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Five Elements of Reading

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Running head: FIVE ELEMENTS OF READING

Five Elements of Reading: Scaffolding from Phonics and Phonemic Awareness
Justine Leigh Saavedra
Grand Canyon University: EDU 470
June 2012

Five Elements of Reading
|Phonemic Awareness |Phonics |Fluency |Vocabulary |Comprehension |
|Phonemic awareness is the |Phonics is defined as the |Fluency is the ability to read |Vocabulary is the understanding|Comprehension refers to |
|“ability to notice, think |relationship between letters and |text with ease and flow. The |of the meanings of words in |understanding what one is reading|
|about, and work with discrete|sounds. It is identifying the |reader can quickly group words |other words their definitions. |and applying meaning from |
|sounds in spoken |symbol of the letter with its |into groups and use the phonemic |This is a precursor to |personal experience or |
|language.”(nhpirc.org) |sounds. |and phonic awareness to place |comprehension, single words are|understanding information which |
| | |emphasis and punctuation |comprehended. |is factual. |
| | |correctly. | | |
|Activity: |Activity: |Activity: |Activity: |Activity: |
|Say words from list of 10, |Introduce a letter, write it on |Select a short story with a |Use an active lesson to keep |Explain that comprehension in |
|ask students to say the |board, ask who knows this letter |diverse character. Explain to the|students engaged. |reading is so we can understand |
|sounds not letters in the |and what sound it makes. |students that you sometimes need |Pick a short story to read to |information and what is happening|
|words, first as group then |Next tell students that you will |to read things more than once to |the students which relates the |in a selection. Explain that |
|individually, model this |say 3 words with this letter: top, |read it correctly, with |students in your class and |there are two types of questions;|
|first. |tan, tin. Repeat the sound of /t/. |expression and smoothly. We need |includes a few new words. |1 which helps us locate |
|Next give students two sounds|Ask students to say the words with |to practice this as though we |Tell students we are going to |information or facts and 2 one |
|and ask them what word they |you, and then write the words on |were talking or telling the story|read story which has some new |which asks us to think about what|
|make. |the board and underline the t. |to someone else. I have picked: |words (no more than 5), you may|is happening and why. |
|Ask students to form this |Next write a sentence on the board,|insert whatever story: and |have heard these words before |Select a complimentary content |
|word on their magnetic |tell the students that there will |explain that you will read it |but may not know what they |such as science, explain we will |
|boards. Next ask students to |be two words with the /t/ sound. |first so they can hear out it |mean. Words have meanings which|be learning and reading about |
|substitute a letter or two |Use the sentence: She has two cans |should sound, have them practice |help us figure out what is |earthquakes. Explain you will |
|and what word that makes. |of tacks. Ask them to remember the |individually, have them practice |happening and what might happen|give examples of the types of |
|The manipulative should help |sound and then ask if they can tell|in pairs (making sure to pair an |in the story. |questions, use an overhead wit |
|with ELL and special needs; |you which words have that sound. |ELL or special needs with a non |I have written the words on the|question frames to give examples.|
|they may also be paired up |Repeat with several example for |ELL/ Special needs), then ask |board with the definitions from|Select 8-10 question of each |
|with others to work with |each exercise. Observing ELL and |them to read the story aloud and |the dictionary let’s look at |type, tell them for the first |
|partners. |special needs for pronunciation and|do the best they can. |these and discuss them. Discuss|type of listen question you will |
| |understanding. | |them, give examples, and ask |show them to use their vocabulary|
| | | |various students to put into |to fill in the word, next point |
| | | |their own words. Write |to the thinking question type and|
| | | |definitions in more common |show them how this is a question |
| | | |language for them. |which asks us to think about what|
| | | |Now ask students to write two |we have read and figure out what |
| | | |sentences for each word. Walk |might happen next. Read the |
| | | |around to assist students and |selections together and use |
| | | |ask ELL and special needs to |guided practice as the science |
| | | |write just one for each word. |lesson progresses. For ease with |
| | | | |lower level or ELL Students you |
| | | | |need to highlight the new |
| | | | |vocabulary for them in the |
| | | | |reading selections. |
|Assessments: |Assessments: |Assessments: |Assessments: |Assessments: |
| | | | | |
|Use observations when |Informally, observe as students |Use the sentences as an |After several practice |At the conclusion of the science |
|students are practicing and |work together, and make note of |assessment for what needs to be |sections. |lesson, have the students review |
|guide them as needed, use a |students who need help for more |retaught. |Record students individually |the questions and discuss what |
|check list as they use the |practice. |Develop a short test of the new |with a timed test. Ask them to |the important points were they |
|magnetic boards to record |Formally, pull students |vocabulary with a varied method |read a selection and check for |learned. |
|which students are grasping |individually while others work on |to accommodate various learners. |accuracy, punctuation, and |As students orally what they |
|the concept. |reading skills; ask them to write |Use 5 fill in the blanks of what |speed. A shorter selection may |think causes earthquakes and what|
|Use a formal assessment by |down the letter/s/ which make the |word form a list makes sense, use|be used for ELL and Special |other thinking questions. Observe|
|giving an oral test with |sound you say. Make sure to include|5 multiple choice of what the |needs. |who is answering and how they are|
|sounds, teacher says the |letters which have been previously |words meant in the story they | |recalling the information. |
|words, students are asked to |taught with the new sound mixed in,|have read, for non ELL and | |Give the students a formal quiz |
|write down how many sounds |perhaps more than once. Give them |special needs ask them to write | |for assessing the understanding. |
|they hear in 5 words and then|10-15 depending on ELL, special |the 5 new words in sentences. Ask| |This may consist of a vocabulary |
|ask students to say 5 words |needs accommodations. |ELL and special needs to pick 2-3| |section which is multiple choice |
|they have learned and record | |of the words and write a sentence| |to assess if they understood the |
|their sounds if they are | |for each. | |new facts, and a section of |
|pronouncing them correctly or| | | |question which are simple based |
|not. | | | |from the facts where they fill in|
| | | | |the short one or two word answer,|
| | | | |and the final section of two |
| | | | |questions which asks them |
| | | | |thinking questions to draw |
| | | | |conclusion and relate it to what |
| | | | |they know. The last section does |
| | | | |not have to be completed by the |
| | | | |ELL or special needs or may be |
| | | | |used as extra credit for them. |

Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Reading is fundamental to learning concepts and facts as well as enjoying an adventure through words which create images. In order to read, children must start with an awareness of the relationship between spoken languages and how sounds are grouped or components of words. This is the definition of phonemic awareness. Another component which is essential to begin with is phonics. Phonics may be defined as the relationship between written symbols such as letters or words with sounds. Techniques that can be used are varied for each but all lead to students gaining methods for reading skills. Isolating phonemes teaches students to identify the sounds at the beginning, middle, and end of words which leads to sounding out words when they read. Forming words is important and can be done by having students blend sounds to form real words. Introducing sounds and then having them form the words together and individually builds confidence. Having students count the sounds or moving a marker on a sheet with blocks would be a method of segmenting the phonemes. Another method would be to substitute one specified phoneme for another, this combines the previous knowledge of phonemes used in the other methods and scaffold form them. Students then begin to scaffold the idea of being able to use the familiar to tackle the new. The National Reading Report Panel in 2000 reported the phonics taught had a significant impact of early readers’ success. “The synthetic technique is used by having students sound out words by matching the sounds to letters and then blending the sounds to form words. The larger-unit method is used by having students detect and blend words parts that are larger than phonemes such as rimes and onsets.”(Learning Point, 2004). Both of these techniques are suitable for special needs and ELL students in that the differences in language will be addressed. Pairing of these students with gifted students to practice with each other on sounds and words with flash cards can challenge the gifted students to “teach” the understanding. This provides an assessment of their level. As they continue at a faster rate, the introduction of more challenging rules to English maybe used to have them begin to learn and memorize the exceptions to the generalizations. For the lower performing students it is necessary to remain simple and scaffold when they are ready to ensure their confidence. Assessing the Ell and special needs students requires collaboration with the resource teacher to develop an appropriate form for their particular disability. The environment must be comfortable for them and while written test of these components may be used for others, their test may need to be completely oral to ensure their understanding of sounds. Using fewer sounds at a time for these students may also help in building their skills. When assessing them, it may also be good to repeat previously worked on sounds which they have mastered to ease their frustration level. Gifted students may be challenged by developing an assessment which asks them to draw upon more sounds and relationships and includes larger groups of phonemes. Students who do not demonstrate progress need to be observed closely to identify possible problems. If hearing is a possible issue, it may be necessary to have them tested by the school nurse if possible. For students who appear to not have any hearing issues, it may be necessary to consult a colleague and have them observe or have a resource teacher invited in to observe. They may offer other methods for presenting these concepts which may better suit these students. It is important to be flexible and teach to the students strengths. If progress is still not made after modifications have been made and documented, referral to the special needs department would be necessary to ascertain if there is a learning disability. Manipulative and cooperative groups allow students to have a hands on and active experience. Using small groups and partners is especially helpful with ELL and special needs as they may shy away from larger whole class lessons to avoid possible mistakes. Manipulatives which could be used in these activities would be felt letters, magnetic boards, flash cards with letters or pictures, and earphones to listen to sounds as a computer screen show the letters or words. Group activities may be used to identify sounds that are being worked on in an area of the room with a small group or partner. Another activity would be to have students divide into learning centers, the centered focused on phonics and phonemic awareness may include a grocery store where they must pick items that match a sound they are working on and place them in a box. There may be another activity for two students to work together on a collage, they are given magazines and newspapers to cut out words they recognize with specified sounds in them and glue them to a poster board. They may also be asked to make their own story using words which have a specified sound, writing letters and words on white boards, or using chalk boards to write letters while the teacher makes the sounds. Teaching in a systematic manner by starting with sound and relationships of sound to speech and the written word provides a foundation on which to build. Reading has five components which scaffold from phonemic awareness and phonics. By identifying differentiated strategies for the demographics and those students who are in need of possible referrals, the classroom can become a successful environment for early readers. Including many activities and manipulatives allows for flexible lessons, engaging lessons, and opportunities for many informal assessments. The logical use of a scaffolding plan moves students from the simplest skills to more complex, the objectives are clear and concise allowing for ease of planning, and the practice activities directly reflect the instruction. Blending this with explicit instruction of teacher modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and teacher feedback through the stages provides varied techniques for students to develop these essential skills which will lead to reading larger selections and stories. Using other content areas, such as science and social studies teaches the children that these skills can be used in many activities for many purposes. The students then realize the importance of reading and how the world opens up to new information and things which are interesting for them.

References
Literacy Collaboration at Lesley University. (2005). What are the five essential elements of reading? Retrieved May 29, 2012 from http://www.nhpirc.org/files/Five%20elements%20of%20Reading%20Tip%20Sheet.pdf
Block, C., & Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press.
Duffy, G., Roehler, L., Sivan, E., Rackliffe, G., Book, C., Meloth, M., et al. (1987). Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(3), 347–368.
Learning Points Associates. (2004). A closer look at the five essential components of effective reading: a review of scientifically based reading research for teachers. Naperville, IL. Retrieved June 1, 2012 from http://www.learningpt.org/pdfs/literacy/components.pdf

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...Extensive Reading: Why? and How? Timothy Bell timothy [at] hsc.kuniv.edu.kw Kuwait University ------------------------------------------------- Abstract An extensive reading program was established for elementary level language learners at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen. Research evidence for the use of such programs in EFL/ESL contexts is presented, emphasizing the benefits of this type of input for students' English language learning and skills development. Practical advice is then offered to teachers worldwide on ways to encourage learners to engage in a focused and motivating reading program with the potential to lead students along a path to independence and resourcefulness in their reading and language learning. ------------------------------------------------- Introduction: The Reading Program An extensive reading program was established at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen. An elementary level class of government employees (age range 17-42) was exposed to a regime of graded readers, which was integrated into normal classroom teaching. Students followed a class reader, had access to a class library of graded readers, and had classes in the British Council library, which gave them access to a collection of 2000 titles. Questionnaires were used to examine students' reading interests, habits and attitudes, both prior to, and following the program. The class library contained 141 titles in the published readers of some major......

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