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Financial Management

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Submitted By cloudyrain
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Nghề Quản lý Tài chính: Học nghề từ thuở còn thơ…
Dưới 10 tuổi, các bạn thường chưa được giao tiền để chi tiêu - quản lý. Trên 10 tuổi, các bạn có thể sẽ có cơ hội. Lớn hơn tý nữa, 15 tuổi chẳng hạn - các bạn đã có thể được cha mẹ tin tưởng, giao tiền từ khoản nhỏ đến khoản to hơn: tiền ăn sáng của cá nhân theo tuần- theo tháng, tiền tiêu vặt, tiền đi chợ cho cả nhà… Vậy hãy bắt đầu học cách quản lý nguồn tài chính từ ít ỏi, khiêm tốn - chi tiêu sao cho khỏi cháy túi – đến lớn hơn và phát triển thành số tiền rất lớn sau này hoặc biến đồng tiền có được thành hữu ích với mình. Với các du học sinh, nếu có việc gì cần tiền, bạn phải tự mình giải quyết thay vì trông chờ vào sự hỗ trợ của bố mẹ nơi quê nhà. Do đó để tránh cảnh “giật gấu vá vai” hay tuyệt vọng vì thiếu tiền, bạn phải biết cân đối ngân sách của mình. Bạn cần tự cân đối xem mình có bao nhiêu tiền (trong một tuần/ một tháng…) để tồn tại và học tập tại đất khách và nguồn tiền đó đến từ đâu.

Hãy biết chi tiêu hợp lý

Bài viết này đề cập tới việc quản lý tài chính khi du học và hy vọng sẽ giúp ích cho các bạn. 1. Vì sao phải lên kế hoạch chi tiêu? Khi đi du học, nếu may mắn bạn được bố mẹ chu cấp hoàn toàn hoặc được nhận học bổng toàn phần. Nếu bạn phải tự lực có nghĩa khoản tiền đó do gia đình bạn đi vay hoặc bố mẹ bạn chỉ đủ khả năng cung cấp một khoản tiền hạn chế, còn lại bạn phải đi làm thêm để giảm bớt gánh nặng ở nhà. Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào bạn cũng phải lên kế hoạch chi tiêu. Kế hoạch chi tiêu là một trong những công cụ giúp bạn tồn tại trên đất khách mà không tuyệt vọng nhớ về cuộc sống được bao bọc trong vòng tay yêu thương của bố mẹ ở nhà. Bởi vì cuộc sống ở nước ngoài thường đắt đỏ, bạn phải mua sắm nhiều thứ và không thể tìm đâu ra một

khoản tiền “từ trên trời rơi xuống” nếu bạn không học giỏi để có học bổng hoặc không làm thêm nhiều ngày liên tiếp. 2. Chi tiêu có kế hoạch như thế nào? Thông thường kế hoạch chi tiêu phải lập theo tuần hoặc theo tháng, mỗi bảng thường có hai cột: phải chi (bắt buộc) và có thể cần chi (lựa chọn). Căn cứ vào khoản tiền hàng tháng bố mẹ chu cấp hoặc tiền học bổng nhận được để chia nhỏ số tiền đó thành những khoản tiền phải chi tiêu như tiền ở, tiền ăn và tiền mua sách vở; khoản tiền còn lại mới dùng để mua sắm và đi chơi trong mục có thể cần chi. Ngoài ra, việc tính toán và lên kế hoạch từ sớm cũng giúp bạn tiết kiệm tiền chẳng hạn: mua vé tàu, vé máy bay càng sớm bạn có thể mua được vé giảm giá; tương tự khi bạn đang là sinh viên nên nhớ bạn thường được mua vé với giá ưu đãi nếu đi các phương tiện giao thông công cộng… Những khoản tiền tiết kiệm đó có thể dồn dần thành quỹ cho các chi tiêu phát sinh không thể không chi như sinh nhật bạn, đi dã ngoại… Hãy tham khảo thông tin về chi phí du học tại đây, để hình dung các khoản cần chi tiêu. Để chi tiêu hợp lý bạn nên ghi lại tất cả các nguồn tiền mình có (vào mục: thu) và tất cả những việc phải chi (vào mục: chi). Có những phần rất tẻ nhạt như thức ăn, đi lại và sách vở cho khóa học và có những phần khá thú vị như đi chơi tối và mua sắm. Nhận thức rõ về những khoản phải chi tiêu sẽ giúp bạn phân loại thứ tự chi tiêu ưu tiên và tìm cách để tiết kiệm. Ví dụ bạn có thể đi bộ thay vì sử dụng phương tiện giao thông công cộng hay tự chuẩn bị bữa trưa cho mình thay vì mua bữa trưa ở trường vốn đắt hơn vài đô/ bữa. Bạn có thể tiết kiệm tiền mua sách giáo khoa và đồ dùng học tập bằng cách mượn ở thư viện của trường hay khu dân cư địa phương, hay mua đồ secondhand. Tham khảo thêm các website sinh viên năm châu tại đây, trên đó các sinh viên rao bán với giá hữu nghị xong nồi, bát đĩa, sách vở, máy tính, đồng phục cũ… tỷ thứ mà bạn có thể tiết kiệm. Chẳng có gì đáng xấu hổ khi mua lại sách của các bạn học trước, điều quan trọng là sách thì vẫn hầu như mới (Sinh viên nước ngoài ít khi vẽ, gạch xóa bẩn thỉu vào sách… vì khi mua, họ thường đã nghĩ đến việc học xong cần bán lại sao cho được giá nhất!!!), mình có thể tiết kiệm đến 1/2 số tiền so với mua mới, và quan trọng nhất là: bạn học được gì từ quyến sách cũ ấy và điểm cụ thể bạn đạt được khi học môn ấy là bao nhiêu %. 3. Giải pháp nào cho chi tiêu của bạn? • Lên danh sách những chi phí phải thanh toán hàng tuần hoặc hàng tháng như tiền thuê nhà, hóa đơn điện thoại, thành viên câu lạc bộ thể dục… và xem thử có thể thanh toán tự động từ tài khoản ngân hàng của mình vào ngày cụ thể hay không? Nếu không thể trả tự động thì bạn nên đảm bảo chi trả các khoản đúng hạn; việc thanh toán trễ hạn có thể làm cho số tiền bạn phải trả cho lần tới tăng thêm do bị phạt. • Sinh hoạt dựa vào ngân sách sống mỗi tuần; chẳng hạn như dành 120$ cho chi tiêu trong tuần về thực phẩm, phương tiện đi lại, giải trí…

• Luôn luôn quan tâm tới số tiền bạn còn trong tài khoản, điều này giúp bạn biết “liệu cơm gắp mắm”. Đừng sử dụng thẻ tín dụng, nó thường mang lại phiền phức hơn là thuận lợi. Nếu bạn muốn sở hữu một thẻ tín dụng hãy lựa chọn cái tốt nhất cho mình, lãi suất có thể thay đổi từ mức thấp 6% cho đến mức cao 25% và cố gắng chỉ sử dụng trong trường hợp khẩn cấp. Dĩ nhiên trường hợp khẩn cấp không dành cho những đôi giày mới, vé xem hòa nhạc hoặc điện thoại đời mới… Nếu mua hàng qua mạng hãy sử dụng thẻ ngân hàng cho phép chi tiêu trong số tiền bạn có hoặc chi trả thông qua tài khoản của bạn. Nó sẽ bảo vệ bạn trên mạng và bạn không phải trả lãi suất cho món hàng mua nếu sử dụng thẻ tín dụng. • Sống tiết kiệm, hãy tận dụng tối đa cách tiết kiệm trong ngân sách hàng tuần chẳng hạn bạn có thể mua vật dụng hoặc quần áo còn tốt mà đã dùng rồi tại những nơi như chợ cuối tuần hoặc săn hàng giảm giá ở siêu thị. Hãy tham khảo các trang web giá rẻ. 4. Một vài lời khuyên từ chuyên gia • Học hỏi kinh nghiệm của những người đi trước. Những ngày đầu khi đặt chân lên đất khách, bạn sẽ không khỏi bỡ ngỡ và lo lắng về cuộc sống cũng như sinh hoạt của mình ở đây. Ngoài sự giúp đỡ của các tổ chức hỗ trợ sinh viên quốc tế tại trường theo học, bạn nên tham khảo bạn bè về những nơi có thể mua sắm, ăn uống với giá rẻ, hay hỏi những kinh nghiệm tiết kiệm chi phí như thế nào để tránh lạm chi. • Trau dồi kiến thức và ý thức về đồng tiền. Các vị phụ huynh nên dạy cho con mình biết quý trọng đồng tiền ngay từ lúc ở nhà và hướng dẫn con cái cách chi tiêu, mua bán, sử dụng đồng tiền. Điều này sẽ giúp các bạn sinh viên hiểu được những đồng tiền chân chính có được như thế nào và từ đó lên một kế hoạch chi tiêu hợp lý thay vì nghĩ rằng mình đương nhiên có được số tiền đó. • Cần biết xác lập mục tiêu trong chi tiêu, các tiêu chí cần ưu tiên thay vì ưu tiên mọi thứ. Rõ ràng, bạn không thể muốn tất cả mọi thứ, trong phạm vi cho phép bạn chỉ có thể lựa chọn thứ tốt nhất để chi.

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...Financial Management 1. Define the terms finance and financial management. What are the major sub-areas of finance? Finance deals on how money sources or assets are allocated, utilized or disbursed and its liabilities and financial management deals with the managing of a business of firm’s assets and liabilities or its finances. The major sub-areas of finance are public finance and private finance, the former deals with the managing of finances of the government while the latter deals with the finances of firms, businesses, and individuals (Paramasivan & Subramanian, n.d). 2. Identify and define the three basic forms of business ownership. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each. According to Michael Spadaccini (2015), the three basic forms of business ownership are the following: first basic form of ownership is the Sole Proprietorship, it is owned by one person under his name he is personally liable for its debts; furthermore this type of business ownership has no separate legal entity from the owner. The advantages are; the business is easy to set up and its operation is controlled by the sole proprietor whom no conflict of interest will arise, however the disadvantage is the owner being the sole owner is personally liable for its debt. The second form is partnership; it is formed by two or more persons who contribute money, property or assets to engage in a business for a profit either by oral or written agreement....

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Financial Management

...College of City University BUS20269 Financial Management – Semester A 2013/14 |Name |Office (AC 2) |Office Phone No. |E-mail | |Mr. Toby Butt |Room: 6217 |3442 4969 |mkbutt@cityu.edu.hk | |Mr. Joe Pong |Room: 5429 |3442 6943 |hkpong@cityu.edu.hk | |Mr. Kennix Chiu |Room: 5416 |3442 7585 |swchiu@cityu.edu.hk | |Mr. Peter Yip |Room: 5406 |3442 7903 |peteryip@cityu.edu.hk | Course Aims: Provide students with some fundamental concepts of modern financial management theory relevant to making operating and investment decisions. The course also introduces some of the core financial management and decision making techniques used in the business world. Course Intended Learning Outcomes (CILOs) Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to: 1. Describe the financial environment, agency costs, the goals of the participants, and the basic structure of Hong Kong financial and banking systems 2. Explain working capital policies and apply working capital management tools 3. Apply the concepts of risk-return trade-off and time value of money in financial management decisions, and in stock,......

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Financial Management

...CHAPTER 1 An Overview of Financial Management SOURCE: Courtesy BEN & JERRY’S HOMEMADE, INC. www.benjerry.com STRIKING THE RIGHT BALANCE $ BEN & JERRY'S F or many companies, the decision would have been an easy “yes.” However, Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc. has always taken pride in doing things make money. For example, in a recent article in Fortune magazine, Alex Taylor III commented that, “Operating a business is tough enough. Once you add social goals to the demands of serving customers, making a profit, and returning value to shareholders, you tie yourself up in knots.” Ben & Jerry’s financial performance has had its ups and downs. While the company’s stock grew by leaps and bounds through the early 1990s, problems began to arise in 1993. These problems included increased competition in the premium ice cream market, along with a leveling off of sales in that market, plus their own inefficiencies and sloppy, haphazard product development strategy. The company lost money for the first time in 1994, and as a result, Ben Cohen stepped down as CEO. Bob Holland, a former consultant for McKinsey & Co. with a reputation as a turnaround specialist, was tapped as Cohen’s replacement. The company’s stock price rebounded in 1995, as the market responded positively to the steps made by Holland to right the company. The stock price, however, floundered toward the end of 1996, following Holland’s resignation. Over the last few years, Ben & Jerry’s has had a new......

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