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PENDAHULUAN
Puji dan syukur dipersembahkan kepada kehadirat Allah SWT, karena atas karunia-Nya lah penulis dapat menyelesaikan Laporan Kegiatan Ekskursi sebagai tugas akhir pada mata kuliah Kajian Tatanan Masyarakat. Kegiatan ekskursi yang diikuti oleh mahasiswa Sekolah Bisnis dan Manajemen ITB ini adalah sebuah aktivitas penelitian etnografi yang bertujuan untuk meneliti masyarakat di suatu daerah.

Keindahan dalam berkomunikasi dengan sesama makhluk sosial adalah salah satunya dengan mengenal dan memahami terlebih dahulu karakter dan asal-usul mereka. Asal-usul tempat, waktu, budaya yang berbeda-beda membuat sudut pandang yang muncul juga beraneka ragam. Kegiatan ini memberi kesempatan kepada mahasiswa untuk menerapkan pengetahuan yang telah diterimanya di ruang kelas dan sekaligus memberi kesempatan untuk mengasah diri dalam menghadapi dan memahami masyarakat. Penyusunan Laporan Kegiatan Ekskursi ini dibuat dengan beberapa metode yang telah dilakukan penulis saat menjalankan ekskursi. Laporan ini berisi penggalian tema-tema budaya dan terutama yang berhubungan dengan peran serta perilaku dalam masyarakat tertentu.

Penulis berharap bahwa Laporan Kegiatan Ekskursi ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pembaca dan masyarakat luas. Penulis memohon maaf sebesar-besarnya apabila ada kesalahan dalam penulisan laporan ini. Kritik dan saran terbuka, demi terus berkembangnya laporan ini. Atas perhatian pembaca, penulis mengucapkan terima kasih.

Bandung, Mei 2012

Penulis

MITOS-MITOS YANG BERKEMBANG
DI MASYARAKAT DESA BANYUASIH

Matahari terik Desa Banyuasih selalu menyapa kami sepanjang hari. Hamparan sawah yang membentang menghiasi pemandangan mata kami. Kegiatan bertani selalu terlihat sejauh mata memandang. Namun lain halnya dengan kegiatan-kegiatan kepercayaan yang berbau mistis.

Desa Banyuasih merupakan salah satu desa di Kecamatan Tanjungkerta, Sumedang. Desa yang memiliki batas daerah dengan Desa Mulya Mekar, Desa Padasari, Desa Tanjung Mekar dan Desa Sukamanti ini memiliki masyarakat yang sebagian besarnya bermata pencaharian sebagai petani.

Observasi berawal dengan kunjungan ke Kantor Kepala Desa di Sukadana. Disana penulis bertemu dengan Bapak Roni, Bapak Sekdes, dan Bapak Aca. Selain mereka menerangkan tentang lokasi, batas-batas desa dan identitas desa, mereka juga menceritakan kisah-kisah atau legenda yang berkembang di masyarakat Desa Banyuasih. Yang pertama ialah asal muasal nama desa ‘Banyuasih’.

Mereka mengatakan bahwa, tadinya Desa Mulyamekar bersatu dengan Desa Banyuasih dengan nama Desa Cimuncang yang berarti air kemiri. Namun dengan berkembangnya waktu, masyarakat dan tokoh-tokoh agama bermusyawarah dan dilakukanlah pemisahan Desa pada tahun 1982. Banyu yang memiliki arti air dan asih yang berarti kasih sayang memiliki makna yang sangat kuat yang melambangkan identitas lokasi Banyuasih yang memiliki potensi mata air yang sangat jernih dan penduduk desa yang selalu rukun dan damai.

Kemudian, ada juga Legenda Gunung Tampomas. Gunung Tampomas adalah sebuah gunung yang berada di sebelah utara Desa Banyuasih. Tampomas adalah sebuah gunung berapi yang terletak di Jawa Barat, tepatnya sebelah utara kota Sumedang (6.77° LS 107.95° BT). Gunung dengan ketinggian 1684 meter ini juga memiliki sumber air panas yang keluar di daerah sekitar kaki gunungnya.

Gunung Tampomas dengan kekuatan fenomena alamnya memang begitu indah,unik, penuh misteri dan mampu menggoda jiwa petualang bagi para petualang alam bebas untuk mendakinya Apalagi Gunung Tampomas di lain sisi selalu di kaitkan dengan hal-hal atau macam-macam yang sedikit agak berbau magis.

Gunung yang dulunya disebut Gunung Gede ini merupakan gunung berapi. Alkisah diceritakan bahwa pada suatu hari Gunung Gede ini akan meletus dan ini mengakibatkan kepanikan masyarakat. Memang dalam sejarahnya Gunung itu dulu sering meletus dan berakibat masyarakat sekitar gunung menderita. Karena letusan Gunung Gede ini akan mengeluarkan abu yang akan membuat Desa Banyuasih mati.

Tetapi disebutkan bahwa Pangeran Sura Atmaja menancapkan keris emas di puncak Gunung Gede. Pangeran Sura Atmaja adalah seorang pahlawan yang terkenal di daerah Sumedang. Dia merupakan seorang anggota Kerajaan Sumedang Larang.

Kerajaan Sumedang Larang adalah salah satu kerajaan Islam yang diperkirakan berdiri sejak abad ke-16 Masehi di Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Popularitas kerajaan ini tidak sebesar popularitas kerajaan Demak, Mataram, Banten dan Cirebon dalam literatur sejarah kerajaan-kerajaan Islam di Indonesia. Tapi, keberadaan kerajaan ini merupakan bukti sejarah yang sangat kuat pengaruhnya dalam penyebaran Islam di Jawa Barat, sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh Kerajaan Cirebon dan Kerajaan Banten.

Kerajaan Sumedang Larang (kini Kabupaten Sumedang) adalah salah satu dari berbagai kerajaan Sunda yang ada di provinsi Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Terdapat kerajaan Sunda lainnya seperti Kerajaan Pajajaran yang juga masih berkaitan erat dengan kerajaan sebelumnya yaitu (Kerajaan Sunda-Galuh), namun keberadaan Kerajaan Pajajaran berakhir di wilayah Pakuan, Bogor, karena serangan aliansi kerajaan-kerajaan Cirebon, Banten dan Demak (Jawa Tengah). Sejak itu, Sumedang Larang dianggap menjadi penerus Pajajaran dan menjadi kerajaan yang memiliki otonomi luas untuk menentukan nasibnya sendiri.
Wibawa Pangeran Aria Suria Atmadja sangat besar yang memancar dari 4 macam sumber yaitu edudukannya sebagai bupati, patuh dan taqwa dalam agama, kepemimpinannya yang tinggi dan displin yang tinggi.
Beliau sangat terkenal dengan tindakannya yang menyalami petinggi Belanda, Daendels dengan tangan kiri sementara tangan kanannya memegang keris. Tindakan ini memiliki arti penolakan terhadap keputusan pemerintah Belanda waktu itu. Kejadian bersejarah itupun diabadikan dengan sebuah patung menyerupakan pangeran Aria Suria Atmadja atau Pangeran Kusumadinata IX yang ditempatkan di jalan Cadas Pangeran.

Alkisah diceritakan bahwa Daendles, seperti diketahui adalah pemrakarsa pembangunan Jalan raya Pos (De Grote Postweg) dari Anyer ke Panarukan yang dimulai pada tahun 1808. Karena anggaran pembangunan terbatas, Daendels meminta para bupati untuk menyediakan tenaga kerja wajib tentu dengan upah murah, maka terjadilah mobilisasi besar-besaran tenaga kerja wajib dari masing-masing kabupaten. Mobilisasi kerja wajib yang lebih tepat dikatakan kerja paksa itu, ternyata banyak memunculkan terjadinya ketegangan antara penduduk pribumi dan penguasa Belanda.

Ketegangan terjadi karena para pekerja menanggung beban kerja amat berat, apalagi dalam kondisi perbekalan yang minim, upah yang sangat kecil, peralatan terbatas dan di banyak lokasi harus menembus medan yang amat berat.

Ketegangan itu pula yang muncul tatkala pembangunan jalan harus menembus ruas Cadas Pangeran, Kabupaten Sumedang, di mana para pekerja harus membelah bukit di medan yang curam, dengan peralatan amat sederhana, berupa linggis. Pangeran Kusumadinata IX yang sedang menjabat menjadi Bupati waktu itu atau yang dikenal sebagai Pangeran Kornel, tidak rela, tak berken an, melihat rakyatnya diperlakukan semena-mena dalam pembangunan jalan itu, dan dia pun menumpahkan kekesalannya itu kepada Daendels ketika Daendels sedang menginspeksi pembangunan jalan di ruas Cadas pangeran.

Diceritakan bahwa ketika menyambut Daendels, Pangeran Kornel berjabat tangan dengan tangan kiri sementara tangan kanannya memegang keris, seolah-olah menantang. Jabat tangan yang tak lazim itu, tidak sekedar menunjukkan protes Pangeran Kornel terhadap Daendels, tetapi juga sebagai ancaman.

Tumbal berupa keris emas ini membuat letusan gunung tidak jadi terjadi dan hanya mengeluarkan air panas saja. Sehingga, bergantilah nama Gunung Gede menjadi Gunung Tampomas yang berarti nampa emas.

Kini Sangiang Taraje atau puncak Gunung Tampomas menjadi obyek wisata yang menarik di kawasan Gunung Tampomas dengan ketinggian ± 1.684 mdpl dan puncaknya merupakan areal terbuka seluas ± 1 Ha. Lokasi ini memiliki nilai estetika tinggi karena dari tempat ini wisatawan dapat menikmati pemandangan alam yang indah ke arah Sumedang dan sekitamya adanya lubang-lubang bekas kawah dan batu-batu besar berwama hitam menambah kekayaan imajinasi bagi yang melihatnya.

Selain itu, di puncak Gunung Tampomas terdapat Makam Keramat yang terletak ± 300 m kearah utara puncak Sangiang Taraje. Tempat ini lebih dikenal dengan nama Pasarean dan pada bulan - bulan tertentu tempat ini ramai didatangi para pejiarah dari daerah sekitaran Sumedang. Pengunjung percaya bahwa penting adanya untuk meminta restu dengan cara berziarah dan menaruh sesajen di makam keramat tersebut, demi kelancaran dan kebahagiaan hidupnya.

Asal-usul nama ‘Sukadana’. Nama kecamatan Sukadana pun memiliki latar belakang. Bapak Roni mengatakan nama Sukadana ini bukan berarti orang-orangnya suka dana, matre atau istilah lainnya melainkan Kepala Dusun yang sangat berjasa bernama Pak Dana dan ini dicoba diabadikan dengan menjadikannya nama sebuah kecamatan.

Pamali-pamali yang disebutkan oleh petinggi Desa Banyuasih ini memang erat hubungannya dengan tradisi sunda. Seperti tidak boleh duduk di depan pintu karena takut susah jodoh, jika sedang sakit lebih baik berobat ke dukun daripada ke dokter dan memperhatikan pola bangunan saat ingin membangun rumah, Bapak Aca mengatakan ini mirip-mirip dengan ilmu Fengshui. Bapak Sekdes menambahkan, masyarakat Desa Banyuasih masih juga ada yang percaya bahwa saat dilanda sakit batuk itu pertanda gangguan dari roh jahat.

Tetapi beliau-beliau mengatakan bahwa seiring dengan berkembangnya ilmu pengetahuan, maka kepercayaan ini berkurang sedikit demi sedikit. Sejak 1990, ilmu agama di Desa Banyuasih makin kuat, kental, dan semakin rutin dilakukan membuat pamali-pamali ini terkubur. Tetapi untuk generasi tua, kepercayaan ini tidak jarang ditemukan.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?t=7510689 http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunung_Tampomas http://id.shvoong.com/writing-and-speaking/self-publishing/2056573-contoh-penutup-laporan/#ixzz1uUd07CWp http://blogs.unpad.ac.id/banyuasih/ http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Sumedang_Larang http://kenzatuk.blogspot.com/2011/12/pangeran-kornel-vs-daendels.html PENUTUPAN

Segala puji bagi Allah pemilik mata air cinta yang tiada pernah kering karena dengan aliran kasih sayangnya penulis bisa menyelesaikan penelitian dengan kesabaran dan kebahagiaan. Semoga dengan hasil penelitian ini bisa memberikan gambaran yang jelas dan gamblang tentang kondisi nyata kegiatan religi di Desa Banyuasih.

Dalam penyusunan laporan penelitian ini, penulis menyadari masih banyak kesalahan dan kekurangan. Maka dari itu saran dan kritik yang membangun dari pembaca merupakan modal utama kami untuk meraih tangga kesuksesan.

Akhirnya tiada kata yang paling indah kecuali puji syukur alhamdulillah pada pemilik kasih sayang sempurna atas berjuta nikmat yang tercurah dan kita rasakan sampai saat ini.
-----------------------
SEKOLAH BISNIS DAN MANAJEMEN INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2012

Ayu Shabrina Puteri 19011066

ETNOGRAFI DESA BANYUASIH

KAJIAN TATANAN MASYARAKAT

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...We never get a second chance to make a first impression Communication is the art of convincing others. A key to effective communication is to make a good first impression. Once we set a good first impression, they frequently stay with us for the life of the relationship. Unfortunately, bad fist impressions have a way of ending even the most profitable relationships before they begin. An initial impression-- whether it is good or bad-- is made within the first three seconds. The first few moments of any contact often affect our relationship with the individual for a lifetime. With our customers, the outcome of the first impression we make can affect our style of life for years to come. Everything we do and say—or fail to do and say—will ultimately affect the impression we make on the people we meet. The key variables that can make the first impression good are voice, appearance, cultural considerations, eye contact, body language, interests, smile, listener, and feel important. Voice can make or break us before we even meet our prospect face to face. If a salesperson speaks badly—mumbles, whines, talks too fast—it can turn people off. To overcome mumbling, we should take the time to enunciate our words. We should slow down, punctuate our speech using phrases& pauses to meet the people. A “vocal workout” using long, sustained sounds and vowel exercises will add power to our voice. Appearance: Are we clean or neat? Are our clothes not neat, but appropriate for the job at......

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First Impressions

...Do First Impressions Matter? A first impression is when we encounter a person for the first time and form a mental image of that person. Personally, I think that first impressions can be often misleading. Many people judge a person mainly by their physical appearance but don’t take into account the persons interior aspects like personality and background. To form an accurate impression of someone we must not be so quick to judge and actually take some time to get to know the person. Sometimes our first impression of someone is correct and other times it is not. We have all met that one person that seemed to be great when we first met them and as we got to know them more our views started to change and we start to think differently about them. Another example is when we meet a person and we do not really like them at first, maybe sometimes really dislike, but then we talk to them and they turn out to be a really great friend. This has happened to me many times and its taught me to give people a chance to show who they really are. Just like a book, we can judge it by its cover but once we start reading it is when we can really decide whether we like it or not. On the other hand, I think first impressions are very important in the business world and when it comes to job interviews. First impressions matter when we first meet with a potential employer for an interview. Employers are more likely to hire a person who looks presentable rather than a person who does not......

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...First impressions strike us quickly and come from a two areas of the brain. The amygdala controls and moderates our motivations, allowing us to navigate our social world. (Starr, 2013) The posterior cingular cortex (PCC) is the seat of autobiographical memory, attention and emotional influence in memory. (Starr, 2013) The PCC is also active when we decide the value of things, make choices, gamble, etc. According to Starr, meeting people activates the same region of the brain responsible for assigning prices to objects. So a first impression of someone basically assigns a value to that person based on our own ideas, morals, religion, etc. This all happens extremely quickly. Taking into account that the amygdala also controls fear and alerts us to possible danger, it is easy to see how fast a first impression can come. If you are walking on the path in a forest and see something that could be a snake, the lightning like fight or flight response you get comes from the amygdala assessing the threat. This is the same part of the brain that creates first impressions, so you can see how quickly they are made. When I picture John after reading the first scenario, I see a confident, friendly person who eagerly talks to many people throughout his day. I see a man who knows who he is as a person and is very likeable. The scenario seems to show him as a very likeable individual who is very full of life and outgoing. I can almost see him smiling as he walks around, just......

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