so much about the emotions and feelings that the people of Iran went through, and I feel very thankful that I live in a country where we have our own power, control and freedom and there is no one who can decide what we do and want in life. The scenes where after the Americans were taken into hostage, how the president and the CIA had to come up with a plan to try to get them back home safely. This kept my attention because it was somewhat of an interesting way they decided to go undercover in Iran without being noticed. I would have never thought that the CIA would pretend to be film students shooting a movie in order to get the hostages back. When I......

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Film

.... 7) “Write a critical study of a recent Spanish or Latin American film or play that you have seen, and that has made a social or political impact in the country in which you are living. You should bring into your study criticism and reviews, both from the press and, where possible, from academic sources, and…discuss the ways in which the film has been received and analysed, making comparisons with other films where appropriate.” Almodóvar ’s 2001, La piel que habito, received mixed reviews from Spanish critics, one favourably calling it an “irracionalidad transcendida” whereas Spanish film critic Carlos Boyero called it a “notable idiotez”. However, most critics agree that this film merits a second viewing in order to appreciate the rich texture of the film, in which a lonely and haunted plastic surgeon (Banderas) becomes dangerously entangled with his personal experiment, Vicente, or “Vera” (Anaya) whom he believed had assaulted his mentally ill daughter, provoking her suicide. The film is the director’s first exploration of science fiction, containing an amalgamation of themes concerning gender and sexuality identity, whilst at the same time exploring the prison house of the self. In this essay I will discuss the ways in which these main themes are manifested in the plot and cinematography, their effect and finally the way in which Spanish critics have received Almodóvar’s latest work. Entrapment, or, the prison house of the self, is the confinement that......

Words: 2230 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Film

...Scream 2 Elements of Design I chose the movie clip from the film Scream 2. In this clip there is a movie preview of the movie Stab which is based on the book written by the reporter Gail Weathers from Scream 1. The setting is dark and rowdy with people running around joking. Some movie goers are dressed in the slasher attire complete with the mask and carrying plastic knives. They all seem to be horsing around, running, throwing popcorn, and emulating the slasher character with plastic knives. The camera focuses on a young couple, Maureen and Steven. Maureen is sitting alone when her “boyfriend” Steven with the slasher masked on came back to their seating area unbeknownst to her that her boyfriend was a victim of the real killer and is now dead. Upon her hugging him she finds blood on her hands and the real slasher immediately begins stabbing her multiple times. Although this murder happen in public view, the movie goers assumed it was a part of the show and did nothing as Maureen was killed. The Scream 2 film was a horror flick in one of many other Scream series. The artists involved in the production of this film are; the director Wesley Craven, production designer Robert Zimebicki, and the art director Ted Berner. This team worked hand in hand to deliver a phenomenon horror film. The director Wesley Craven is not new to horror film making. He also is also popular for his direction and acting in the well known film series Nightmare on Elm Street. In the movie Scream as......

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Film

...together. It falls under the genre Children’s work and then the sub-genre Animation. With it being an animated film it was based around voice overs for the different characters involved. The character list as follows: It was stated that “Information in the MPAA/PCA Collection at the AMPAS Library indicates that producer Walt Disney had registered the title Cinderella with the MPPA by 1930, and a modern "making of" documentary about the film, which accompanied its 1995 video release, notes that Disney, who had previously made a 1922 silent short of the story, intended to produce a Silly Symphony based on the fairy tale. The PCA file also contains a letter revealing that the organization had granted a tentative certificate number to the studio for a feature-length Cinderella cartoon in Mar 1940, and that the studio had to request a more current number when the picture was finished in 1949. According to a Dec 1945 HR news item, Sergei Prokofiev's symphonic ballet of Cinderella had been submitted to Disney for consideration by agent Lou Levy. In Feb 1947, Disney notified Monogram producers the King Brothers that his version of the story had been "in work" for seven years, and that they should "take proper heed" in proceeding with their announced version of the fairy tale, which they were developing from an idea suggested to them by Leo McCarey. Ultimately, Monogram's planned film of Cinderella was not produced” (www.afi.com). It was definitely a huge success in theatres and......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Film

...Film Analysis Paper James Smith MU14ELC05B Hum/150 STACY DAVIES The film Fruitvale Station is the story of twenty-two year old Oscar Grant III. The films plot is Oscar just wants to be a better person then he was the previous year. He lived in and out of jail. His mother hated to see him in jail because she felt like he was wasting his life and his daughter’s life. Her last visit to the jail him and his mother argued and had their disagreements. That same day a man in jail also picked a fight with Oscar. Oscar was released from jail but did not know that his encounter with that man will someday surface again and it would be his last encounter. Oscar makes an effort to be a better son to his mother, a better boyfriend to his girlfriend, and a better father to his daughter. The film follows Oscar around on December 31, 2008, which appears to be just a normal day in his life, New Years Eve and his mother’s birthday. He works in a grocery store and sells drugs for a living to make a way for his daughter. He is unfaithful to his girlfriend/the mother of his child. Oscar woke up that day and realized that his life was not exactly where he wanted it to be. He could barely afford rent for their apartment. He faced many obstacles that day. He got fired from his job. Knowing that having no job meant partial rent money he begged and begged for his job back but his boss would not let him come back. I feel like the way that the director portrayed Oscar and his encounters with......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Film

...INTRODUCTION The film Rain Man was released in 1988 and won the Best Picture academy award that same year. I chose the film because it represented a wonderful mix of story, filmmaking, acting and comedic timing. It is my assertion that acting was the most powerful element of this film and crucial for the emotional arc required from the lead actor Tom Cruise. STORYTELLING The story of Rain Man is presented in a way that keeps the viewer in the dark as the story develops; delivering surprises and plot twists along the way. Writers Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass provide an excellent framework for the actors to really shine in their portrayal of the two main characters: self centered, smooth street-smart Charlie Babbit and his institutionalized autistic savant older brother, Raymond Babbitt. We are introduced to Charlie at the start of the film and quickly understand that he is a successful import automobile broker and willing/able to do whatever is necessary to deliver his product- this even includes paying off EPA officials, if necessary. Charlie is unrelenting in his quest to accomplish his goal. When he finds out that his long estranged father has passed away, he is expecting to inherent a portion of his late father’s $3 million dollar estate; only to uncover that he has an autistic brother who has received all of the inheritance money from their late father, the irony is almost too much for Charlie. This is pure genius from a storytelling perspective as it helps......

Words: 1470 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Films

...opened to rave reviews and roaring box office success, says he chooses a film on the basis of the script and not box office prospects. "PK", which came out Friday, has managed to gross Rs.95.21 crore in three days. When asked if it is true that he chooses films on the basis of box office prospects, Aamir said: "It's a very unfortunate trend because the moment creative people start thinking about numbers, then the shadow of the numbers influences the kind of film they choose and pick." If the team of Aamir, director Rajkumar Hirani and producer Vidhu Vinod Chopra created history with "3 Idiots" in 2009, the trio have repeated the same success with "PK", a film that boasts of a unique concept. It uses an alien to talk about the ills of society and not only makes viewers laugh and cry but also makes them think. "The moment I start choosing films that can do Rs.100 crore business, then my choice becomes very limited and I can only do films like 'Avengers' or 'Spider-Man', which go on to achieve those numbers. This really kills creativity to an alarming extent, so I have always selected my films based on what I feel towards them," he said. "Like 'Taare Zameen Par' went on to do good business and I didn't know it would. I just did it because I liked the script. Also, I selected 'Rang De Basanti' because I loved the script. I did 'Lagaan' when the entire film industry thought it was a disaster. "So these films I have not picked looking at the box office collection, I picked......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Film

...systems? 2. What steps did France's Lumière brothers take to make cinema a commercially viable enterprise? What kinds of Lumière movies were the most popular? How did the Lumières' activities influence the development of world cinema? 3. What were Edwin S. Porter's significant contributions to the development of early narrative film? In what sense did Porter build upon the innovations of contemporaneous filmmakers, and for what purposes? 4. What is the difference between vertical integration and horizontal integration? 5. What were the factors behind the nickelodeon boom of the middle 1900s? What were the reasons for the nickelodeon's popularity—what advantages did this type of exhibition venue offer to both theater owner and patron? 6. In what ways did the motion picture industry in the late 1900s attempt to make films more prestigious and film going more respectable? What pressures were producers and exhibitors responding to? 7. How did the animated film develop during the early twentieth century? What types of animation techniques did the earliest animators use? Give examples of specific animators or from specific films....

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Films

...INTERNATIONAL FILM CONFERENCE 2015 GLOBAL VIEW: Engendering Film Industry Connections 06.27.15 SMX CONVENTION CENTER - MANILA, PHILIPPINES www.ifx.ph T HE INTERNATIONAL FILM CONFERENCE (IFC) provides an opportunity for a group of international and Philippine film industry leaders to share their expertise with film enthusiasts and industry specialists. From the discussion on the newest film technologies to the value and efficiency of co-production, from the rise of national cinema to the significance of international film festivals – these and many other topics will addressed at this year’s conference. MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIRMAN O n behalf of the Film Development Council of the Philippines, I’m delighted and very honored to welcome you to the third International Film Conference in Manila, 2015. This collective gathering of film enthusiasts and members of the film industry serves as a testament to our commitment to the craft. In 2013 we launched the first International Film Conference with the intention of making filmmaking more accessible and efficient for the entertainment industry. Stakeholders from all over the Philippines and various Asian states came together for fruitful discussions on achieving financial sustainability, the advantages of co-productions, and new avenues of growth in the filmmaking industry. In 2014, as IFC assumed a core role with the establishment of World Premiere’s Film Festivals Philippines, we took a step further towards our goal of......

Words: 1859 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Film

...Film Appreciation Final Exam The film “what dreams may come”(Vincent Ward 1998) can be described as an emotional and dramatic film. This film should be preserved for a variety of reasons. The film is aesthetically significant for its unique special effects and storyline. The reason this is so is because many of the elements produced and the Mise-en-scene of each effect and character is quite stunning. The first aesthetic element shown is the story’s unique storyline, as many twists and turns shift your expectations left and right. The point of view in this story is subjective, and the first establishing shot begins as we follow the pediatrician Chris Nielsen, and we eventually see him meet and marry his wife and have children. The plot twists when the children die in a car crash, and the audience is shocked, and just when everything starts to feel right again, Chris dies in another car crash. The wife commits suicide, and audiences are in awe as the entire family they began to know was diminished. The storyline itself shows unique twists to each expectation the audience has, and proves to be significant because many films followed these plot twists of tragedy to create drama. The special effects in this movie proved to be quite unique. The main character Chris dies and goes to heaven, and the special effects show him inside a painting like world as the environment can be changed around him and is very slushy. The scene shows him dashing across a river......

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Film

...Women On Screen In China Film, as a unique art form, has come to China nearly centuries. In 1920s, female images just can be seen as the tools in silent movies, which own not only very vague character, but also lack of adequate connotation of the times, not to mention women’s awareness of self-consciousness. However, after the establishment of People's Republic of China, government vigorously promotes that the "men and women are alike". Also with the influence of western feminist movement, the status of women began to turn upside down. Women are demanding equal status with men, and these demands also reflected in the films. Until now, women as a sign of beauty, some are gentle and virtuous, some are sweetie and pleasant, and some are full of unique personality but still attractive enough. In such a representation, it is hard to notice, even their own aesthetic values are deeply affected by the male views. Not so much a woman as a sign of beauty, as it is a sign to attract male attention. In many generations of Chinese directors, only one of the few is female director. In the Male-dominated film industry, obviously, female characters are created by them, reflecting men’s centralism’s view of women. This paper applies feminist film theory, by analyzing the feminine images in a famous Chinese director—Jiang Wen’s films, to reveal the hidden gender inequality as well as the phenomenon of “male gaze”. Through the criticism and introspection of these hidden and......

Words: 2391 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Film

...INTRODUCTION A film or movie is a series of still or moving image. It is produced by recording Photographic images with cameras and now-a-days it is produced by creating images using visual effects or animation techniques. Film is considered to be an important art form ,a popular source of entertainment and a powerful method of education .Film is also considered to be a way of communication . By using dubbing or subtitle that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer ,some films have become popular worldwide. MYSTERY OF FILM We think that film is a moving process but it is not a moving process. There is a mystery. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision .Whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed .Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.( ). THE BEGINNING The film has a great history. The early films were quite difference from the present films. Films are developing day by day for many people’s afford and hard work. The Frenchman Louis Lumiere is called as the inventor of the motion picture camera in 1895 . Another inventor is Thomas Alva Edison and he was a competitor of......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4