Free Essay

# Final Research Paper

In:

Submitted By dpbrocato42
Words 1686
Pages 7
Uses of Fluid Mechanics with Relevant References. Fluid mechanics is the application of the laws of fore and motion to fluids. Within fluid mechanics there are two studies of fluid mechanics: Fluid statics, the study if fluids at rest within a system, or Fluid Dynamics which is the study of fluids that are in motion within a system. A fluid is a substance that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure. The substance continually deforms or flows under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the states of matter and include three of the four states of matter [1]. An example of tangential shear stress can be something as simple as a piece of wood floating on a small body of water. If the force, F, is applied at the end of one side, then the board transmits a tangential shear stress, denoted as, t, to the surface of the water. Shear stress is defined as the tangential to the area over which it acts, and is expressed in the same units as Direct Stress [2]. “If a shear stress is applied to the surface of a solid, the solid will deform a little, and then remain at rest (in its distorted shape). One can say that the solid (at rest) is able to resist the shear stress.” [2] Both the board and the water will move as long as the force exerted and the tangential sheer stress are not equal to zero. Think about this, a fluid can only experience a normal stress when there is no force being acted upon the system obtained by the fluid. Therefore, since the fluid is at rest it can’t resist a shear stress. When you are learning about a new topic or are trying to dive deeper with in a specific area, you must know the in’s and the outs of the area of study. So, with fluid mechanics and the understanding of such things you must know the properties behind them to really know how they work. Fluid properties are within the spectra of understanding such things as this. One of the fluid properties is the fluids mass density, p, which is the volumetric mass density of a particular substance [3]. Mass density I directly related to both temperature and the fluid of which is being test. Because there are many different types of fluids there must also be a specific number given to those mass densities, which has the units of kg/m^3. As mentioned before there are two types of Fluid Mechanics: Fluid statics, the study if fluids at rest, or Fluid Dynamics which is the study of fluids in motion. Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest. It embraces the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in equilibrium [4]. The most basic example of hydrostatics is a basic pump. Pumps are used to raise or move fluids, there are two types of pumps, hydrostatic, or positive displacement pumps. Pumps can generally be described as having a piston that fits very closely on the inside of a cylinder that is pushing a fluid back and forth along the cylinder’s channel. Think of how a syringe works, it is used by pulling back or pressing forward that center of that which is located tightly within the channel of the cylinder. In order to find the hydrostatic pressure within a system we have to know a few things first. First, we need to find the density of the liquid that is within our system. Next, we need to know the height or depth of the reservoir holding the fluid. We already know the acceleration due to gravity which is 9.8 m/s^2. Now, in order to find the pressure within the hydrostatic system we take all three of the known items and multiply them together. For example, if we want to find the amount of pressure a scuba diver experiences 20 meters in the ocean; P = p*g*h so, the average density of saltwater found in the ocean is said to be 1,030 kg/m^3 [5]. If we take those numbers and multiply (1,030 kg/m^3) (9.8 m/s^2)(25 m) we are given our pressure in Pascals which in this case is 252,350 Pascals. Our second type of fluid mechanics is fluid dynamics which is the study of fluids that are in motion within a system. Like all things in life the ‘fluids’ that are studied within the realm of fluid dynamics does not necessarily mean that it has to be a liquid it just simply means a ‘fluid like’ motion or action. Like all other motion in Newtonian physics, fluid is conceptualized by Newton’s laws. In some ways or others it is entirely possible to use Newton’s second law to describe the velocity within a fluid as a function of position over time. However, to use Newton’s laws could raise a bit of confusion so instead of talking problems that way, I approached problems using the conservation of energy when trying to describe how dynamic fluids behaved. A well explained example that I came across was to consider a steady fluid flow represented by streamlines. A flow tube which can be best described has a cone like shape with openings at both ends and allows to air to flow through it with ease. The flow tube itself has a cross sectioned area where the fluid velocity and other properties are different depending on the actual cross section itself. At any rate, the fluid could be affected during any section of the flow tube depending on the design and structure type of the flow tube its self. Within the fluid flow of the system, just to keep in mind, the amount of fluid flowing into the flow tube to the left must equal the flow leaving to the right. This does not mean that the velocity entering and leaving must equal one another this just means that the flow rate (gallons per minute) must equal one another, because as we all know that the conservation of energy states that energy can’t be created nor destroyed. As long as the fluid is steady, and the fluid is non-viscous and incompressible, the flow can be looked at from an energy perspective. [6] This is what Bernoulli’s equation does, relating pressure, velocity and height of a fluid at one point to the same parameters at a second point. [6] With Bernoulli’s equation we have to consider fluid running through a pipe parallel with the ground. At a particular point on the pipe is significantly smaller than the rest of the pipe. By using the continuity equation which is pvA= constant along a flow tube, the velocity would be higher in the more narrow sections of the tube [7]. Since the pipe is horizontal the beginning and the end of the pipe are both at the same height we can apply the Bernoulli equation to find the energy flow through the flow tube. That equation is found to be, p + ((1/2)*p*v^2) + p*g*y= constant along the flow tube. When thinking of an example of Bernoulli’s equation, a tank holding water and a hole at the bottom of the tank draining the water is an example that comes to mind. The large tank has a height of h and a liquid density of p. We need to find the speed at which the liquid is emerging from the hole. We’re interested in the water’s velocity at the hole, so at that point is where we will apply most of our formulas. By using Bernoulli’s equation and assuming that the top is equal to zero because of the slow decrease in height we can manipulate the Bernoulli’s equation down to square root(2gh) = Velocity of the hole. Within the realm of fluid mechanics there are two major types associated with the subject, which is the study of fluid statics the study of fluids at rest within a system, and the study of Fluid Dynamics which is the study of fluids that are in motion within a system. The laws of both mass and energy conservation that we previously derived for the fluids allow us to analyze a wide variety of both natural and technological phenomena. When attempting to figure out the answers mathematically, we would usually use both the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s equation as long as you consider the values of the appropriate constants at the flow points at the end of the pipes. Fluid mechanics can be applied to many more applications than what is found within this paper. Some of those include, but are not limited to, Flight and lift of helicopters and planes specifically focusing on the wings and the wind flowing around them. Viscosity and turbulence is another application to the learning of fluid mechanics. Although we have only scratched the surface of fluid mechanics I believe that the basis for conceptual knowledge of this subject can be well understood.

Work Cited

[1] What is a Fluid? - Boundless Open Textbook. (n.d.). Boundless. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from https://www.boundless.com/physics/fluids/fluid-as-a-phase-of-matter/what-is-a-fluid/
[2] What is Fluid Mechanics?. (n.d.). What is Fluid Mechanics?. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.mne.psu.edu/cimbala/Learning/Fluid/Introductory/what_is_fluid_mechanics.htm
[3] Mass density. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Mass+density
[4] Fluid statics. (2014, July 22). Wikipedia. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_statics
[5] Seawater. (n.d.). Seawater. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/seawater.html
[6] Fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation. (n.d.). Fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/py105/Bernoulli.html
[7] Continuity Equation. (n.d.). Princeton University. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from https://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/Bicycle_web/continuity.html

### Similar Documents

#### Final Research Paper

...Research Paper 1 Introduction to Sociology Richard Fields SOC 101: Research Paper Jeremy Baker December 2, 2013 Research Paper 2 Research Paper This outline paper contains the importance of three Sociological theories, Functionalism, Conflict and Interaction of the sociological institution of economics. It discusses five different elements; (1) how each theory that applies to the sociological institution, (2) what is the same and differences, (3) how each theory affects the views of the individual who is part of the institution, (4) the approach to social change within the institution, and lastly (5) how each theory affects the views of society. Along with how does each theory apply to the sociological institution or economics. The functionalism theory in regards to economics does certainly affect the world which we live in. This change is noted by Hegelian dialectics, functionalism and structuralism, (Karsten, 2005). There are economies becoming intertwined within the increasing internet of the global economy. Enterprises have developed a global idea by internationalizing their products and services, encouraging labor and capital to move quickly among industrialized countries, affecting social, fiscal, and monetary policies. Additional developments have increased awareness on a global scale, human rights, the environment, demographics, and natural...

Words: 2559 - Pages: 11

#### It Research Paper-Final

Words: 4145 - Pages: 17

#### Final Research Paper

...“Stretch U is a fitness company committed to delivering systematic stretching techniques that are affordable, time-saving, and endorsed by healthcare professionals.” (Meyer, 2012) Stretch U is a fairly new company that opened in October of the year 2010. At that time, there was only one store opened in the area and since then, the company has rapidly grown. In May of this year, Stretch U purchased a trademark and decided to become a franchise company. There are now stores in amongst three different states, as well as several stores in Oklahoma. Being an employee with the company before this was the case; I have seen an immense change in the use of management information systems. Even when the company consisted of only one store, management information systems were being utilized, but as the company grew larger, and expanded throughout different states, the use of information systems have become a vital source in the success of the company. According to Wallace, businesses use information systems primarily for transaction processing, human resources management, customer relationship management, collaboration, corporate training, and financial modeling; manufacturing processes, supply chain management, customer support, and all the other processes along the value chain (Wallace, 2013, p. 77). By managing data and information efficiently with different software, Stretch U has and will continue to benefit in several ways, such as, improving performance, reducing costs,...

Words: 2366 - Pages: 10

#### Final Research Paper

...Daycare: Good or Bad? Hope Plummer English 122: English Composition 2 Instructor Larry Holden 3/02/2014 Daycare: Good or Bad? In this day and age, more women are becoming more active in the workplace which forces them to leave their children in a daycare atmosphere. The first few years of a child's life are detrimental to their development. In general, traditional daycare settings do not have a reputation for being emotionally healthy, so we must ask ourselves the question, is public daycare worth the risks? In this paper, I will provide compelling examples as to why I believe public daycare settings are unhealthy for positive cognitive and social development as well as my suggestions for what type of childcare would be healthier. One of the reasons parents opt to keep their children out of daycare is due to the amount of germs their child will get exposed to on a daily basis. 'Children in day care centers are more likely to catch an infection than kids who do not attend day care. Children who go to day care are often around other kids who may be sick.'(Kaneshiro, 2012) This is partly due to the high number of children in each classroom and caregivers not using the proper sanitary actions necessary with high volumes of children. There are simply too many children to look after. This leaves many classes understaffed. I personally worked at a daycare for a decent amount of time and I can vouch for that fact firsthand. There...

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

#### Final Research Paper

...Gung HO Question 1: Identify 3 Pros of American work culture & 3 Cons of Japanese work culture? The Pros of American work culture& cons of Japanese work culture are as follow: * Americans have a more direct communication style while Japanese are indirect communicators * Americans maintain more eye contact while Japanese feel uncomfortable with eye contact * Americans feel more comfortable in team working because they communicate easily while Japanese avoid or work less in team because they are not good communicators. * Americans prefer to work more as well as enjoy their lives too but Japanese can only concentrate on work they have less or no concentrate on entertainment. * Americans are much good or bold in admit their mistake and refer the right person while Japanese are fewer bolts in admitting their mistake. Question 2: Was Hunt a successful Human resource manager, in either case YES or NO support your answer? Yes, Hunt is a successful human resource manager because He works as a liaison between Americans and Japanese .He tried his best to fulfill the demands of their Japanese customer and work as a bridge to convey their messages and solve problem. He even don’t leave hope and stands for the American plant for last times when he know that all the people are not there to help him he can’t feel hopeless and medicate the clash of work attitudes between the foreign management and native labor. Question 3: Identify the five main reasons...

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

#### Final Research Paper

Words: 2246 - Pages: 9

#### Ant101 Final Research Paper

...Final Research Paper Tanya ANT 101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology   Final Research Paper Different societies exist throughout the world and within these societies each society develops culture that works best for them. Within these cultures they pass all their acquired knowledge and traditions down from generation to generation. Nevertheless, each culture has their own way of life, own marriage beliefs, their own values and feelings on life and religious beliefs. Cultures tend to have their own way to run their government, and ways to keep their economy up to their standards. Most importantly in cultural anthropology it is imperative to value culture relativism. This is the view in which no culture is superior to other culture when comparing systems such as morality, law, and politics (Crapo, 2013). Each culture beliefs are equally valid depending on the environment. In this paper, I will delve into a piece of my culture from an outsider’s standpoint, an etic perspective, and furthermore, I will examine another culture from an emic perspective on their traditional practices. Not only will I examine gender roles and equality in the United States workforce from an etic perspective, but also polygyny in Sub-Saharan Africa from an emic perspective. Throughout American history the number of women in the United States workforce has been increasing even though American society has always claimed men to be the breadwinners and heads of the house. According to...

Words: 1307 - Pages: 6

#### En1420 Final Research Paper

...Is Obesity a Disease? Jacqueline Valencia Network Systems Administration ITT Technical Institute, Orange Campus May 26, 2014 Is Obesity a Disease? What is the definition of disease? According to Dictionary.com the definition of disease is: a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or developmental errors, infection, poisons, nutritional deficiency or imbalance, toxicity, or unfavorable environmental factors; illness; sickness; ailment. The United States is the second most obese industrialized country in the world. A 2013 report stated that 31.8% of Americans were obese, compared to 14% in the mid-1970’s. Obesity accounts for 10% of deaths and healthcare spending in the United States. Supporters contend that obesity is a disease because it meets the definition of disease. It decreases life expectancy and impairs the normal functioning of the body and it can be caused by genetic factors. I find myself on the opponents’ side who contend that obesity is not a disease because it is a preventable risk factor for other diseases. It is the result of eating too much and is caused by the lack of physical activity. In the health care bill H.R. 3962 approved by the House of Representatives on October 29, 2009, “being overweight or obese” is not classified as a disease but as a “behavioral risk factor” along with alcohol and drug use, tobacco, poor nutrition, physical inactivity and risky sex...

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

#### En1320 Final Research Paper

...EN1320 Final Research Paper | The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and keep it. (Gen. 2:15, Revised Standard Version) In the beginning man was given the responsibility for keeping the earth. As good care takers it’s our responsibility to ensure the survival of all the animals and plants on earth. The earth is made up of elements, and within those elements are the countless numbers of species, each interwoven within the fabric of life itself. The effects of man on the environment have a negative reaction to all other species. Studies of earth’s history show mass extinction events. Scientist project we are living within such an event. The world is heading toward imminent mass species extinction. A healthy earth may not be possible due to the irreversible effect brought on my man. Endangered plants and animals face the risk of becoming extinct, disappearing completely from the world of living things. Human survival has had such an effect on all other species around them. Hunting, fishing, or gathering may have reduced the populations of many species to levels too low for the species to survive, especially when there is a profitable trade in goods made from wild animals and plants. (Current Issues, 2010) The Earth should be big enough of all plants and animals to thrive but according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, humans are using about half the available land. (Wilson, 2012) The American Association...

Words: 1012 - Pages: 5

#### Engl135 Final Research Paper

...An Unnecessary and Cruel Sport Claudia Santos DeVry University An Unnecessary and Cruel Sport According to nature, the food chain begins and ends with a prey and its predator. Hunting is also one of the laws made by nature to balance the population on the earth's surface and it is through hunting, that the circle of life is complete. But an excess of anything is considered injurious, and this applies for hunting as well. Although it was a crucial part of humans’ survival 100,000 years ago, hunting is now nothing more than a violent form of recreation that the vast majority of hunters do not need for subsistence. Today men practice hunting as nothing but one of those among a list of hobbies, because there is no requirement for predation by humans in modern times. Sport Hunting should be banned because it can be dangerous, cruel and it contributes to the extinction of animal species all over the world. Many believe in hunting as a hobby, because it serves as a great outdoor experience. It might even be considered as a good exercise, on a day out! The truth is that Hunting is, by its’ nature, a dangerous sport. Hundreds of individuals armed with long range weapons through the woods are a perfect formula for a tragedy. This is especially true when the average hunter only shoots one of two days a year. Hunting accidents destroy property and injure or kill cats, dogs, horses, hikers and other hunters. According to International Hunter Education Association, about 1,000 people...

Words: 1262 - Pages: 6

#### Research 341 Final Paper

...arch 341 Selected Issues/Problems Paper Team “B” University of Phoenix RES/341 Paul Mahajan Introduction Compiling statistical information for the housing market has been a challenging task. There are many forms, articles, publications, and internet sites that provide information on the current state of the housing market. The following paper will illustrate a consolidation of all of the research information gathered from various sources. This paper will show the measures of central tendency, dispersion, and skew for all of the data collected. The research gathered will also display descriptive statistical data using graphic and tabular techniques. With all information gathered, this paper will discuss the best measures of central tendency and dispersion of all the statistical data collected. Purpose of the Research The purpose of the research is to show the current trends in the housing market. To own a home or business of which somebody can call their own is the American dream. American’s search far and wide to find the right home or business location that fits perfectly for their family’s or business needs. People looking for homes are constantly doing research on prices of homes, number of bedrooms, and number of Individuals looking for a place to establish their business must decide on which location works best for their new business. Real Estate agents use the same research to get the specific details of homes or office buildings so they can sell...

Words: 4935 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

#### Enc102 Research Paper Final

...Online Censoring of Pornographic Material: A Threat to our Youth A Thesis Presented to Mentor: Richard H. Dery of Thomas Edison State College In (Partial) Fulfillment Of the Requirements for ENC-102-OL011: English Composition II By Ashley Mann February 2013 “Every second 28,258 Internet users are viewing pornography.” (MyKidsBrowser.com) “The pornography industry itself is larger than the revenues of the top technology companies combined: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, Yahoo!, Apple, Netflix and EarthLink.” (FamilySafeMedia.com) The largest group of viewers of Internet porn is children between the ages of 12 and 17. Certain aspects portrayed on the Internet are too explicit and are therefore considered unsuitable for young age groups; censorship is used to regulate what is appropriate for young impressionable minds. Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. (Wikipedia.org) Opinions on the topic of Internet censorship vary, with arguments being made both for and against censorship. Although people have a right to decide for themselves what is and is not appropriate however, when it comes to our youth and those innocent to these materials our legislation should protect them from sexually explicit materials. Much of this material can be easily accessed. Nine out of 10 children aged between eight and 16 have viewed pornography on the Internet...

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

#### Final Project Persuasive Research Paper

...Final Project: Persuasive Research Paper Nycole Chatman COM/220 October 28, 2012 Debbi Kutner Reducing Recidivism in today’s Society Final Project: Persuasive Research Paper Reducing Recidivism in today’s Society Education and job skills are key elements to reducing recidivism therefore; prisons, county jails, and the probation offices should adopt mandatory programs so ex-offenders can become productive members of society. Every year approximately 9 million people are released from prison in the U.S. (Center, T. N.-e., 2012) and due to lack of education and job skills, 52% of those 9 million returns within three years. According to Yamatani & Spjeldnes (2011), “The United States represents only 5 percent of the world’s population, but we hold 25 percent of the world's inmates in our prisons and jails (Pew Center on the States, 2008). We have more people behind bars in total numbers and per capita than any other industrialized country--2.3 million out of nearly 300 million (750 per 100,000 residents)--one out of 100 U.S.” This essay will show the difference between recidivism and rehabilitation as well as showing how education and job training can effectively reduce the rate of recidivism in the U.S. What is recidivism you ask? The Merriam-Webster defines recidivism as a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2012)...

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

#### Harley Davidson Final Research Paper

...Final Research Paper Harley Davidson Company Name: Institution: Table of Contents Executive summary 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 Situation Analysis 2 2.1 Strategic pillars to ensure continued success and growth 2 2.1.1Producing environmentally suitable products 2 2.1.2Making new models and modifying existing models 3 2.1.3 Employing competent and robust leadership 3 2.1.4Ensuring sustainability in maintaining future success 3 2.2 Internal performance 4 2.3 Performance indicators 5 2.4 Industry perspectives 6 2.5 External factors 8 Problem Analysis and Description 9 Solutions, evaluations and recommendation 11 4.1 Diversify their products 11 4.2 Aggressive advertisement locally and internationally 12 4.3 Improve plant efficiency 12 4.4 Recommendations 13 Implementation Plan 13 Success Metrics 14 Bibliography 16 Appendix 18 Executive summary 1.0 Introduction Harley-Davidson Company is an American automotive company that specialises in producing motorbikes founded in 1903. It is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States. Harley Davidson is one of the most robust and financially strong companies with over 5900 employees and sales reaching \$6.23 billion (Forbes, 2015). The company manufactures and sells heavyweight motorcycles and motorcycle parts, accessories, general merchandise. They also offer other related services like financing retailers and insurance. 1.1 Background ...

Words: 5291 - Pages: 22