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Final Tok Essay

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By maya629
Words 1383
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The traditional TOK diagram indicates four ways of knowing. Propose the inclusion of a fifth way of knowing selected from intuition, memory or imagination, and explore the knowledge issues it may raise in two areas of knowledge. The study of Theory of Knowledge (TOK) indicates four distinct ways of knowing: sense perception, emotion, reason and language; however, in this essay I will argue for the inclusion of intuition as a fifth way of knowing. Intuition is that moment of enlightenment that is unexpected in which something is revealed to give one a greater understanding on a problem or puzzle or issue of concern that is perplexing. A knowledge issue worth examining in relation to the role intuition plays in these areas of knowledge is: How does intuition lead to knowledge acquisition in the natural sciences and in ethics?

Personal intuitive insight has to be in some form of communication which conforms to requirements of public knowledge, natural sciences conforming to scientific method to test the truth, ethics examining its ethical structure to test to what extent our personal insight can be applied to public knowledge. One may ask, “why is intuition valuable as a way of knowing?” The brilliance of intuition is such that it occurs without seeming to have a structural basis. It is not consciously premeditated thinking; it is that moment of revelation of the thinking inside the mind, acquired from a range of experiences, which culminates in that moment of intuitive insight. Intuition represents a thinking outside structured knowledge—the ability to explore possibilities rather than thinking “within the box.” After that “Eureka!” moment, we test the validity of the intuitive idea in order to determine its validity as justified true belief or knowledge. In order to verify intuitive thoughts, the four other ways of knowing can be applied to verify whether intuition can be justified.

Intuition operates in conjunction with and independently from the four traditional ways of knowing. Like other forms of knowing, intuition demands examination to test the truth or accuracy of its conclusion. I am going to explore the problems intuition raises in the area of natural sciences and ethics.

In the natural sciences, intuition has played a crucial role in scientific innovation and progress. Not infrequently, scientific breakthroughs emerge from hunches that individual scientists have. Ernest Rutherford’s gold foil experiment disproved J.J Thomson’s “Plum Pudding” model, as positively charged alpha particles did not pass through the gold foil. Advancements have been made in physics since Rutherford’s original experiment in 1911. While Rutherford's model is no longer viewed as completely correct, it still provides a simple, intuitive model of the atom. Rutherford’s model is based on evidence that allowed for scientific innovations and we are now able to predict the number of particles, which will be deflected through various angles. Scientists, despite their reputation of being solely rational, actually operate in the way that individuals in society do. People all the time decide what should be done or what seems right based on their evaluation of past experiences. In both cases, the individual instinctually knows what should be done or what is true,

then applies logic using other ways of knowing, such as reason and sense perception, to validate or invalidate the prior intuitive sense. This gives rise to the knowledge issue, how can we know when to follow our intuition when it is in conflict with observable data?

One of the limitations of studying physics is that we all reside in a physical world and have seen how bodies interact. My observations and experiences provided me with an intuition of what would happen without any conscious reasoning. In this case, observable data contributed to my intuition. If a new set of data conflicted with my intuition, then I would feel the need to investigate further and in the process gain new knowledge.

At times our intuition is based on the connection we have made that proves to be weaker and substantiated. For my extended essay, as a part of a larger exploration, I devised an experiment to test my intuition that acetone and ethanol combined would extract more chlorophyll than using these solvents individually. However, the results indicated that acetone extracted more chlorophyll than the mixture of acetone and ethanol. The observable data was in conflict with my intuition and in this case I had to discard my intuitive feeling and recognize that according to the observable data, my hypothesis was not correct. Through sense perception, I found that my prior intuition had been invalid. Ethics is the consideration of the contextual effect of human action on people, animals and the planet, the conscious intuitive sense of right and wrong, within a larger framework of historical and cultural relativity. Immanuel Kant posits the reasoning that morals are morals when engaged in within the framework of social understanding. One group’s idea of morals changes significantly depending on what the social group defines as morals. If a group decides that morals are rules of behavior that help ensure the greatest good for the greatest number of people, as in the utilitarian model of ethics, moral behavior must be determined on case by case basis. An ethical dilemma rises when our intuition tells us that an act is wrong even though we recognize that this act will benefit the most people. This school of thought leads to the knowledge issue: What role does intuition play in determining the most ethical response to a situation?

Recently my brother broke the footboard of my bed while playing soccer in my bedroom. As soon as I was aware of this situation, I immediately knew I was not going to inform my parents about this accident. At the time I simply followed my intuition and did not make an effort to understand my decision. Upon thinking about it later, I rationally realized that this was the best decision, as it protected my brother and the damage was minimal—it only affected the aesthetics, not the utility, of the bed. Technically, my brother and I both told a lie of omission and so we did something “wrong.” According to the deontological model of ethics, in which we must always do what we understand to be right and follow a rigid set of values, I acted in an unethical way. This personal experience demonstrates that our intuition guides us when determining which ethical model to apply to our situation.

If one has more experiences, they can make better intuitive decisions as they have a bigger databanks to draw “hunches” from. However, intuition is sometimes contextualized under emotion. It is often described as a “gut feeling,” which allows us to sense if things are right or not. In this case, intuition is being viewed as a subset of emotion. Other ways of knowing also work in conjunction with each other, such as language and emotion. When a powerful emotion, such as anger, is triggered, people tend to use emotive language to express themselves. By doing so, they are using two distinct ways of knowing together. From this assertion it can be said that there is no distinct way of knowing as they all work in conjunction with each other, but that is not the case. Intuition can limit one’s decision-­‐making capability if they are a part of a society that supports censorship. By blocking the knowledge from entering their brain, they will not be able to make good intuitive decisions, as they do not have a broad range of experiences from which they can base their decision on. However, intuitive decisions do give us an advantage. I explored the role of intuition in the natural sciences and ethics. In my further pursuit of knowledge, I learned that intuition allows us to embark upon a path to acquire more knowledge. The more we follow our intuition, the stronger it becomes. As we trust ourselves, our mind learns to balance our logical thinking with our intuitive knowing. Intuition enhances our awareness to our experiences, when we include our intuition along with our physical observations. It is important in extending our knowledge of the world, as it is a creative and spontaneous process that allows us to gain insight in different areas, sometimes the other ways of knowing can limit our possession of knowledge.

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