Free Essay


In: Other Topics

Submitted By Jagger79
Words 1477
Pages 6
Why people don't respond to alarm signals

People often fail to respond quickly to fire alarm signals. A common example: In a hotel, a fire alarm sounds late at night. Only a handful of people actually dress and leave (often using the elevators). A few people call the front desk. Many people periodically poke their heads out their doors to see what's going on. But mostly, people simply wait for the alarm signal to stop. Eventually, the alarm either shuts off, or someone (hopefully) comes to tell them that there is a real emergency and they must leave.

This problem has aggravated and perplexed fire safety professionals over the years. Some denounce the public for their stupidity in failing to recognize the potential danger indicated by a fire alarm signal. Their concern is valid: in many fire emergencies, a rapid response is critical to survival. But attributing the problem to public stupidity is inaccurate and of no value in correcting the problem. In reality, people are simply exhibiting natural tendencies.

Why don't people respond to alarm systems? There are several reasons. In this essay, these reasons are divided into two main categories:

Alarm signals as sources of information.
Other reasons why people do and don't respond apart from the information-value of alarm signals.
Alarm signals as a source of information. In order to understand why people fail to respond to alarm signals, we need to look at the information-value of alarm signals. By information-value, we mean the degree to which an alarm signal is useful in reducing uncertainty. Stated differently, how useful is an alarm signal in helping people achieve good situation awareness?

One problem is that people may fail to recognize that a signal indicates the need to immediately evacuate a building. Recent code revisions address this problem by mandating a "temporal code three" signal. Regardless of the notification device used to create the sound, building occupants hear a pattern of three sounds followed by a longer interval of silence. Because codes generally do not require the replacement of older alarm systems, many years will elapse before we can depend on hearing these coded signals. Standardizing an evacuation signal is a valuable step towards reducing the uncertainty associated with fire alarm signals, but there are many other aspects of the alarm signal information problem that a standardized coded signal does not address.

Limited information-value of a simple evacuation signal. Assuming that a building occupant recognizes a signal as indicating a request to evacuate, the signal, by itself, does little to reduce uncertainty from the building occupant's perspective. The signal does not indicate the location and severity of a fire, and, most importantly, whether an emergency even exists. This information is important because most adults instinctually want to delay their response to a threatening situation until the danger is well understood.

Experiences with alarm signals that increase ambiguity. We ask people to take the alarm signal as an indication of real danger, but most people's experiences lead them to believe the opposite. People typically experience alarm signals that are associated with system tests, surprise drills and false and nuisance alarms, not real fires. The alarm signal that indicates a real fire is relatively rare. The alarm signal that indicates a truly dangerous situation is very rare indeed. How can the information-value of fire alarm signals be improved? The following is a list of ways to increase the information-value of alarm signals.

Use vocal alarm systems for greater information-value. Vocal alarm systems (also called "voice/alarm signaling service") broadcast messages to building occupants using a dedicated or prioritized public address system. Vocal alarm signals have been demonstrated to be much more effective in inducing building occupants to action, because their information-value is much greater. Used correctly, they can both (1) define the nature and location of a threat; and (2) recommend an effective coping response. But vocal alarm systems must be used carefully. When a vocal alarm system is used to provide inaccurate information, its effectiveness is compromised. Building occupants may learn that the information provided is unreliable. Most importantly, the danger to building occupants can be increased when the information is associated with an inaccurate awareness of the situation. As an example, building occupants can be instructed to evacuate using smoke-contaminated stairs when they would have been much safer remaining in their rooms.

Minimize system tests and false and nuisance alarms. This has been a major problem. Fortunately, new smoke detector technology is rapidly decreasing the incidence of nuisance and false alarms in newer installations.

Use alarm verification features, positive alarm sequences, and presignal alarm systems to minimize the impact of false and nuisance alarms. These are measures that require, to various degrees, the interaction of trained personnel with a fire alarm system for the purpose of avoiding false alarms. When used correctly, these measures can greatly decrease the likelihood of false and nuisance alarms, thereby improving the responses of building occupants when real fires are present. But when poorly planned or executed, these measures can increase the danger to building occupants by delaying a general alarm when real fires are present.

Minimize the use of surprise fire alarms drills. Surprise fire alarm drills are a useful way of evaluating preparedness, but they also reduce the building occupant's perception that alarm signals indicate real emergencies. For this reason, surprise drills can be counterproductive. Fire safety codes have been changed to allow greater use of announced drills in recognition of that they often just as effective for training purposes. In many settings, surprise drills are best reserved for those occasions when the overall emergency response must be evaluated.

Provide information about ALL alarm signals. Provide information about the origin of the alarm and management's efforts to avoid repeats. More often than not, building managers fail to offer any explanation at all. And when they do tell occupants that an alarm signal was false or a systems test, they don't tell building occupants whether measures are being undertaken to prevent recurrences of the same problem. Failing to provide this type of information encourages building occupants to believe (sometimes accurately) that the next alarm signal is likely to be a repeat of the same problem. Research on reducing false alarm effects has demonstrated that providing information about false alarm sources and corrections is effective in increasing appropriate responses to future alarms signals.

Supplement the low information-value of simple alarm signals with information from emergency team members. Good emergency planning has proven to be very effective in getting people to respond when onsite emergency response team members (e.g., floor wardens, fire brigade member) provide the information that is lacking from an alarm signal. Ideally, such persons should provide information about the nature of a threat ("there is a small fire in the basement"), the appropriate response ("the building manager has ordered all occupants to evacuate the building and wait in the parking lot"), and the reason ("because we can't be certain that the fire will be easily controlled").

Reasons for evacuating other than the information-value of alarm signals.

The information-value of alarm signals is not the only factor in determining whether people respond to alarm signals. Here are some other important considerations.

Task persistence. People do not like to be interrupted. The remote possibility that there could be a fire is often not a good enough reason.

Denial and avoiding anxiety. People want to avoid the feelings of anxiety that the danger of a fire evoke. Therefore, they may tend to avoid interpreting an alarm signal as an indication of real danger.

Social roles. People often respond to fire alarm in the total absence of any sense of danger, because other people expect this behavior from them. A familiar example: young children can be easily taught to immediately evacuate in a school setting. But with adults in most settings, it is important to recognize that effectiveness of social roles depends on complicated cultural and organizational contexts. The willingness of building occupants to cooperate with fire drills typically depends on how effective building managers are in their roles. However, Even the best building manager will find it difficult to convince people that every alarm signal should indicate danger when occupants are frequently inconvenienced by systems tests, surprise drills and false alarms. It is also useful to remember that building managers' roles require them to retain tenants, so they will understandably reluctant to alienate tenants by intimidating them into conforming to fire safety regulations.

Risk perceptions. The greater the perceived risk when a fire alarm signal is detected, the more likely a person is to respond. Mental models. Related to risk perceptions, people often have a faulty mental model about how quickly a minor fire can evolve into a life-threatening situation.

Copyright © 2000. Norman E. Groner. All rights reserved

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Fire Hazard

...Development of fire fighting strategies to cope with increasing fire hazard vulnerability in Dhaka city: creating social awareness   Background and present state of the problem Aims The aim of this research paper is to create a social awareness towards fire hazards and draw attention of the concerned administration to improvise the fire fighting strategies and enforce appropriate laws to tackle the problem. Objective To conduct a detailed investigation concerning the increasing fire hazards of Dhaka city to find the best possible solution. To identify the key factors concerning fire incidents. To identify and recommend the responsibility of different actors to create social awareness against fire hazards. To find possible ways to tackle fire hazard and design rescue process in present context. To find variables which are flexible to change, even in the conjusted urban context and can facilitate fire hazard rescue. To attempt to find new type of stratetegy to tackle fire incidents and if required, incorporate new design elements or illustrate conceptual basis of the process.   Possible Outcomes: An in-depth study will bring light to a number of aspects regarding fire hazard incidents. The research will identify the reasons behind fire hazards, its victims, misery and the damages. Also it will bring light upon the possibilities and challenges of fire fighting strategies prevailing in Dhaka city. By analyzing the problem thoroughly,...

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...leaks or fires involving vehicles: (778) Your Answer: | are different than those for storage vessels. | | Correct Answer: | are the same as for storage vessels. | | Which of the following is the method most often used for controlling flammable liquid fires? (774) Your Answer: | Applying dry chemicals | | Correct Answer: | Applying foam | | Which of the following is NOT a main use for a master stream? (769) Your Answer: | As a backup handline | | Correct Answer: | Indirect fire attack | | Which of the following types of fire extinguishers should be used to extinguish fires in transformers at ground level? (782) Your Answer: | Stored-pressure water extinguisher | | Correct Answer: | Carbon dioxide extinguisher | | Which of the following is generally the first task of the second-arriving engine company? (789) Your Answer: | Assists with fireground support company operations | | Correct Answer: | Backs up the initial attack line. | | Once the basement is vented, which of the following types of crews is sent to complete extinguishment? (793) Your Answer: | Hoseline crew | | Correct Answer: | Nozzle crew | | What is one of the first actions to take when attacking a passenger vehicle fire? (797) Your Answer: | Extinguish any ground fire around or under the vehicle. | | Correct Answer: | Establish a safe working zone following U.S. DOT guidelines. | | Why do firefighters need to wear wildland fire......

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fire be facing. During those five precious minutes, someone's house is a blaze with fire. It is your duty to put that fire out, preserve as much as possible, and protect life. Do you think you could handle so much responsibility, pressure, and risk? I know I could. It is a dream of mine to become a firefighter in all sense of the word. I enjoy the thought of risk taking and even helping people, which is why I think that this profession would be just right for me. Ever since I was about 11 years old, and my house had caught fire, had I wanted to be a firefighter. Just watching all of those skilled firefighters mesmerized me. They had such precision and knew exactly what to do in what seemed every situation that would be thrown at them. I feel as though this is their personality and traits added to this accuracy at being so good at what they do. I also have quick reflexes, good stamina, and I tend to think of myself as a fast and logical thinking, just as they all were. I chose this career not only for my liking to it, but also because of the growth in the profession. Firefighting is a field that has potential for growth in the coming years, the education, requirements, and dedication are all equally important to this extremely dangerous, yet exciting job. Firefighting is one of the most dangerous jobs out in the occupation world today. Summed up as a whole, firefighters are trained to fight fires, rescue people in need and provide medical services for humans and animals. There......

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Fire Safety

...talking about fire safety in your home and why you should take the proper steps in helping prevent fires from starting. Let’s face it, most people don’t think fire is that big of a deal to their daily life. But I’m here to tell you that it is…. I’m not saying you need to be looking over your shoulder for a fire everywhere you go, but you should be more vigilant of your surroundings. According to 2012 NFPA statistics there were 480,500 structure fires, 381,000 of which were residential structures. There were 2,405 deaths, 13,175 injuries and over 7 billion dollars’ worth of property loss… This means nearly 80% of structure fires occur in the home. So how do you prevent yourself from becoming one of these statistics? I’ll talk to you about smoking, cooking, smoke detectors, fire extinguishers and dryers. And also some fire survival tips and fire planning that you should use. First I’ll talk about smoking and why you shouldn’t smoke in your home. Every year, almost 1,000 smokers and non-smokers are killed in home fires caused by cigarettes and other smoking materials. Fires caused by cigarettes and other smoking materials are preventable. Next is cooking, In 2010, cooking was involved in an estimated 156,400 home structure fires that were reported to U.S. fire departments. These fires caused 420 deaths, 5,310 injuries and $993 million in direct property damage. By following a few simple safety tips you can protect you and your family from a potential home fire. Why should......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


... Research Articles Two Albuquerque firefighters responded to a arson fire when one fell through the floor of the home. He said that upon arriving on scene they noted flames coming from the second story of the home and proceeded to engage the fire on the second story after making entry. firefighter Andes reports that he took one step onto the second floor when it started to give way but his partner Lt. Lang reached out and grabbed his strap to save him. This article demonstrates why it is important for fire fighters to always work in teams as well as why it is also vital to always check for floor stability before proceeding onto a fire floor on any multistory structure. In this article a tanker from a volunteer department in Readington New Jersey was overturned injuring a 54 year old veteran volunteer firefighter as well as a deputy chief. It does not state if they where responding to a call or not but does say that this is the second time in which this department has wrecked a fire truck in the last month. Both men where medevac'd from the scene with reported head injures. This is a prime example of why it is vital to drive safely and know what your different apparatuses are capable of. Tankers are always a risk due to water surge and should be handled with this in mind. Better to drive slower and get to the scene safely than to......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Tier 2 (A rating) Kearsley Warwick London Tier 2 (A rating) London Tier 2 (A rating) Harrow London Tier 5TW (A rating) Newbury Page 33 of 1704 Manchester Tier 2 (A rating) Warks Tier 2 (A rating) Middlesex Tier 2 (A rating) Berkshire Tier 2 (A rating) Organisation Name Adstream UK Ltd Town/City County Tier & Rating Sub Tier London Tier 2 (A rating) Tier 2 (A rating) Tier 2 General Intra Company Transfers (ICT) Intra Company Transfers (ICT) Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Intra Company Transfers (ICT) Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Intra Company Transfers (ICT) Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General Tier 2 General ADT Fire & Security Plc Sunbury on Thames Middlesex Tier 2 (A rating) Tier 2 (A rating) Adtec Europe Limited Hounslow Middlesex Tier 2 (A rating) Tier 2 (A rating) ADTEK LIMITED Advanced 365 Limited ADVANCED BROADCAST SERVICES LIMITED Advanced Business Equipment Advanced Computer Systems (UK) Advanced Demand Side Management (ADSM) ADVANCED DESIGN TECHNOLOGY LIMITED Advanced Health and Care Limited Advanced Healthcare Ltd Advanced Media Centre Limited Advanced Micro Peripherals Ltd ADVANCED PLASTIC TECHNOLOGY LTD Advanced Power Components plc NEWCASTLE LONDON TYNE & WEAR Tier 2 (A rating) Tier 2 (A rating) London Tier 2 (A rating) Uxbridge Doncaster Slough LONDON Tier 2 (A rating) Cobham Tonbridge London Tier 2 (A......

Words: 405779 - Pages: 1624

Premium Essay


...History Ancient Rome There was no public fire-fighting in the Roman Republic. Instead, private individuals would rely upon their slaves or supporters to take action. This action could involve razing nearby buildings to prevent the spread of fire as well as bucket brigades. The very wealthy Marcus Licinius Crassus was infamous for literal fire sales. He would buy burning buildings, and those adjacent to them at low prices, and rebuild them using his team of 500 slaves. However there is no mention of the men extinguishing the fires. There was not an organized fire-fighting force in ancient Rome until Augustus's era. United Kingdom Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organise rudimentary firefighting. After much of London was destroyed, the first fire insurance was introduced by a man named Nicholas Barbon. To reduce the cost, Barbon formed his own Fire Brigade, and eventually there were many other such companies. By the start of the 1800s, those with insurance were given a badge or mark to attach to their properties, indicating that they were eligible to utilize the services of the fire brigade. Other buildings with no coverage or insurance with a different company were left to burn unless they were adjacent to an insured building in which case it was often in the insurance company's interest to prevent the fire spreading. In 1833, companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. Steam powered......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Fire and Ice

...This short poem outlines the familiar question about the fate of the world, wondering if it is more likely to be destroyed by fire or ice. People are on both sides of the debate, and Frost introduces the narrator to provide his personal take on the question of the end of the world. The narrator first concludes that the world must end in fire after considering his personal experience with desire and passion, the emotions of fire. Yet, after considering his experience with “ice,” or hatred, the narrator acknowledges that ice would be equally destructive. n the first two lines of the poem, Frost creates a clear dichotomy between fire and ice and the two groups of people that believe in each element. By using the term “some” instead of “I” or “an individual,” Frost asserts that the distinction between the two elements is a universal truth, not just an idea promoted by an individual. In addition to the unavoidable contradiction between fire and ice, these first lines also outline the claim that the world will end as a direct result of one of these elements. It is unclear which element will destroy the world, but it is significant to note that fire and ice are the only options. The poem does not allow for any other possibilities in terms of the world’s fate, just as there are not any other opinions allowed in the black-and-white debate between fire and ice. Interestingly, the two possibilities for the world’s destruction correspond directly to a common scientific debate during the...

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...When we all started our carrers as firefighters wheatear we knew it or not we were all at the mercey of those more experienced at the station. While this typically what you would expect to see at the fire station it can definatily be a double edged sord. While rookie firefighters get the opputunity to be guided in the right the direction by the more seasoned firefighters the opposite is also true, and can lead the rookie down the wrong path. This can be attributed to a lot of reasons including: the seasoned firefighter has been taught the wrong path themselves, they may not have the patentece to guide a rookieor are have poor teaching skills, and of course they may just not care. Barring the last example(because we all know we work at a good station) the other examples can be detrimental to the new firefighter succeeding. A lot of what we do in the fire service can only be perfected through experience. Tring new ways to accomplish a small task is the firefighter way. Much of the basics of what we do in the fire service is learned at a fire school but is taught as general information with the understanding that each induvudal department, station and shft have their own way to handle fireground activities. This is a completely acceptable practice, it is part of the captains job to gage their crews skills abilities as well as have an understanding of their still alarm territory and target hazards. When a rookie firefighter first comes to the station sometimes it is easy......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fire Scienc

...The word fire is defined by webster as the phenomenon of combustion manifested in light, flame, and heat. What this definiton does not tell you is how dangerous a fire can be if you are not aware of its capability to spread and grow rapidly. Fires can be very dangerous and harmful. It is important to education each other as much as possibe to help prevent injries or deadly accidents. There are four stages that happen in every fire. Those stages are Incipient, Growth, Fully Developed, and Decay. Each stage plays a role in every fire. Understanding each stage, and how to handle or prevent it is critical in becoming in control of a fire. Flameovers and backdrafts are not consider stages, but also are definitely factors of a fire. These factors sometimes can be prevented. Some methods of prevention are taugh at fire academies, or fire schools, to new firefighters, and are constistly being developed. Incipient, also know as the "ignition" stage, is the first stage of a fire. In this stage smoke may began before the fire actually flames up. This is the stage where heat, oxygen, and a fuel source combine to ignite the fire. At this stage it can be controlled by a household fire extinguinsher. Growth is the second stage of a fire. With the initial flame used as a heat sourse, more flames flare up. Flaring up makes the size of the fire increase and the plume reaches the ceiling. In a room hot gases meet at the celing of the roomwhich cause all fuels in that......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Fire Protection

...L - Fire Protection Physical Hazards Control; OSHT 1309 Freddy Sustaita Jr. Alisha Coneley November 19, 2015 Its 3:00pm, your sitting at your desk watching the clock, waiting for that longed for 5:00pm. All of a sudden, you start to smell smoke, then the fire alarms start blaring right outside of your office. Co-workers begin frantically running past your doorway toward the exit… There is a fire. What do you do? Do you run out of the door like others? Should you run through the office to make sure everyone else got out? You have no idea, you were not prepared for this. Your company is not prepared for this. Unfortunately this is a common occurrence throughout workplaces in America. Unfortunately, the lack of preparedness in the workplace for a fire kills hundreds of employees a year. Do not let this become your fate. Be prepared. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has established a set of regulations for employers to ensure that workplaces and employees are all prepared to respond at the sound of fire alarms. No matter what regulations OSHA puts into place, risks of injury or death can only be minimized and not eliminated. Workers often find themselves in a dangerous situation when attempting to put out an office fire. With proper training, personal protective equipment and safe work practices, employees chances of surviving a workplace fire increases drastically. This paper will discuss, significant regulatory requirements in regards to fire......

Words: 2581 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...South Canyon Fire Disaster (DRAFT) Introduction The South Canyon, or sometimes referred to as the Storm King Mountain Fire, that occurred in July 1994 is an intriguing disaster to study. What makes the disaster so intriguing is that another fire which occurred in 1949 called the Mann Gulch Fire, killed 13 firefighters and yet forty-four years later the same mistakes were made at the South Canyon Fire leading to the death of fourteen more firefighters. When compared to each other, both fires have almost the exact same topographical features, weather phenomena, and sequence of events. Both fires were located inside box canyons, or “small ravine or canyon with steep walls on three sides allowing access or egress only through the mouth of the canyon” (Wikipedia) and located on a major river. Gusting winds up the mouth of the canyon contributed to the fire blowing up and increase in size in just a matter of moments. On both fires, the practice of downhill fire line construction was used down steep mountain sides which hampered the fire crews in escaping uphill when the fire began to overrun them. In this paper, I plan on examining the organizational, executive, and regulatory failures that led to the demise of the fourteen firefighters on the South Canyon Fire and to address the major question, “Are wildfire fighting fatalities inevitable ‘normal accidents’?” South Canyon Fire Event In 1994, Colorado experienced a year of extreme drought and in the summer months, long......

Words: 2359 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Fire Fire

...FIRE, FIRE, Abstract Implementing a firewall is seldom a simple task. It must be carefully planned in order to meet all of the needs of a companies complicated network design. The design objectives depend on what problems are anticipated, what services to allow or deny, and what level of risk is acceptable. How to cover these objectives is a lot to consider; how much money is available or allowed in order to implement this design, how long does the administrator have to complete this design, and is the expertise level of knowledge available in order to correctly implement this design? The most daunting task of all; which firewall to implement? A firewall comes in all shapes, sizes, and specification. All are meant to make a network more secure, but where to start? Is it a software driven firewall or hardware bases firewall used? Which type of firewall; database, network based, host bases, or application bases? What are the differences between them, how they work or what they actually do? Will it do more harm than good? It can all be very confusing when trying to protect a network and figure out which firewall is best fit. All of these are very important questions that should be answered before starting the installation and implementation of a firewall. Hopefully the answer to these questions will become clear as firewalls are discussed further in this paper. Firewalls What is a firewall and how does it work? By definition a firewall protects an internal......

Words: 3446 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Fighting Fire with Fire

...(Nate) Song Comparison Music Appreciation- 105 The song that I chose to do a comparison of is called Fire. It was originally written, performed, and recorded by Jimi Hendrix in 1967 and is on the first album by his group The Jimi Hendrix Experience. The song is two minutes and 47 seconds of pure Psychedelic rock or acid rock, as some called it. The song originally is in duple meter. It starts off with a lot of drumming on a drum set then afterwards there are the sweet melodic psychedelic sounds of Jimi’s electric guitar and voice. After that, there is a catchy bass guitar groove that comes in during the first chorus and enters in and out while back-up singers sing, “Let me stand next to your fire ”as Jimi sings the whole song and is on lead electric guitar. There are crescendos that lead up to Jimi’s awesome guitar solos throughout the whole song. The mood of the song is happy. The bass line is legato and the lead guitar part is staccato. The song for the most part is homophonic and has parts that sound polyphonic because he is singing while playing lead guitar. The band that made a cover of Fire is an awesome band called Red Hot Chili Peppers. They are an alternative and influential funk rock group that was made Los Angeles, California in 1983. They covered the song on their fourth album called Mother’s Milk, which was released on August 16th in 1989. Their version of Fire sounds the same except they took it from moderato to allegro and had more accelerandos and......

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Age Age Frequency Percent 15-24 7 11.3 25-34 24 38.7 35-44 19 30.6 44+ 10 16.1 Total 60 100 According to the above table there are four classes of age are undertaken and we can say that the 25-34 class aged people are the height percentage found in the Neemtoli Fire Hazard study area, which we were called them young aged people. Very young and old aged percentages are low because of the inconvenience of interaction about the answer; on the other hand middle aged and lower middle aged who has been answered clearly and well defined. So, maximum interviewer selected such type of interviewee who can easily define that fire scenario which is very important us to analyze and calculate for our report. Sex Sex Frequency Percent male 52 83.9 Female 8 12.9 Total 60 100 Above table shows that there are 60 samples are taken where 52 are male and 8 are female on the contrary there percentages are 83.9 and 12.9 which means that male are dominated here. Male percentages are near six & half times larger than female. So when collecting the information in this section quantitative data is collected and avoids the qualitative data, as a result there is uneven distribution in frequencies. Occupation Occupation Frequency Percent Services 19 30.6 Business 20 32.3 House wife 7 11.3 Retired from service 1 1.6 Others 13 21.0 Total 60 100 There are five classes content in the occupation table where business people are the most. Most of the people in neemtoli......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2