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Final Project

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Research

Common sense is defined as sound and prudent judgment based on a simple perception of the situation or facts. In layman’s terms, common sense is the knowledge and experience which most people already have, or which the person using the term believes that they do or should have. The limitations of this approach can be grouped into three categories: extrinsic limitations (the result of factors extraneous to experience), limitations of common sense as a social practice (ensuing from the way knowledge is shared and communicated) and intrinsic limitations (limited viewpoint).
Extrinsic limitations
Extrinsic limitations can be bias or dogmatic. Bias limitations is insights based on personal experiences are difficult to distinguish from one's preferences, desires or fears. Dogmatism limitation is when beliefs based on common sense become embedded in a particular cultural framework, they are very difficult to change and often become dogmatic.
Limitations of common sense as a social practice
Limitations can be intangible or elusiveness in nature. According to this limitation, common sense is based on clues often too complex and subtle to be rationally explained and systematically described.
Intrinsic limitations
Intrinsic limitations are limited in scope and inaccurate in nature. Limited scope means that common sense is limited one’s own experiences which is not taking into account all aspects of reality. Imprecision limitations mean that common sense relies on ‘rule of thumb' methods and, therefore, is not very precise.
With those limitations listed, it is no wonder why critical thing is more reliable. Critical thinking is judicious (deliberate and thorough) thinking (correct reasoning) about what to believe and, therefore, what to do. Critical thinking is neither negative, passive, destructive, nor adversarial; it is not cold, calculating, and unfeeling; and it is neither intuitive, nor a matter of “common sense.” Critical thinking enables us to provide evidence and reasoning for our opinions and actions. It thus enables us to be in control of our own lives. Critical thinking also increases diversity of opinion and, thus, the quality of citizenship. It enables us to handle conflict without evasion or aggression. Critical thinking is based on rational thought which is superior to emotion, intuition, or faith as a basis for belief and action. Critical thinking skills can be applied not only to issues, but also to day-to-day decisions, as well as new or unfamiliar questions, ideas, and situations. There are many reasons for why we don't normally engage in critical thinking: it's intrinsically hard, and the loss of diversity makes it harder, and we seem hard-wired to take the path of least resistance. Also, our society seems to encourage being non-judgmental (whether from etiquette, postmodernism, or relativism); and it discourages intellectualism. We are often manipulated into not thinking critically. Critical thinking often involves changing one's mind, which is something we may resist for a number of reasons; also, we tend to believe what we want to believe. Our emotions may get in the way; so too might our reluctance to take responsibility for our opinions and actions.
Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected.
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g. the product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual. The nature-nurture debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both influences make to human behavior.
Nature
Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are – from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics. The coding of genes in each cell in us humans determine the different traits that we have, more dominantly on the physical attributes like eye color, hair color, ear size, height, and other traits. However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like personality, intelligence, sexual orientation, likes and dislikes are gene-coded in our DNA, too.
Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that certain things are inborn, or that they occur naturally regardless of environmental influences. Those who adopt their view point are known as nativists. Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a product of evolution and that individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code. In general, the earlier a particular ability appears, the more likely it is to be under the influence of genetic factors.
Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation. That is to say we all have an inner “biological clock” which switches on (or off) types of behavior in a pre programmed way. The classic example of the way this affects our physical development are the bodily changes that occur in early adolescence at puberty. However nativists also argue that maturation governs the emergence of attachment in infancy, language acquisition and even cognitive development as a whole.
Nurture
Nurture refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture. The nurture theory holds that genetic influence over abstract traits may exist; however, the environmental factors are the real origins of our behavior. This includes the use of conditioning in order to induce a new behavior to a child, or alter an unlikely behavior being shown by the child. Those who share this viewpoint are called empiricists. Empiricists take the position that all or most behaviors and characteristics result from learning. Behaviorism is a good example of a theory rooted in empiricism. The behaviorists believe that all actions and behaviors are the results of conditioning. Theorists such as John B. Watson believed that people could be trained to do and become anything, regardless of their genetic background.
At the other end of the spectrum are the environmentalists – also known as empiricists (not to be confused with the other empirical / scientific approach). Their basic assumption is that at birth the human mind is a tabula rasa (a blank slate) and that this is gradually “filled” as a result of experience (e.g. behaviorism). From this point of view psychological characteristics and behavioral differences that emerge through infancy and childhood are the result of learning. It is how you are brought up (nurture) that governs the psychologically significant aspects of child development and the concept of maturation applies only to the biological.
Conclusion
In my own opinion, both sides are wrong in thinking their side is the only explanation for the uniqueness of human behavior. There is no way to separate and give weight to one force over the other. The forces include genetic factors that interact with one another, environmental factors that interact such as social experiences and overall culture, as well as how both hereditary and environmental influences intermingle. In the end, both come together to create and mold a person’s behavior and overall characteristics.
Sensation and Perception
Sensation and perception are vital parts of how we make contact with the outside world. Sensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engaging in a "sensing" process. In addition, when discussing Sensation, we're really referring to the 5 physical senses; taste, touch, sight, sound, and smell. Some theorists have also added a 6th sense (and no, it's not the ability to see dead people) called intuition. Intuition is similar to instinct and is defined as an ability to be able to perceive something without having to discover it or perceive it. For example, sometimes we are able to sense danger without really knowing all the reasons why. Perception can be defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses. Perception varies from one individual to the next and is largely based on past experiences.
Sensation occurs in the following way: * Sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment. * Sensory receptors convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain.
Perception occurs in the following way: * The brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful.
Selective Attention - process of discriminating between what is important & is irrelevant (Seems redundant: selective-attention?), and is influenced by motivation. For example - students in class should focus on what the teachers are saying and the overheads being presented. Students walking by the classroom may focus on people in the room, who is the teacher, etc., and not the same thing the students in the class.
Perceptual Expectancy - how we perceive the world is a function of our past experiences, culture, and biological makeup. For example, as an American, when I look at a highway, I expect to see cars, trucks, etc, NOT boats. But someone from a different country with different experiences and history may not have any idea what to expect and thus be surprised when they see cars go driving by.
All senses are not equal for each person and we all have different balance of preferences for each one. Perhaps these preferences are learned in childhood, as we find greater value in visual or auditory signals and then naturally pay more attention to these, at the expenses of our other senses.
The extent to which we can gain information from a single sense is illustrated by those who have lost one sense and compensate through another. Blind person often have remarkable hearing and the deaf see things that many others do not.
Some people have a preference for visual signals (and will hence direct their attention this way). This is probably the most popular preference, as the world is literally always in your face. People who are blind are more impaired and have more problems adapting than those who have lost their other senses.
Other people are more attuned to the sounds around them, often in particular the intonation of others' voices. They may find more pleasure in music and are able to distinguish finer note divisions. Touch, taste and smell, although evocative typically contain too little information to be a preference channel for communication. Nevertheless, we each have levels of preference for each of these. These senses do come into their own, but more in specific circumstances, such as at meal times.
Three ways we sort things into patterns are by using proximity, similarity, and difference. In terms of proximity, we tend to think that things that are close together go together. For example, have you ever been waiting to be helped in a business and the clerk assumes that you and the person standing beside you are together? The slightly awkward moment usually ends when you and the other person in line look at each other, then back at the clerk, and one of you explains that you are not together. Even though you may have never met that other person in your life, the clerk used a basic perceptual organizing cue to group you together because you were standing in proximity to one another.
We also group things together based on similarity. We tend to think similar-looking or similar-acting things belong together. I have two friends that I occasionally go out with, and we are all three males, around the same age, of the same race, with short hair and glasses. Aside from that, we don’t really look alike, but on more than one occasion a server at a restaurant has assumed that we’re brothers. Despite the fact that many of our other features are different, the salient features are organized based on similarity and the three of us are suddenly related.
We also organize information that we take in based on difference. In this case, we assume that the item that looks or acts different from the rest doesn’t belong with the group. Perceptual errors involving people and assumptions of difference can be especially awkward, if not offensive. My friend’s mother, who is Vietnamese American, was attending a conference at which another attendee assumed she was a hotel worker and asked her to throw something away for her. In this case, my friend’s mother was a person of color at a convention with mostly white attendees, so an impression was formed based on the other person’s perception of this difference.
Although selecting and organizing incoming stimuli happens very quickly, and sometimes without much conscious thought, interpretation can be a much more deliberate and conscious step in the perception process. We assign meaning to our experiences using mental structures known as schemata. Schemata are like databases of stored, related information that we use to interpret new experiences. We all have fairly complicated schemata that have developed over time as small units of information combine to make more meaningful complexes of information. We interpret information using schemata, which allow us to assign meaning to information based on accumulated knowledge and previous experience.
It feels like we have direct access to reality but, in order to produce that feeling, our brain is stitching together all the different information from our senses and filling in the gaps using its best guess as to what is out there in the world. We notice the things that our brain thinks are important and can process very complex information quickly because our brain sometimes takes shortcuts. Normally we don’t even notice these shortcuts but visual illusions have helped us understand lots of the shortcuts used by the brain. Many illusions are based on your expectations – things that you have encountered in the past that have become wired into your brain. This is knowledge that influences the way we interpret and experience the world. This is because we assume that the world is fairly reliable based on our previous encounters so we assume that it is predictable.
The remarkable thing about illusions is that even when you know things are not what they seem, you still cannot force your mind to see it any other way. This is because your conscious mind is a product of your brain, which is feeding you the information.
The unconscious processing abilities of the human brain are estimated at roughly 11 million pieces of information per second. Compare that to the estimate for conscious processing: about 40 pieces per second.*
Our conscious processing capacity isn’t insignificant, but clearly it’s just a retention pond compared to the ocean of the unconscious. And more and more research is uncovering abilities of the unconscious that defy reason.
The reason seems to be that visual processing operates along two paths. The first is the one we’re most familiar with—how we visually perceive the world. The second is what our brains are unconsciously up to while we’re focused on merely “seeing.”
Our mind works like a "multi-tasking computer" that can do more than one thing at a time. Conscious mind is only one task. Compared to our nonconscious mind, our conscious mind is relatively limited. While we "watch and consciously experience" only a small part of what is potentially available to us in the outside world, our nonconscious mind is busy processing large amounts of information which is too hidden, too abundant, and/or too complex to be identified by our consciousness. As compared to our ability to acquire information nonconsciously, our conscious mind is incomparably slower; it is also "clumsier," less perceptive, and less capable of detecting complex patterns of information. One can say that our nonconsciousness is "smarter."
The nonconscious knowledge systems are not static. They constantly change. These changes may lead to a spontaneous ("self-perpetuating") growth of some dispositions on the expense of others, and a spontaneous creation of new ones (e.g., "nonconscious indirect inferences," "the development of meta-knowledge"). The internal dynamics of those changes influences the way we feel, think, reason, and experience the world around us. In most circumstances, this dynamics facilitates our cognition and our ability to efficiently cope with the environment. In some instances, however, it may cause mental disorders.
The information that is acquired nonconsciously (i.e., the nonconscious "knowledge structures") determines large portions of our personality, preferences, skills, "experience," and it is responsible for crucial aspects of our adjustment and the ability to function efficiently.
Memory
One of the major findings from the studies is the impact on declarative memory — a memory that can be consciously recalled and verbally described, such as what you did last weekend. The effects are powerful because people are retrieving memory and then incorporating new information. Memory can be manipulated by photos. The camera may not lie, but doctored photos do according to new research into digitally-altered photos and how they influence our memories and attitudes toward public events. Using the same broad parameters we can define memory as the means by which past experience is drawn on to guide or direct behavior or thoughts in the present.
Forgetting is a complex and not entirely well understood process. One theory is that the memory simply decays, that the information simply fades, possibly erased or "overwritten" in the brain. Much like the memory for what socks you wore three years ago last Tuesday. The interpretation there is that that memory was not deemed critical and was weakly consolidated and allowed to fade. Another theory is based on interference with retrieval. This holds that the retrieval of a given memory is impaired by other, especially similar, memories. The information may be there waiting for a strong reminder or retrieval cue. But when retrieved it may also be contaminated or blurred by those similar memories which might have been interfering with its recall. The take-home message is that human memory, while generally very good, long-lasting and accurate is not perfect or infallible. Despite all the processes and factors which can make memory better, we can still sometimes make honest mistakes based on our memories under the best of circumstances. Memories are fallible. They are reconstructions of reality filtered through people's minds, not perfect snapshots of events. Because memories are reconstructed, they are susceptible to being manipulated with false information. Memory errors occur when memories are recalled incorrectly; a memory gap is the complete loss of a memory.
A schema is a generalization formed in the mind based on experience. People tend to place past events into existing representations of the world to make memories more coherent. Instead of remembering precise details about commonplace occurrences, people use schemas to create frameworks for typical experiences, which shape their expectations and memories. The common use of schemas suggests that memories are not identical reproductions of experience, but a combination of actual events and already-existing schemas. Likewise, the brain has the tendency to fill in blanks and inconsistencies in a memory by making use of the imagination and similarities with other memories.
Much research has shown that the phrasing of questions can also alter memories. A leading question is a question that suggests the answer or contains the information the examiner is looking for. Intrusion errors occur when information that is related to the theme of a certain memory, but was not actually a part of the original episode, become associated with the event. This makes it difficult to distinguish which elements are in fact part of the original memory. Intrusion errors are frequently studied through word-list recall tests. Intrusion errors can be divided into two categories. The first are known as extra-list errors, which occur when incorrect and non-related items are recalled, and were not part of the word study list. These types of intrusion errors often follow what are known as the DRM Paradigm effects, in which the incorrectly recalled items are often thematically related to the study list one is attempting to recall from. Another pattern for extra-list intrusions would be an acoustic similarity pattern, which states that targets that have a similar sound to non-targets may be replaced with those non-targets in recall. The second type of intrusion errors are known as intra-list errors, which consist of irrelevant recall for items that were on the word study list. Although these two categories of intrusion errors are based on word-list studies in laboratories, the concepts can be extrapolated to real-life situations.
There are many different types of memory bias. * Fading-Affect Bias - In this type of bias, the emotion associated with unpleasant memories "fades" (i.e., is recalled less easily or is even forgotten) more quickly than emotion associated with positive memories. * Illusory Correlation - When you experience illusory correlation, you inaccurately assume a relationship between two events related purely by coincidence. This type of bias comes from the human tendency to see cause-and-effect relationships when there are none; remember, correlation does not imply causation. * Source Amnesia - Source amnesia is the inability to remember where, when, or how previously learned information was acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge. Source amnesia is part of ordinary forgetting, but can also be a memory disorder. People suffering from source amnesia can also get confused about the exact content of what is remembered. * Source Confusion - Source confusion, in contrast, is not remembering the source of a memory correctly, such as personally witnessing an event versus actually only having been told about it. An example of this would be remembering the details of having been through an event, while in reality, you had seen the event depicted on television.
Limited information is available on what is commonly thought of as "working memory"--the collection of information that an analyst holds in the forefront of the mind as he or she does analysis. The general concept of working memory seems clear from personal introspection. In writing this chapter, I am very conscious of the constraints on my ability to keep many pieces of information in mind while experimenting with ways to organize this information and seeking words to express my thoughts. To help offset these limits on my working memory, I have accumulated a large number of written notes containing ideas and half-written paragraphs. Only by using such external memory aids am I able to cope with the volume and complexity of the information I want to use. The limitation on working memory is the source of many problems. People have difficulty grasping a problem in all its complexity. This is why we sometimes have trouble making up our minds. For example, we think first about the arguments in favor, and then about the arguments against, and we can't keep all those pros and cons in our head at the same time to get an overview of how they balance off against each other.
The recommended technique for coping with this limitation of working memory is called externalizing the problem--getting it out of one's head and down on paper in some simplified form that shows the main elements of the problem and how they relate to each other. Chapter 7, "Structuring Analytical Problems," discusses ways of doing this. They all involve breaking down a problem into its component parts and then preparing a simple "model" that shows how the parts relate to the whole. When working on a small part of the problem, the model keeps one from losing sight of the whole.
A simple model of an analytical problem facilitates the assimilation of new information into long-term memory; it provides a structure to which bits and pieces of information can be related. The model defines the categories for filing information in memory and retrieving it on demand. In other words, it serves as a mnemonic device that provides the hooks on which to hang information so that it can be found when needed.
Human memory is not limitless but no one has ever documented a case where a human is unable to store more information because his/her memory is full. The speed of human memory can be seen as a delay in our ability to access facts. Accuracy of human memory has considerable implications in many areas of life but none of these has been investigated more thoroughly that the area of eye witness testimony. The capacity of the human brain is unlikely to be limitless. It is a difficult job however to estimate this capacity in terms of storage space as can easily be none with a digital computer. It is likely that there would not be a point reached where a human memory is ‘full up’ and no more can be stored. It is more likely that new memories would displace or interfere with old memories. The speed at which we can process information is limited by the physical construction of our brains and the organization of the mechanisms within. Neurons (brain cells) have a characteristic operating time which sets certain limitations on speed. The organization of memories within the brain may also set other limitations. Working memory may also limit processing speed. Effects such as the mental rotation tasks suggest that working memory is organized to process spatial information in a specific way.
The components of The Information Processing System
Encoding (mentally processing information so it can be entered into memory). Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli.
Storage (holding that information for a period of time). Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli.
Retrieval (accessing or recalling stored memories when needed). Output processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate response to a stimulus.
Motivation
Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind the actions of an individual. Many who are educated in these different types of motivation feel that it is most valuable to foster intrinsic motivation. While any type of strong motivation is sure to produce positive results, someone who is intrinsically motivated to engage in an activity will not only be adept at performing the task at hand, he or she will enjoy completing the task. Some social psychologists feel that too much extrinsic motivation can actually cause a reduction in intrinsic motivation. When attempting to foster intrinsic motivation, it is important to remember not to over-reward for desired behaviors. Although this risk is present, the Self-determination theory asserts that extrinsic motivations can become intrinsic motivations if the behavior fits within the individual’s value system and is internalized.
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic means internal or inside of yourself. When you are intrinsically motivated, you enjoy an activity, course or skill development solely for the satisfaction of learning and having fun, and you are determined to strive inwardly in order to be competent. There is not external inducement when intrinsic motivation is the key to behavior or outcome.
Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic means external or outside of yourself. This type of motivation is everywhere and frequently used within society throughout your lifetime. When you are motivated to behave, achieve, learn or do based on a highly regarded outcome, rather than for the fun, development or learning provided within an experience, you are being extrinsically motivated.
Different types of work personalities exist and thrive on different types of motivation. The research of famous American psychologist, John Holland found that people who choose an environment similar to their individual personality type are more likely to be successful and satisfied employees. If effort to achieve success is driven by motivation, and if personality affects motivation, then personality also affects a person’s likelihood of pursuing professional achievement.
According to Holland's theory, most people are one of six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional.
The Realistic personality: * Enjoys using their hands and eyes to explore the world. * Isn’t inclined to engage in social activities. * Works best with tools, machines, or plants and animals. * Prides oneself in being practical, mechanical, strong and realistic.
The Investigative personality: * Enjoys solving math or science problems. * Doesn’t enjoy leading, selling, or trying to persuade people. * Solves science and math problems easily. * Prides oneself in being precise, scientific, and intellectual.
The Artistic personality: * Enjoys creative activities like visual and performing arts or creative writing. * Generally avoids tedious, highly ordered or repetitive activities. * Boasts strong artistic abilities in creative writing, drama, crafts, music, or art. * Sees self as expressive, original, and independent.
The Social personality: * Excels at extroverted activities like teaching, nursing, giving first aid, or providing information. * Generally avoids working with animals, machines, or tools. * Values helping people and solving social problems. * Sees self as helpful, friendly, and trustworthy.
The Enterprising personality: * Enjoys selling products and ideas, or any other activity that involves persuading people. * Generally avoids work that requires monotonous or detailed observation and scientific or analytical thinking. * Is a skilled leader and excels at selling items or ideas. * Values success in politics, leadership, or business. * Prides himself or herself in being energetic, ambitious, and sociable.
The Conventional personality: * Excels in working with numbers, records, or machines in a systematic, orderly way. * Usually avoids ambiguous, unstructured or abstract activities. * Prides oneself in being orderly and punctual.
Intrinsic motivation assumes that we are all born with an innate capacity to learn and that learning is generally a natural and enjoyable activity. Motives are often categorized into primary, or basic, motives, which are unlearned and common to both animals and humans; and secondary, or learned, motives, which can differ from animal to animal and person to person. Primary motives are thought to include hunger, thirst, sex, avoidance of pain, and perhaps aggression and fear. Secondary motives typically studied in humans include achievement, power motivation, and numerous other specialized motives.
Personality and Social Psychology
Read the following anecdote:

Yuri, an exchange student from Russia, was gratified by the warm reception he got upon his arrival in the U.S. He was greeted by broad smiles and was frequently invited into homes for meals. He was invited to stay in American homes several times. At cultural events, people would say to Yuri, "You must drop by and see us sometime."

Yuri called home and enthusiastically told his family, "Americans are so friendly! We are going to be close friends and see a lot of each other."
When researching this topic, some questions to consider in your response may include: a. What is Yuri's view of Americans, and on what does he base this perception? (Before you answer this…think of how many times you tell someone to “stop by anytime” but really anticipate that someone would call first.)
Yuri’s view is on Americans is that we are all friendly. He based this perception how well he was greeted and asked into many people’s homes in a short period of time. Most people use this as a ice breaker to show stranger’s kindness. Normally, a person do not mean it unless you call first which Yuri would not know this custom. b. Is Yuri's perception accurate? Will the friendly Americans remember the invitations for Yuri to stop by? How durable are friendships with strangers in the U.S.?
Yuri’s perception is not entirely accurate. There are some people who are genuinely kind and mean what they say to a stranger. There are some however, use these phrases just toe seem “nice” but they do not mean for the person to take them up on the offer. In the event that Yuri takes them up on the offer, normally they would have either forgot all about the conversation or think that Yuri was weird and tell him how they really feel. More than likely, the friendly Americans will not remember this offer because it was not supposed to be taken literally. Durability of the friendships with strangers in the U.S varies based on the person. In general, friendships with strangers is not durable at all but this cannot be said for all Americans. c. Are the signs of friendship the same everywhere? To what do friendships obligate you in the U.S.? Are the obligations the same in other cultures?
The signs of friendship is not the same everywhere. Even in other cultures, signs of friendship are not the same. Friendships obligate people to get to know each other better, take them for who they are, let them know before they decide to stop by, and just be there for them when they need you. I would like to think that friendship obligations have the same basis but in reality, they do differ in other cultures. d. What do our social interactions tell us about trust vs. mistrust, relationships, and how accurate our perceptions are about others even in our own culture?
Social interactions tells us that trust means that you can counted on and mean what you say. Mistrust is someone who openly lies to you and misuse and abuse one’s relationship with another. As far as relationships, they are built on a two way street. One has to give what they want to receive from their friend. Our perceptions of other are not as accurate as most may think. Many people that their perception is the most accurate measurement which is based on their intuition. While doing our research, we have found that this way of thinking is flawed.

Works Cited
Lewicki, Pawel. “Conclusions of the Research on Nonconscious Information Processing”. Psychology Department, University of Tulsa. http://www.mwbp.org/research/lewicki/simple.html
Nash. “The Limitations of the Common Sense Approach”. The Synthesis: The Method. 2, February 2008. http://thesynthesis.info/content/limitations-common-sense-approach
Boundless. “Memory Distortions and Biases.” Boundless Psychology. Boundless, 20 Aug. 2015. Retrieved 14 Sep. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/memory-8/memory-distortions-58/memory-distortions-and-biases-224-12759/ http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy301/Salinas/05Learning&Memory.htm Cherry, K. A. (2007). Forgetting. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/forgetting.htm
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Information Processing. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/information-processing.html
Thompson, Novella. “The Difference Between Intrinsic Motivation & Extrinsic Motivation” Live Strong.com. March 12, 2014. http://www.livestrong.com/article/174305-the-difference-between-intrinsic-motivation-extrinsic-motivation/
Sarah Mae Sincero (Sep 16, 2012). Nature and Nurture Debate. Retrieved Aug 24, 2015 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/nature-vs-nurture-debate
Cherry, K. A. (2009). What is nature versus nurture? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/nindex/g/nature-nurture.htm
McLeod, S. A. (2007). Nature Nurture in Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html

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