Premium Essay

Submitted By Ogohsamuel

Words 5464

Pages 22

Words 5464

Pages 22

<http://lipas.uwasa.fi/~ts/wbfa/wbfa.htm> URN:NBN:fi-fe20051937

Copyright © 2002-2005 by Prof. Timo Salmi, Prof. Jussi Nikkinen & Prof. Petri Sahlström

Paper last modified Thu 24-Nov-2005 11:57

Subsequent references last appended Tue 9-Nov-2010 |

Timo Salmi, Jussi Nikkinen &Petri Sahlström

Department of Accounting and Finance

Faculty of Business Studies

University of Vaasa, Finland

The Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Financial Ratio Analysis Revisited

With the Modern Developments in the Web-Based Publishing

Abstract

This web-based publication is an addendum to a previous review of the research and research trends in financial ratio analysis. The first purpose is to add more current references to the previous review. The second purpose is to emphasize the changes facilitated by the modern World Wide Web based publication practices and their impact on the availability of scientific publications. The new references are listed only without detailed reviewing, since no drastic additions have come to the fore in the field. However, it is felt that the additions are sufficient to warrant this addendum made readily possible by the option of making this publication available online. Keywords: Financial statement analysis, financial ratios, review, electronic publishing Referencing: Salmi, Timo, Jussi Nikkinen & Petri Sahlström (2005). The Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Financial Ratio Analysis Revisited. University of Vaasa, Finland. URN:NBN:fi-fe20051937. Available from World Wide Web: <URL:http://www.uwasa.fi/~ts/wbfa/wbfa.htm>. Acknowledgements for useful discussions: Prof. Ilkka Virtanen and Library Managing Director Vuokko Palonen.

Purpose

Salmi and Martikainen (1994) presented a review of the theoretical and empirical basis of financial ratio analysis. In particular,...

Premium Essay

...Evaluation & Alternatives ---------------------- According to the chapter of financial ratio, the Operating Profit Margin, Net Profit Margin and Return on assets and equity had downward trend since 2008, will drop to its record low in 2013, then upward trend afterwards. However, the Gross profit Margin will be kept as same as that before expansion. Moreover, Efficiency of Cash Management will be done better on rise of Creditor Ratio despite Debtor Ratio will go up. This can be improved by adjustment of period in accounts receivable during 2013-17. Furthermore, the Liquid Ratio and Current Ratio will steady grow stating higher realization ability of corporate assets after expansion. What’s more, the D/E Ratio and Basic Earnings per Common Share will boom. Despite, the productivity will not be looking good. The Inventory Turnover will fall to 2.5 which is 19.61% lower than average value in 2008-12. The Total Asset Turnover will decrease its lower level while the Average Collection Period will reach to the higher level. And the Debt ratio will maintain in risky level. Don’t forget, extra 400 stores & £100M-worth-new equips and stocks will be bought. When look into the balance sheet, there are negative cash £21,493.24 and £6,406.51 in year 2013 and 2014 respectively. The extra £279 million needed to maintain healthy capital structure. The alternatives are as follows. 1. Right issue - Issue of rights to buy additional securities in a company made to the company's......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Financial Ratios & Other Financial Analysis Tools Here is a list of many ratios used to analyze a company's financial condition - along with an explanation of why they are considered to be important. Liquidity Ratios * Current Ratio * Acid Test Ratio * Average Collection Period Coverage Ratios * Times Interest Earned * Net Income + Non-cash Exp / Current Portion of LT Debt Leverage Ratios * Fixed Assets / Tangible Net Worth * Debt to Tangible Net Worth | Operating Ratios and Indicators * Gross Profit Margin * EBT / Tangible Net Worth * EBT / Total Assets * Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio * Total Asset Turnover Ratio * E.B.I.T.D.A. ("Ebitda") Expense to Revenue Ratios * % Depreciation, Depletion & Amortization / Revenue * Officers' &/or Owner's Compensation / Revenue Ratio Fusion! * Altman's Z-Score for Privately Held Firms | Banks often use ratios in loan contracts with benchmarked minimums or maximums (aka 'Covenants'). Even if covenants are not listed in your loan contract, banks still look at them. You will add credibility to your financial statements if you include financial ratios and indicators in your presentation to the bank. They will think you use these indicators internally, and they'll love you for it! Actually; If you're not using Financial Analysis Tools and Benchmarks internally, you should strongly consider it. LIQUIDITY RATIOS Liquidity ratios......

Words: 1442 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

...Handout 6 Analyzing Your Financial Ratios Taken from http://www.va-interactive.com/inbusiness/editorial/finance/ibt/ratio_analysis.html Overview Any successful business owner is constantly evaluating the performance of his or her company, comparing it with the company's historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your company's effectiveness, however, you need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets. You must be able to read between the lines of your financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This massive data overload could seem staggering. Luckily, there are many well-tested ratios out there that make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify your company's strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques aren't definitive and their results shouldn't be viewed as gospel. Many off-the-balance-sheet factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. But, when used in concert with various other business evaluation processes, comparative ratios are invaluable. This discussion contains descriptions and examples of the eight major types of ratios used in financial analysis: Income,......

Words: 3901 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

...Grade Received - "A" Choose 4 different financial ratios from your text, course materials, and/or Web resources. Answer the following questions: What do they tell you about a firm? Why is it important for a bank to understand these financial ratios? Why is it important for an investor to understand these financial ratios? Financial ratios are important when it comes to understanding the financial health of a company. My colleagues and I work for a financial service and are discussing the merits of the various financial ratios. We are to identify for financial ratios and what they tell us about it for and why it is important for banks to understand these financial ratios as well as the importance it has for an investor to understand these financial ratios. The company that I will be discussing about is the Coca-Cola Company. I browsed through the Coca-Cola website and also the "investors" portion of a website and looked at through their financial statements in 2008. These included the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement for the 2006 fiscal year. When conducting the market value ratio for Coca-Cola, it turns out that the P.E. ratio is 22.02 and the market to book value is 6.61. The market value ratio is a measure of how expensive the stock is (Brooks, 2010). The higher the price earnings ratio, the more we are paying for each dollar of earnings. The higher the market to book value, the more we are paying for each dollar of equity we have on......

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...different financial ratios from your text, course materials, and/or Web resources. * Answer the following questions: * What do they tell you about a firm? * Why is it important for a bank to understand these financial ratios? * Why is it important for an investor to understand these financial ratios? * Post a new topic to the Discussion Board that contains your answers to the above questions Financial ratios are measurements used to analyze entities of financial performance. They are several financial ratios one can choose from, the main four are; profitability ratios, efficiency ratios, liquidity ratios and solvency ratios. Each ratio has different rules and they perform in their own ways. They are important tools that evaluate the profitability, efficiency, liquidity and solvency of an entity of the firm. Profitability ratios help users of an entity financial statements determine the overall effectiveness of management regarding returns generated on sales and investments (Manley, 2009). Normally used profitability ratios are gross profit margin, operating profit margin and net profit margin. Gross profit margin measures profitability after considering cost of goods sold, while operating profit margin measures profitability based on earnings before interest and tax expense. One margin that’s often referred to as the bottom line and takes all expenses into account is the Net profit margin (Manley, 2009). Efficiency ratios are known as the......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...Profitability ratios Profitability ratios measure the company's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return Gross profit margin or Gross Profit Rate OR Operating Income Margin, Operating profit margin or Return on sales (ROS) Note: Operating income is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses, but it is also sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit.[10] This is true if the firm has no non-operating income. (Earnings before interest and taxes / Sales[11][12]) Profit margin, net margin or net profit margin[13] Return on equity (ROE)[13] Return on investment (ROI ratio or Du Pont Ratio)[6] Return on assets (ROA)[14] Return on assets Du Pont (ROA Du Pont)[15] Return on Equity Du Pont (ROE Du Pont) Return on net assets (RONA) Return on capital (ROC) Risk adjusted return on capital (RAROC) OR Return on capital employed (ROCE) Note: this is somewhat similar to (ROI), which calculates Net Income per Owner's Equity Cash flow return on investment (CFROI) Efficiency ratio Net gearing Basic Earnings Power Ratio[16] Liquidity ratios Liquidity ratios measure the availability of cash to pay debt. Current ratio (Working Capital Ratio)[17] Acid-test ratio (Quick ratio)[17] Cash ratio[17] Operation cash flow ratio Activity ratios (Efficiency Ratios) Activity ratios measure the effectiveness of the firms use of resources. Average collection...

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Financial Ratios Financial ratios are essential tools for fundamental analysis, which determines the value of a company using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Companies collect numerical data such as sales and inventory every day; the calculation of financial ratios allows the company, its investors, and banks to see through the masses of data and estimate the company's intrinsic value (Loth, 2012). Types of financial ratios include liquidity ratios, profitability indicator ratios, debt ratios, and operating performance ratios, among others (Drake, n.d.). The cash conversion cycle (CCC) ratio is a liquidity ratio that is less common than some other liquidity calculations, but in many cases it is more useful because it takes into account how long a full cycle requires -- how long it takes for the company to sell inventory, receive payment, and pay its own creditors (Loth, 2012). The cycle is a dynamic liquidity indicator rather than a static one like the more common current and quick ratios (Lancaster & Stevens, 2011). The CCC ratio evaluates the company's use of working capital, and is computed using the Days Inventory Outstanding (DIO), Days Sales Outstanding (DSO), and Days Payable Outstanding (DPO), which are found in the company's current accounts (Loth, 2012). The following formula is used: CCC = DIO + DSO - DPO. A larger CCC means that the cycle is longer and therefore less liquid, potentially increasing the need to borrow. However, this is a......

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...Financial Ratio Analysis It is difficult to infer organizational performance from one or two simple numbers. Nevertheless, in practice a number of different ratios are often calculated in strategic planning endeavors and, taken as a whole and with some caution, these ratios do provide some information about the relative performance of an organization. In particular, a careful analysis of a combination of these ratios may help you to distinguish between firms that will eventually fail and those that will continue to survive. Evidence suggests that, as early as five years before a firm fails, one may be able to detect trouble from the value of these financial ratios.1 In this note, the basic financial ratios are reviewed, and some of the caveats associated with using them are highlighted. The ratios tend to be most meaningful when they are used to compare organizations within the same broad industry, or when they are used to make inferences about changes in a particular organization's structure over time. LIQUIDITY RATIOS In order to survive, firms must be able to meet their short-term obligations—pay their creditors and repay their short-term debts. Thus, the liquidity of the firm is one measure of a firm's financial health. Two measures of liquidity are in common: Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities Quick ratio = (cash + marketable securities + net receivables) / current liabilities The main difference between the......

Words: 1929 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

...RSM1320 – Financial Accounting FINANCIAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES (RATIO ANALYSIS) KEY POINTS TO KNOW 1) Financial analysis is ultimately contextual and purpose-driven. In other words, there is always a reason why you are performing the analysis. You need to be clear about the objective of the analysis. 2) The tools and techniques that you use will depend on your purpose. As we discussed earlier, analyzing the company as an investment opportunity (which generally focuses on indicators of profitability of growth) is often different from analyzing the company from the perspective of a credit (lend or not) decision (which generally focuses on indicators of risk, liquidity, and solvency). 3) Financial analysis will seldom provide an “answer” to your objective or starting question (e.g. invest or not, lend or not). The usefulness of financial analysis is to provide valuable insights and additional questions to ask in arriving at a particular decision. Each individual ratio is a basic “indicator”, but it does not by itself provide an explanation of “why” something happened. To get the most value out of financial analysis, you need to understand how these ratios relate to one another and to the business model (and industry) of the company you are analyzing. This requires experience. 4) There is no single authoritative source providing rules about how particular ratios are calculated. While there are standards of practice (that we will follow), there is also significant...

Words: 1398 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

...A STUDY ON FINANCIAL RATIOS OF MAJOR COMMERCIAL BANKS Dr. Y. Sree Rama Murthy Director Research & Senior Faculty Member College of Banking & Financial Studies Sultanate of Oman RESEARCH STUDIES 2003 _______________________________________________________ College of Banking & Financial Studies PO Box 3122, PC 112 Sultanate of Oman CONTENTS Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 2 PROFITABILITY MANAGEMENT RATIOS Chapter 3 LIQUIDITY RISK MANAGEMENT Chapter 4 INTEREST RATE RISK MANAGEMENT Chapter 5 CAPITAL ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT Chapter 6 CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT Chapter 7 COST MANAGEMENT Chapter 8 INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS Chapter 9 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES Summary The objective of the study is to calculate the important financial ratios of major commercial banks in Oman and compare their financial management practices as indicated by the ratios. The study also compares ratios of commercial banks in Oman with ratios of other banks in developed countries so that it throws up not only intra country performance comparisons but also cross country comparisons which makes study all the more useful. For the purpose of the study data was drawn from the balance sheets and income statements of commercial banks. The study uses data from December 1997 to December 2004 for the profitability ratios part of the study. For studying liquidity, interest rate risk, capital adequacy etc the study uses the data from December 2000 to 2004...

Words: 12048 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

...ISOM 249 Functions and Purposes of Financial Ratios I. Functions of Financial Ratios Financial ratios can be used to show a company’s: • Position in its industry (industry comparisons) • Accomplishment of objectives (objective comparisons) • Vulnerability in the economy (time-series/trend analysis) • Future borrowing power and growth potential (leverage ratios) • Ability to react to unforeseen external changes (price/earnings ratio) II. Types of Ratios and Their Purposes • Profitability ratios indicate how well a company allocates its resources in relation to income generated. • Liquidity ratios measure whether a company is able to pay its bills. • Leverage ratios show how a company’s operations are financed. • Activity ratios measure a company’s productivity and efficiency. • Price/earnings (P/E) ratio reflects investors’ estimations of how well the company will be able to cope with unforeseen changes. III. Absolute Standards for Business Performance In many organizations, minimum financial ratios are used to serve as absolute standards for their performance as follows: • Profitability: net profit no less than 3% • Liquidity: current ratio greater than one • Leverage: long-term debt to total equity less than one • Activity: average collection period less than 60 days IV....

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

...BWFF1013 GROUP PROJECT (15 MARKS) Topic : Assessing Firm’s Financial Performance (Topic 3) Type of analysis : Trend Analysis (3 years) Period of analysis : 2010 - 2012 INSTRUCTION: 1. This project must be written in Times New Roman 12-pt. font and double spaced, and submitted as a Microsoft Word document. 2. Any projects that show evidence of PLAGIARISM will result a grade of ZERO for all group members. Plagiarism is a serious offence and it will not be tolerated. 3. Submit this project using the project format provided: i. Hardcopy (printed) format; and ii. Softcopy (saved in CD) format to detect for plagiarism. 4. The due date for submission of the project is 18th April 2013. Late submission will be penalized according to the rules. 5. Failure to comply these instructions will affect the evaluation of your marks in this project. OBJECTIVES: By doing this project, the students will be able to: 1. calculate the financial ratios, 2. explain the use of financial ratios, 3. value the company’s perfromance and 4. get themselves familiar with the real practice of industry financial statndards. REQUIREMENT: Students will work on the project collaboratively in groups of four (4) or five (5) students. Each group must choose a company listed on Bursa Malaysia MAIN BOARD. Students will download the relevant financial data from the internet and perform ratio analysis for the selected companies. The company MUST be selected......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...1/20/2014 Moneycontrol.com >> Company Info >> Print Financials This data can be easily copy pasted into a Microsoft Excel sheet PRINT Previous Years » Mahindra and Mahindra Key Financial Ratios Mar '13 Investment Valuation Ratios Face Value Dividend Per Share Operating Profit Per Share (Rs) Net Operating Profit Per Share (Rs) Free Reserves Per Share (Rs) Bonus in Equity Capital Profitability Ratios Operating Profit Margin(%) Profit Before Interest And Tax Margin(%) Gross Profit Margin(%) Cash Profit Margin(%) Adjusted Cash Margin(%) Net Profit Margin(%) Adjusted Net Profit Margin(%) Return On Capital Employed(%) Return On Net Worth(%) Adjusted Return on Net Worth(%) Return on Assets Excluding Revaluations Return on Assets Including Revaluations Return on Long Term Funds(%) Liquidity And Solvency Ratios Current Ratio Quick Ratio Debt Equity Ratio Long Term Debt Equity Ratio Debt Coverage Ratios Interest Cover Total Debt to Owners Fund Financial Charges Coverage Ratio Financial Charges Coverage Ratio Post Tax Management Efficiency Ratios Inventory Turnover Ratio Debtors Turnover Ratio Investments Turnover Ratio Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio Total Assets Turnover Ratio http://www.moneycontrol.com/stocks/company_info/print_main.php Mar '12 Mar '11 Mar '10 Mar '09 5.00 13.00 76.70 658.67 -57.80 5.00 12.50 61.41 518.81 -57.92 5.00 11.50 56.26 382.13 -58.10 5.00 9.50 53.31 327.20 120.24 60.29 10.00 10.00 47.12 479.84 170.32 62.58 11.64 9.75...

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...Financial Ratios - Continuing operations For the year ended March 31 Liquidity Ratios Quick Ratio (X) Current Ratio (X) Cash Flow per share (US$) Free Cash Flow per share (US$) Leverage Ratios (%) LT Debt to Equity Total Debt to Equity Profitability Ratios (%) Return on Equity (ROE) Return on Assets (ROA) Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) Gross Profit Margin Pretax Margin Net Margin Asset Utilization Ratios (X) Total Assets Turnover Inventory Turnover 2010 2009 0.83 0.97 0.09 0.03 0.81 0.92 -0.01 0.01 (Bank Deposits, Cash & Equivalents + Receivables (Net)) / Current Liabilities Current Assets / Current Liabilities Net Cash (Used in)/Generated from Operating Activities / (Total Issued and Fully Paid Ordinary Shares + Ordinary shares equivalent to Fully Paid Series A Cumulative CPS) (EBITDA (exc. Restructuring and one-off items) - Net Capital Expenditures) / (Total Issued and Fully Paid Ordinary Shares + Ordinary shares equivalent to Fully Paid Series A 12.45 30.8 17.54 52.28 Long Term Debt / Total Equity * 100 (Long Term Debt + Short Term Debt & Current Portion of Long Term Debt) / Total Equity * 100 8.06 1.44 6.16 10.78 1.06 0.78 -17.27 -3.42 -11.34 12.06 -1.26 -1.52 Earnings Per Share / Total Equity Per Share * 100 Net (Loss) Income / Total Assets * 100 Net (Loss) Income / (Total Equity + Long Term Debt + Short Term Debt & Current Portion of Long Term Debt) * 100 Gross Income / Net Sales * 100 Pretax (Loss) Income / Net Sales * 100 Net......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...Financial Ratio Analysis Introduction: * Andre Pires opened automobile store (Quickfix Auto Parts) 5 years ago * Worked as a technician, parts department manager for over 15 years * Doubled his store size by the third year * Worried about past two years (net income had been negative and cash flow decreased) * Wanted to improve this situation before suppliers found out * Hired a student from the finance department of university´s business school to find arguments for the bank to get loan in the future 1. How does Quickfix´s average compound growth rate in sales compare with ist earnings growth rate over the past five years? Compound growth rate in sales: Net salest+1-Net sales(t)Net sales(t) =annual growth rate in sales 2001 to 2002: = 0.0917 2002 to 2003: =0.191 2003 to 2004: =0.12 2004 to 2005: =0.16 9.17+19.1+12+164 = 0.141 average annual growth rate in sales The average annual growth rate is 14.1% earnings growth rate: Net incomet+1-Net income(t)Net income(t) 2001 to 2002: =0.374 2002 to 2003: =-0.907 2003 to 2004: =-8.73 2004 to 2005: = 0.994 Net income decreased from 16634$ to -102$ 2.Which statements should Juan refer to and which ones should he construct so as to develop a fair assessment oft he firm´s financial condition?Explain why? * Balance sheet picture of a company * refer to balance sheet and income statement shows revenue the company earned * shows financial strenght *......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3