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Financial Reporting

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I. Philippine Music A. Ethnic Traditions B. Spanish Traditions C. American Traditions D. Original Pilipino Music
II. Chinese Music A. North/South Han Chinese B. Musical Style C. Vocal Music D. Instruments
III. Japanese Music - Ongaku A. Traditional Music – 2 Forms of Music B. 2 Types of Gagaku C. 3 Musical Styles of the Gagaku D. 3 Forms of Theater and Dance


Ethnic Traditions * Pre-colonial or Pre-Spanish * Common in the mountainous regions of the North and the archipelago of the South * May be instrumental or vocal * Belief of a God that provides to all their needs. Example: bountiful harvest, wedding, etc. * Instruments are made of bronze, bamboo or wood
1. Saggeypo/Diwas 2. Tongatong 3. Bungkaka 4. Kubing 5. Gandingan 6. Dabakan 7. Kudyapi 8. Kulintang 9. Babandil

Spanish Traditions * Religious influence connected to and outside the Catholic Liturgy * European type of music adapted by the Filipinos. (Opera, Troubadours, Orchestra, Rondalla, etc
* Pabasa/Pasyon * Panunuluyan * Zarswela * Moro-moro * Senakulo

American Traditions * American Teachers introduced the singing of Philippine songs in Western Style. * Three types of Music: Classical, Semi-classical and Popular Music
* CLASSICAL MUSIC-art songs, kundiman * SEMI-CLASSICAL MUSIC-folk songs, marches, band, rondalla * POPULAR MUSIC- ballads/rock

Original Pilipino Music (OPM) * Popularized due to influence of Western and American style of music * Ways of making it known are the Radio, Television and Internet * Making use of Popular Persons to make the music known
Examples: Sampaguita, Freddie Aguilar, Asin, Parokya ni Edgar, Ogie Alcasid, Gary Valenciano, etc.

Traditional Melodies of the Filipino * Hila-hila – dramatic song, sung when paddling a banca * Oyayi – cradle song * Tagumpay – victory song for battles won * Tagulaylay – monotonous melody portraying grief over someone’s death * Kumintang – war song, a song of repose to the souls * Kundiman – lyrical song about love for country, nature and especially for another person * Balitaw – song and dance among Tagalogs and Visayans

Filipino Composers:
Nicanor Abelardo * Father of Kundiman * NASAAN KA IROG * BITUING MARIKIT * MUTYA NG PASIG


Julian Felipe * Composer of the Philippine National Anthem


HAN CHINESE 2 DIVISIONS: 1. Northern Han Chinese
-The north is cold, dry, and windy. The hardships of life are reflected in the high-pitched, tense, and agitated style of folk song.
2. Southern Han Chinese
-The south, on the other hand, has mild weather and much rain. Life seems to be easier, and the folk songs of the south are generally lyrical and gentle in nature.

MUSICAL STYLE * Pentatonic/Five Tone Scale * Heptatonic/Seven Tone Scale * Most Chinese music are in duple meter (2/2, 2/4, 4/4) * the principle of natural duality (Yin-Yang relationship) * Heterophonic – simultaneous variation of a single melodic line

VOCAL MUSIC * a singer takes great care in enunciating the “head” (beginning), “belly” (middle), and “tail” (end) of each word. * Chinese vocal quality is often described as being high-pitched and nasal. * CHINESE OPERA
-North- Peking Opera
-South- Kun opera or Nanguan


1. Bian Qing 2. Qin Zither 3. Pipa Lute 4. Erhu 5. Disi/Dizi 6. Muyu 7. Xun 8. Dagu

Heian Period (794-1185 AD)
All sorts music of Oriental Countries flourished among the powerful nobility and upper classes and was performed at court ceremonies and sacred rites.

* Shinto ("the way of the gods") is the indigenous faith of the Japanese people and as old as Japan itself. It remains Japan's major religion alongside Buddhism. "Shinto gods" are called kami.
* The word, music in Japanese is 音楽 (ongaku), combining the kanji 音 ("on" sound) with the kanji 楽 ("gaku" music).
2 FORMS of MUSIC * Shōmyō (声明) - Buddhist chanting; chants are based on sacred texts and hymns; sung in A Capella (the chapel) * Gagaku (雅楽) - orchestral court music; elegant and refined music; oldest surviving music in the world; orchestral music with dance
2 TYPES of GAGAKU * KANGEN – instrumental performance without court dance * BUGAKU – instrumental performance with court dance
3 MUSICAL SYLES of GAGAKU * TOGAKU - court music; considered as their highest musical style; music of the left(Indian Influence) * KOMAGAKU – Korean origin; associated with the rituals of the Shinto Religion; music of the right (Korean and Manchurian Influence) * SAIBARA – regional Japanese Folk Music.
BASIC SCALES of JAPANESE MUSIC * YO-SEN – Male scale * IN-SEN – Female scale * Japanese music is based on PENTATONIC or FIVE-TONE SCALE. 3 THEATER and DANCE FORM I. NOH/NOHGAKU – first theater form in JAPAN; make use of music, dance, poetry, design and costumes
2 ELEMENTS: * YOKYOKU or UTAI – drama consists of singing * HAYASHI – old instrumental ensemble

II. KABUKI – all-male theater melodrama and colorful dancing.
“To act in an unusual manner wearing unusual costumes”

III. BUNRAKU – is a puppet theater; sustained by 3 elements: the art of puppeteer, own words of the narrator or singer, music of the shamisen player.

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