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Fixed Income: Asset Liability Management

In: Business and Management

Submitted By seemamaloo0308
Words 7983
Pages 32
Financial Mathematics for Actuaries
Chapter 8
Bond Management

Learning Objectives
1. Macaulay duration and modified duration
2. Duration and interest-rate sensitivity
3. Convexity
4. Some rules for duration calculation
5. Asset-liability matching and immunization strategies
6. Target-date immunization and duration matching
7. Redington immunization and full immunization
8. Cases of nonflat term structure

8.1 Macaulay Duration and Modified Duration
• Suppose an investor purchases a n-year semiannual coupon bond for
P0 at time 0 and holds it until maturity.
• As the amounts of the payments she receives are different at different times, one way to summarize the horizon is to consider the weighted average of the time of the cash flows.
• We use the present values of the cash flows (not their nominal values) to compute the weights.
• Consider an investment that generates cash flows of amount Ct at time t = 1, · · · , n, measured in payment periods. Suppose the rate of interest is i per payment period and the initial investment is P .


• We denote the present value of Ct by PV(Ct ), which is given by
PV(Ct ) = t (1 + i)

and we have
P =



PV(Ct ).



• Using PV(Ct ) as the factor of proportion, we define the weighted average of the time of the cash flows, denoted by D, as
D =

t=1 n X



PV(Ct )

twt ,





PV(Ct ) wt =



• As wt ≥ 0 for all t and n wt = 1, wt are properly defined weights t=1 and D is the weighted average of t = 1, · · · , n.
• We call D the Macaulay duration, which measures the average period of the investment.
• The value computed from (8.3) gives the Macaulay duration in terms of the number of payment periods.
• If there are k payments per year and we desire to express the duration

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