Premium Essay

Financial Accounting 4

In: Business and Management

Submitted By maybe
Words 737
Pages 3
Explain and illustrate the badges of trade. The factors to be taken into account in deciding whether an activity or a transaction has been carried out in such manner as amounting to the carrying on of a trade or adventure or concern in the nature of trade are referred to as the “badges of trade”. Profit making motive A good test to determine the subject matter held is investment or stock in trade is to establish the intention of the company at the time of acquisition of such subject matter. Where an asset purchased for investment was subsequently sold, the gain derived is not taxable. If there are facts to show that there has been a change of intention, the gain derived would be taxable as the investor has changed his intention to be a trader. Repetition/ Frequency of transactions Where the same type of object or article is repeatedly bought and sold, it would generally lead to the inference that there is trading in that article. In Pickford v Quirke TC 251, the Court held that although the transactions, considered separately, were capital, they together, constitution the carrying on a trade. In DGIR v LCW, the gain derived from 1 purchase and several sales were considered to be a trading receipt. Where transactions are found to be one of a series, that is repeated or similar arising from a pattern of activity there can be a strong presumption of trading. In Page v Pagson the court held that the profit of the second bungalow to be taxable but not the first one. Organization If the business is organized by forming a company, it was always presumed that a company was formed with the intention of carrying on a business (CIR v Eccentric Club) Financing arrangements The mode of the finance placed great importance in determining whether the taxpayer is trading in property or merely realizing its investment....

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Accounting 501

...CHAPTER 1 Financial Accounting and Accounting Standards ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE Topics 1. 2. 3. Subject matter of accounting. Environment of accounting. Role of principles, objectives, standards, and accounting theory. Historical development of accounting standards. Authoritative pronouncements and standards-setting bodies. Questions 1 2, 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 8 Cases 1 3, 4 2, 4 4. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 5, 17 5. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 28 29 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16 6. 7. 8. Role of pressure groups. International accounting. Ethical issues. 9, 18, 19 15 14 1-1 ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE Item C1-1 C1-2 C1-3 C1-4 C1-5 C1-6 C1-7 C1-8 C1-9 C1-10 C1-11 C1-12 C1-13 C1-14 C1-15 C1-16 C1-17 C1-18 C1-19 Description Financial accounting. Objectives of financial reporting. Accounting numbers and the environment. Need for accounting standards. AICPA’s role in standards setting. FASB role in standards setting. Government role in standards setting. Meaning of generally accepted accounting principles. Politicalization of standards setting. Models for setting accounting standards. Standards-setting terminology. Accounting organizations and documents issued. Accounting pronouncements. Issues involving standards setting. Securities and Exchange Commission. Standards-setting process. History of standards-setting organizations. Economic Consequences. Standards-setting process, economic consequences. Level of......

Words: 11425 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Tr I-4 Technical Release

...TR i-4 LEMBAGA PIAWAIAN PERAKAUNAN MALAYSIA MALAYSIAN ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD Technical Release i-4 Shariah Compliant Sale Contracts © Malaysian Accounting Standards Board 2010 1 TR i-4 This Technical Release (TR) contains material in which the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation (IASCF) holds copyright and which has been reproduced in this Statement with the permission of IASCF. Copyright in the International Financial Reporting Standards (including Interpretations), International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) Exposure Drafts, and other IASB publications belong to IASCF. All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing to MASB or as may be expressly permitted by law or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organisation. No part of the materials incorporated in this publication, the copyright of which is held by IASCF, may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing to IASCF or as may be expressly permitted by law or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organisation. TR i-4 Shariah Compliant Sale Contracts is issued by the MASB in respect of its application in Malaysia. 2 TR i-4 CONTENTS paragraphs INTRODUCTION IN1–IN6 MASB TECHNICAL RELEASE i-4 SHARIAH......

Words: 5505 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Non for Profit Chapter 1 Answers

...CHAPTER 1 Governmental and Nonprofit Accounting: ENVIRONMENT AND CHARACTERISTICS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS QUESTION 1-1 a. The similarities of accounting for profit-seeking and G&NP organizations include: 1. Double-entry system of accounts. 2. Most accounting mechanics, e.g., basic transaction documents, journals, ledgers, charts of accounts. 3. Where a G&NP organization has a business-type activity, e.g., a municipal electric utility, the accounting largely parallels that for a similar private business (e.g., electric utility). b. Among the unique aspects of G&NP organization accounting are: 1. Fund accounting—designed to separate resources according to the purposes for which they may be used and to account for their uses and balances. 2. Budgetary control techniques—to help assure appropriations are not overexpended and all resources due the G&NP organization are received by it. Question 1-2 a. A fund of a government organization is an independent fiscal and accounting entity. Each fund has a separate self-balancing set of accounts in which are recorded the resources segregated for specific purposes, the related liabilities and residual equity (fund balance or net assets), and the changes therein. Financial statements typically must be presented to report the financial position and operating activities of a fund of a government. b. As the term is generally used in commercial accounting, a "fund" merely indicates that a......

Words: 2546 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Importance of Ias

... Dept. of Accounting & Information Systems University of Dhaka Submitted by: Md. Nur Alahi Jony ID: 13 105 4th Year, 2nd Semester B.B.A, 13th Batch Dept. of Accounting & Information Systems University of Dhaka. Date of submission: January 11, 2011. IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS INTRODUCTION With globalization everything is spreading worldwide and communication gets importance highly in this regard. Business operations are also spreading globally in an increasing rate. Among other matters, accounting is treated as the “Language of Business”. And the communication of accounting information is must to operate the business. As the consequence, a set of globally accepted accounting standards is necessary to introduce best possible communication of accounting matters worldwide. NEED OF ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Accounting is the art of recording transactions in the best manner possible, so as to enable the reader to arrive at judgments/come to conclusions, and in this regard it is utmost necessary that there are set guidelines. These guidelines are generally called accounting policies. The intricacies of accounting policies permitted Companies to alter their accounting principles for their benefit. This made it impossible to make comparisons. In order to avoid the above and to have a harmonized accounting principle,......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Explaining Basic Accounting Concepts and Business Structures

...Explaining Basic Accounting Concepts and Business Structures Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are guidelines for accounting that have either been specifically established by one of the governing bodies tasked with establishing and overseeing accounting practices or are “accepted” as a practice by having been time proven and having “universal” application (Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield (2007). There are four main organizations that are “instrumental in the development of financial standards (GAAP) in the United States.” (Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield (2007). These are the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), and the Government Accounting Standards Board. (GASB) (Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield (2007) The SEC is the sole body for enforcement, with the AICPA and the FASB having been created at the urging of the SEC for a private sector entity to use its resources to establish effective guidelines. The SEC continues to support the formation and improvement of accounting guidelines by the private sector as long as they are “subject to commission oversight” (Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield (2007). The FASB uses “The Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles,” and they are listed as follows: FASB Standards, Interpretations, Staff Positions, APB (Accounting Principles Board), and AICPA Accounting Research......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing and communication of financial information about economic entities.[1][2] The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494.[3] Accounting, which has been called the "language of business",[4] measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators.[5] Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms 'accounting' and 'financial reporting' are often used as synonyms. Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, and tax accounting.[6]Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers;[7] and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management.[1][7] The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.[8] Accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Chapter 1-1 Fasb Research Case

...US GAAP as of July1, 2009. 3. Create a codification research system that is up to date for the released results of standard-setting activity. b. The Codification is expected to improve accounting practice by: 1. Reducing the amount of time and effort required to solve an accounting research issue 2. Mitigating the risk of noncompliance through improved usability of the literature 3. Provide accurate information with real-time updates as Accounting Standards Updates are released 4. Assisting the FASB with the research and convergence efforts. c. The FASB ASC is composed of the following literature issued by various standard setters: 1. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) a. Statements (FAS) b. Interpretations (FIN) c. Technical Bulletins (FTB) d. Staff Positions (FSP) e. Staff Implementation Guides (Q&A) f. Statement No. 138 Examples. 2. Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) a. Abstracts b. Topic D. 3. Derivative Implementation Group (DIG) Issues 4. Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinions 5. Accounting Research Bulletins (ARB) 6. Accounting Interpretations (AIN) 7. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) a. Statements of Position (SOP) b. Audit and Accounting Guides (AAG)—only incremental accounting guidance c. Practice Bulletins (PB), including the Notices to Practitioners elevated to Practice Bulletin status by Practice Bulletin 1 d. Technical Inquiry Service (TIS)—only for Software......

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ifrs and Gaap Convergence

...1. Describe what accounting convergence means and assess the likelihood of the convergence being completed and implemented in the next five (5) years? Accounting convergence is a process or goal to establish one set of accounting standards that can be used internationally by attempting to eliminate the differences in the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP). Convergence also seeks to establish understandability amongst users and enforceable by regulators (Erchinger, Melcher, 2007). The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have been trying to implement a global acceptable standard for financial reporting since the end of 2002 onwards (Fogarty, 2011). However to this day in 2013 the convergence of both IFRS and US GAAP has yet to be completed and implemented. The likelihood of the convergence being completely finished and implemented seems possible but yet so far as both the IASB and FASB have already been trying for ten years to get it completed despite the hurdles they have endured. In November 2007 the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) voted 4-0 in favor of eliminating the requirements that forces foreign companies with U.S listings to reconcile their results with to U.S GAAP therefore companies with a year end of 2007 are no longer required to follow these set of principles (Fogarty, 2011). 2. Evaluate and describe......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Does Ifrs Benefits Australia

...task is designed to test a student’s achievement of objectives 1 and 4. It is an individual assessment task. Weighting: 10% Task details: The process of adopting the IFRS in Australia has led to some significant changes to some accounting standards and minor changes in others. A number of countries throughout the world are now undergoing a similar process as they too adopt the IFRS regime. However, a single global set of accounting standards has not been achieved as the United States continues to apply its own Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP) as endorsed by the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). In 2003 the International Financial Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) commenced a joint project with the aim of converging the IFRSs and FASB standards. This project will result in further changes which will flow through to Australia, but when complete, may ultimately result in a true international standardisation of accounting and a single set of global financial accounting standards. This task requires you to consider the implications to Australian financial reporting if this international standardisation occurs. What benefits can Australia expect from all this international standardisation? Required: In an essay you are required to explain “the benefits Australia can expect from the international standardisation of financial reporting”. You must use scholarly research to develop the......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


... • Intermediate Financial Accounting (ACCT 3200) • M-W-F 2:30-4:20 in AE 208 • Important Dates – – – – – Intermediate Financial Accounting Friday May 13, 2016 – First Midterm (25% of grade) Monday May 23, 2016 – No class Friday May 27, 2016 – final date to withdraw Friday June 3, 2016 – Second Midterm (25% of grade) Friday June 17, 2016 – Final Exam (1:30-4:30) (45% of grade) • Quizzes will be announced the class prior Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. 1 Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. Welcome! Welcome! A little about me… 2 A little about YOU!… Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. 3 Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. 4 1 09/05/2016 INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING How to be successful in this class TENTH CANADIAN EDITION Kieso • Weygandt • Warfield • Young • Wiecek • McConomy • This is a summer session class = quick • This is a 3rd year class = challenging – Quick + challenging = be organized • Do the assigned homework (min. 1:1) • Read the chapter beforehand • Come to class CHAPTER 1 The Canadian Financial Reporting Environment • Exams will have – Multiple choice & matching questions – Short answer questions – Problems – mini cases Prepared by: Dragan Stojanovic, CA 5 Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. As edited by Jeff Kent, CPA,CA M.B.A. The Canadian Financial Reporting Environment CHAPTER 1 The Canadian Financial Reporting......

Words: 2123 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Accounting Standards Codification® Notice to Constituents

...Accounting Standards Codification® Notice to Constituents (v 4.6) About the Codification FASB Accounting Standards Codification® Notice to Constituents (v 4.6) About the Codification Notice to Constituent version numbers - The Notice to Constituents contains a version number indicating the degree of change within a particular version. Versions ending with ".0" represent substantive changes to the text, whereas versions ending with a number other than zero represent editorial or clerical corrections. Page FASB Accounting Standards Codification ................................................................................... 4 Codification Goals .......................................................................................................................... 5 Codification Research System ........................................................................................................ 6 Content Matters............................................................................................................................... 7 Population of codified standards as of July 1, 2009 ................................................................... 7 Standards issued by standard setters other than the SEC ........................................................ 7 Standards issued by the SEC................................................................................................... 8 Essential and nonessential content ................................

Words: 13896 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Assign 1 Nexty Card

...• Case 1-4 Generally Accepted Accounting Principles At the completion of the Darby Department Store audit, the president asks about the meaning of the phrase “in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles,” which appears in your audit report on the management’s financial statements. He observes that the meaning of the phrase must include more than what he thinks of as “principles.” Required: a. Explain the meaning of the term accounting principles as used in the audit report. (Do not in this part discuss the significance of “generally accepted.”) "Generally accepted accounting principles" is a guideline of accounting practices and processes which define how accounting professionals are to report the daily activity of the business performance relating to the revenue and expenses, in/outflows of cash and any other material activity relating to the value of the business. b. The president wants to know how you determine whether or not an accounting principle is generally accepted. Discuss the sources of evidence for determining whether an accounting principle has substantial authoritative support. Accounting guidelines are just that, guidelines. The entity is obligated to choose a guideline that is appropriate handling for the transactions. The accounting principle must be consistent and pronounced in FASB, AICPA and their respective Technical Bulletins and Accounting Guidelines and Statements of Position. If the accounting treatment for a transaction or event is...

Words: 539 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Brain Teaser 4: Cash Basis vs Accruall Basis

...   Brain Teaser 4: Cash Basis or Accrual Basis The two main methods in accounting used to keep track of income and expenses are the cash basis and the accrual basis. The cash basis is the preferred method in small companies and its income is not counted until cash is received and expenses are not counted until they are paid. When using the accrual basis income is recorded when the order is made or the service occurs, and the same with expenses, they are recorded when the goods or service are received. Smaller companies will use the cash basis of accounting but when their business grows, it is mandatory to use the accrual method if the business has sales of more than $5 million, or if you have inventory and sales of $1 million on an annual basis. Identify What Standard Setters have said as to the superiority of accrual accounting relative to a cash basis. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is recognized by the Securities and exchange commision as the accounting standard setter for public companies. The FASB believes that using accrual accounting provides a better picture of a company’s true financial health, and for this reason is a better choice than cash accounting. The FASB is recognized by many organizations as an authoritative entity. Alicia states that in finance literature there seems to be an emphasis on cash and why if cash is so important why does the FASB focus on accrual accounting. The FASB promotes financial reporting and......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Accounting for Government

...Introduction to Accounting and Financial Reporting for Governmental and Not-for-Profit Entities True / False Questions 1. Special purpose governments generally provide a wider range of services to their residents than do general purpose governments. True False 2. Examples of general purpose governments include cities, towns, and public schools that receive tax revenue to finance the services they provide. True False 3. The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) is the body authorized to establish accounting principles for all state and local governments, both general purpose and special purpose. True False 4. The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) is the body authorized to establish accounting principles for all government entities. True False 5. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is the body authorized to establish accounting principles for all colleges and universities and health care entities. True False 6. Neither governmental nor not-for-profit entities have residual equity that can be distributed to owners. True False 7. A characteristic common to governmental and not-for-profit organizations is that they do not exist to provide goods or services at a profit or profit equivalent. True False 8. The needs of users of government financial reports are the same as those of users of business entity financial reports. True False 9. The Federal......

Words: 6249 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Accounting Standard

...Accounting Standards Building international opportunities for Australian business Corporate Law Economic Reform Program Proposals for Reform: Paper No. 1 © Commonwealth of Australia 1997 ISBN 0 642 26110 5 This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Australian Government Publishing Service. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction rights should be directed to the Manager, Commonwealth Information Services, Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601. The Government is seeking comments from interested parties on the detail of the proposals in this paper which should be forwarded to the following address:| First Assistant SecretaryBusiness Law DivisionThe TreasuryParkes PlacePARKES ACT 2600|Telephone:Fax:Email:|02 6263 396002 6263| Copies of this paper are available from the Australian Government Publishing Service and on the Treasury web site ( concerning the paper can be made to:Ms Veronique IngramAssistant SecretaryThe TreasuryTelephone: 02 6263 3970| Printed by the Australian Government Publishing Service Table of Contents Page Abbreviations v PART 1: Reform Proposals 1 PART 2: Introduction 9 2.1 Background 9 2.2 Key economic principles 10 PART 3: The Case for Reform 11 3.1 Impetus for reform 11 3.2 What the Government is......

Words: 20265 - Pages: 82