Free Essay

Flood Cases

In: Other Topics

Submitted By CSchoner721
Words 2605
Pages 11
Formulate a plan on how you would use clinical epidemiology to guide your opinions and actions on dealing with this issue. A clinical epidemiologist is a person who generally works for a health care facility who has the main goal of finding ways to stop or avoid communicable epidemics in the United States. Epidemiologists study the frequency and distribution of diseases within human populations and environments. Specifically, they measure the incidence of disease occurrence and relate it to different characteristics of populations and environments. Epidemiologists perform research, education, and public health practice in universities, government agencies, international organizations, and private corporations. Therefore epidemiologists study a wide range of healthcare issues. Epidemiologist study and research regions or different populations regarding serious life threatening diseases, diseases that are infectious, the life span of illness in families a well as environmental pollutants that occur. Epidemiologists collect and further analyze important information about public health and the behavior of diseases. After researching and analyzing collections an Epidemiologist explain and also reveals to the public about the findings of their research. Epidemiologist study the distribution of health-related events in a specific population and the purpose of this study in order to control health problems that occur. “Epidemiology includes the methods for measuring the health of groups and for determining the attributes and exposures that influence health; the study of the occurrence of disease in its natural habitat rather than the controlled environment of the laboratory; and the methods for the quantitative study of the distribution, variation, and determinants of health-related outcomes in specific groups (populations) of individuals, and the application of this study to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these states or events.” My opinions and actions on dealing with the flood damage would be first to find out the kind of damage being introduced at the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Understanding the types of mold being observed with in these areas will better equip providers to provide the most efficient and effectives care for the flooded area. Another important factor is to know how many people where affected by the flood. Knowing how many people were affected will better provide appropriate medical attention to the people who need the services. I also would need to establish how many people that were maybe injured from the flood and that way I would know what kind of medical attention is needed to assist with treatment medically. Finding the types of mold that has affected the residential area will provide healthcare providers with the knowledge of how the mold will affect the environment and people. When an understanding is grasped of what conditions need to be controlled or the affect that mold will have on the residents it will give healthcare providers a better approach to prevent the types of mold that can do harm to the body.
Propose three (3) types of molds that could develop from flood damage and the associated health risks with each type of mold.

Flood water damage can cause many types of mold which in turn create a health risk. There are three types of molds that could develop from flood damage. These molds include allergenic mold, pathogenic mold, and toxic molds.

Allergenic mold is a type of mold that is not normally dangerous in small quantities however it does affect people who are allergic to mold or who have asthma, which can cause an attack. If allergenic mold develops in large quantities in a specific area it can be harmful to individuals. If an individual is not allergic to the mold then they would be able to clean and remove the mold. People who are removing the mold should wear glove and a mask for repertory protection. The mold should be cleaned by people who are not allergic or sensitive to the affects of the mold. For the people who are sensitive to the mold should not remove the mold, or be around it. It is best to avoid the affected areas where the mold has developed because it can trigger an attack. If the infected area is covered with large amounts of mold a cleaning service should be contacted to make sure it is all safely removed. If individuals are affected by the mold it is usually in response to common allergies for example allergic rhinitis, asthma, and aspergillosis. Allergic Rhinitis is caused by molds, mites, and mite fecal pellets, pollen or other plant fragments and animal dander. This type of allergy affects 20% to 30% of the population. Asthma is affected by more then five types of mold that can be found indoors and it affects about 5 of the population. Aspergillosis is an outcome of from the inflammation of respiratory airways which is caused by mold and related illnesses.

Pathogenic mold is the type of mold that causes infections. Pathogenic molds can cause serious health effects in persons with suppressed immune systems. Those taking Chemotherapy and those with HIV/AIDS, or autoimmunity disorders. If any pathogenic molds are identified, it is suggested that you seek advice from an Industrial Hygienist or other mold professionals. Hyphae and hyphal elements are single, unidentifiable fragments of molds. Although they might not be traceable to a specific mold species, these fragments can be responsible for allergic reactions in some people and may indicate previous or current growth. Ascospores and basidiospores are clusters of spores that may not be easily identified as a specific species, but may represent a mold problem in the property (Mold types-Black mold, toxic mold, and mildew).

A toxic mold is a type of mold that produces hazardous by products, called mycotoxics. While individuals with asthma and other respiratory problems may have reactions to many types of mold, it’s thought that mycotoxins are more likely to trigger health problems in even healthy individuals. These toxins are believed to be linked to memory loss and to serve lung problems in infants and the elderly. Floating particles of mold are invisible to the naked eye, so it’s impossible to see where they might have landed until they begin to grow. Loose mold particles that accumulate on items with a house are easily inhaled and can be a constant irritation to the people and pets that live there. The toxic mold we hear most about is stachybotrys chartarum, a slimy, greenish-black mold that grows on moisture-laden materials that contain cellulose, such as wood, paper, drywall, and other similar products. Even if the mold in the home is not toxic mold, it still can cause problems because any mold growing on organic materials will in time destroy them, and too much mold of any type smells bad and degrades air quality. Mold thrives in damp, humid conditions: * Bathrooms with poor ventilation. Install an exhaust fan if possible. * Leaky water pipes. Repair them immediately. * Roof leak. Repair them right away. * Flood aftermath. Repair as soon as possible. * Clothes dryers and exhaust fans that vent under the house or back into the room. Vent them to the outside. (Wicket, Janet, 2012).
3 Outline a plan to communicate key information to health practitioners who will most likely treat the systems of mold. Include a timeline when this outbreak can be expected. Attention to all Healthcare Practitioners:
After the flood damage in the Northeast, we have an estimate of 5,400 homes and businesses that have suffered some sort of flood damage during that event, and 124 sewage treatment plants were affected by the flood, with 14 of them spilling raw sewage into waterways. With this flood we have mold infestation, which can cause adverse health effects. I have estimated 5,000 to 15,000 people that may have side effects from the flood damage. There are many symptoms that could affect these people which include: headaches, weak immune systems, asthmatic problems, fever, nasal and sinus congestion, vomiting, skin and tissue infection, diarrhea, eye infection, visual loss, lung disease, difficulty breathing, and hearing problems (The Health Risk of Untreated Sewage). Due to the flood and the raw sewage in the waterways it is possible that people can start having symptoms right away from the time they evaluate their homes and businesses and the time they returned to their homes. Especially if they had some of their tap water they are at higher risk.
4 Compare three (3) methods that could be used to decrease mold or exposure to mold. Include the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Mold, mildew, and fungi are all term generally used to describe a distinct group of organisms that appear as wooly or powdery growth. Although often used interchangeably, these terms, in fact, are not synonymous. Rather; mold and mildew (along with rust, yeasts, and mushrooms) are different members of the fungus family. Although once considered a part of the plant kingdom, fungi are now regarded as a distinct kingdom of organisms. They absorb nutrients from dead or living organic matter, and they lack photosynthetic pigments. Molds and mildew can grow anywhere- indoors or outdoors- wherever there is enough surface moisture to keep them alive. They can be found in every type of climate and in every social and economic condition. They live where moisture, oxygen, and other chemicals are present. They can be found on the surface of objects within pores, and inside deteriorated materials. Indoor, you do not want just to avoid mold; you want ideally, to prevent their growth and to rid your home of them when they are discovered. Controlling the growth of indoor mold, however, is complicated by three factors (1) temperature setting is based on human comfort levels. Temperature that are good for controlling mold may be uncomfortable for human occupants; (2) mold spores are omnipresent inside and outside. As soon as conditions are right, they began to grow and spread; and (3) nutrients for mold growth are always available. They are present in the construction materials and furnishing used in the homes. Of the ingredients necessary for mold growth-a warm temperature, a mold spore, nutrients, and moisture- the last is the single most important and the only one that we can control for. Therefore, to decrease the presence of indoor mold, liquid water and excess humidity must be eliminated through appropriate clean-up, repairs, and installation of ventilation and heating/cooling systems. Ways to decrease mold inside the home or business would be to keep indoor humidity below 60% and, ideally, between 35 to 45%, continuously running the air conditioning or a dehumidifier can lower moisture enough to prevent mold growth- if these are kept clean. Filters on should be scrubbed or changed regularly. The home should be well-ventilated; especially those areas where moisture tends to build up like kitchens, bathrooms, laundry rooms, and basements. The use of air conditioners, dehumidifiers, and fans can reduce indoor moisture. If carpeting or furnishing becomes wet, they must be quickly and thoroughly dried or discarded (Bishop, Chris, Molds). The advantage of all the methods is to avoid exposure to mold. This will also help reduce people from getting sick and having health problems. Another advantage is that by hiring a professional to come and remove the mold it will be gone for good. The disadvantage of decreasing mold is that it will be costly to remove carpet, or any areas in the home that has been exposed to mold. Another disadvantage would be that if you are not properly cleaning your home you could have to get rid of everything in order to avoid getting sick and it can also be costly because you have to buy new housing equipment.
5 Formulate three (3) talking points the Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection can use when addressing the concerns of the community of health risks associated with mold and what preventative measure can be taken to avoid contracting this infection. The three talking points the Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection that can be used when addressing the concerns of the community of health risk associates with mold would include (1) the symptoms to look for if you have been exposed to the mold. Molds are the leading cause of outdoor airborne allergies, which can recur year-round. But some of the symptoms that are caused from inside mold are nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, wheezing, headaches, cold-and-flu like symptoms, inability to concentrate, and fatigue. Mold exposure has been associates with asthma onset. Symptoms usually disappear when the mold is removed. Exposure to mold can cause serious health problems. Some people with chronic illness, such as obstructive lung disease, for example, may develop mold infections in their lungs (Bishop, Chris, Molds). The second point would be who is affected by mold. Some people are more sensitive to mold than others. It doesn’t have to be an extensive amount of mold in an area to affect certain people which include infants, children, immune-compromised patients, pregnant women, people who have respiratory problems, people with allergies or asthma, and the elderly (Mold removal unit, 2003). The third point is what should people do if there home or business has mold? People should have professionals come I and inspect their place and see what all needs to be done to correct the mold problem. Along with cleaning tips that people can do in order to make sure they prevent mold from happening. Cleaning includes cleaning your house, not leaving dirty clothes unwashed, if you have damp areas get them dry, and or pull up carpet if it is damp so it won’t have mold. The ways to have preventative measure that can be taken to avoid contracting this infection or mold would be to avoid areas where mold is obvious, use personal protective equipment and keep your hands, skin, and clothing clean and free mold contaminated dust (Mold removal unit, 2003).
6 Suggest the type of study you would use to evaluate the long-term effects of mold exposure and the reasoning behind your selection. The type of study I would use to evaluate the long-term effects of mold exposure would be case control study. Most epidemiological studies compare one group to another to determine the effects of risk factors such as exposure or treatments on the incidence or course of the disease. The studies can be classified on the basis of (1) the date when the disease is identified, (2) the date of exposure or treatment recognition and the (3) time frame used in conducting the analysis. One of the classic study designs used in epidemiological research is the retrospective or case control study. With this mode of investigation, one identifies a group of subjects with a particular outcome, such as a disease or conditions, and compares them to a group without the disease or condition. The case control study is an inexpensive, relatively efficient approach to measuring the effects of exposure, and it is particularly suited for rare disease with long latency periods or exposures over a long period. I feel that the case control will cover all the basis because people may have mold regardless of if it’s a flood or not in their home and business and they can know the risk factors that are involved with mold altogether. Reference
Fleming, Steven T. (2008). Managerial Epidemiology Concepts and Cases (2nd Ed.). Chicago : Health Administration Press.
Wicket, Janet (2012). Toxic Molds in Homes, Stachybotrys Chartarum. http://www.americanairandwater.com/mold/mold-types.htm. http://inspectapedia.com/sickhouse/mold.classes.htm http://act.amercianrivers.org/site/Doc Sever/healthfactsheet-picture.pdf. http://www.aehf.com/articles/molds.htm http://www.moldunit.com/health-risks.htm

http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/courses-jmgay/glossclinepiebm.htm

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pakistan Floods Case Study

...Deforestation. (Physical Factors) * Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non forest use. * Pakistan is known to have one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. * Only 5% of Pakistan is now occupied by forest due to excessive timber harvesting. * Due to the lack of vegetation to intercept the precipitation, flooding occurred. * Hydrological processes such as percolation, infiltration and soil saturation are hindered causing an increase in storm flow and the overflowing of surface storages which contributed to floods. * United Nations department for international disaster strategy reduction. * United Nations department for international strategy for disaster reduction focused on water supply and food drought rather than the defences against the floods knowing that previous floods have had...

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ariful Islam

...f~wgKv বাংলাদেশ একটি উন্নয়নশীল দেশ এবং জনসংখ্যার প্রায় অর্ধেক নারী। যখন নারী অর্থনৈতিক ও সামাজিকভাবে ক্ষমতাপ্রাপ্ত, তারা হয়ে পরিবর্তনের জন্য একটি শক্তিশালী হাতিয়ার। গ্রামাঞ্চলে বিশ্বের উন্নয়নশীল, নারী খেলতে চলমান একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা পরিবারের এবং প্রধান করা কৃষি অবদান উৎপাদন. শিক্ষা দীক্ষা জ্ঞান গরীমায় আজ নারী সমাজ পুরুষের পাশাপাশী সমান যোগ্যতায় অগ্রসর হয়ে চলছে। সেদিনের সেই অভিশপ্ত নারী ধর্মের গন্ডি পেরিয়ে আজ নিজেকে সুপ্রতিষ্টিত করতে চায় তার দায়িত্ব ও কর্তব্য বজায় রেখে। যুগ পরিবর্তনের প্রেক্ষিতে বর্তমান জাতীয় জীবনের উন্নতি সাধনের সকল কর্মক্ষেত্রে নারী সমাজ ভূমিকা পালন করে যাচ্ছে। তাদের ভূমিকার ক্ষেত্র ও দিন দিন প্রসারিত হচ্ছে। সাম্প্রতিককালে বাংলাদেশের অর্থনীতিতে যতোগুলো চ্যালেঞ্জ এসেছে তার মধ্যে সর্বাগ্রে রয়েছে সরকারিভাবে স্বীকৃত এ দেশের মোট জনসংখ্যার অর্ধেক নারী সম্প্রদায়ভুক্ত যাদেরকে অর্থনৈতিক কর্মকাণ্ডের সঙ্গে সম্পৃক্ত করা। অর্থাৎ বৃহৎ পরিসরে নারীদের অবস্থানকে সুদৃঢ় করে একটি সমৃদ্ধ দেশ গঠনের সুযোগ। বিগত দিনগুলোতে দেশী-বিদেশী গবেষকদের মধ্যে ব্যাপক উৎসাহের দ্বার উন্মোচন করেছে বিশেষত সামাজিক ও নৃবিজ্ঞানীদের কাছে। তাদের মতে নারী কতোগুলো আদর্শ গুণে গুণান্বিতা যার ফলে সে কখনো হয়ে ওঠে মা কখনো বা মমতাময়ী ভগিনী আবার আনন্দময়ী নন্দিনী ও সুখ-দুঃখের হতভাগিনী সহধর্মিণী। এই যে বহুরূপে নারীর বিচরণ তাকে যদি প্রাতিষ্ঠানিক কাঠামোতে প্রতিস্থাপন করা যায় তাহলে উন্নয়ন যে অসম্ভব নয় তা এরই মধ্যে প্রমাণিত হয়েছে। লক্ষ্য ও উদ্দেশ্য: ১. সমাজের উন্নয়নে নারীর ভূমিকা সম্পর্কে গুরুত্ব বুঝা ২. নারীর অবস্থান সম্পর্কে জানা ৩. নারী কর্মক্ষেত্রে মুখোমুখি অন্তরায় সম্পর্কে জানা......

Words: 5458 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Flood Mitigation Strategy

...MINISTRY OF WATER AND IRRIGATION Flood Mitigation Strategy June 2009 Flood Mitigation Strategy TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLESLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................ iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................iv 1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Methodology ........................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Strategy for Integrated Flood Management .............................................................. 3 2.0 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 5 2.1 Institutional Arrangements....................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 Organizational Structure of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation .....................5 2.1.2 Flood Related Legislative Arrangement ............................................................ 5 2.1.3 Disaster Management......................................................................................6 2.2 History of floods in Kenya .............................................................................................

Words: 14839 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

Malaysian Flood

...FLOOD IN MALAYSIA Contents INTRODUCTION 2 OPINION 3 CONCLUSION 5 INTRODUCTION Flood is an overflow of water that submerges the surface of land that consist of residential areas. Basically people in Malaysia will experience flood every year and flood always occur at the end of the year and it is happen because of heavy rain that could increase the level of river and sea. At the end of last December, Malaysian citizen has been shocked with the occurring of massive flood in the coastal area of east for a month. The flood was declared as the worst flood happen in Malaysia and it affect a lot of Malaysian people. Refer to the statistic, the flood have affect more than 100,000 people and 21 of the victim were killed. The citizen of Malaysia in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang was affected more than the other state of Malaysia. As in statistic, 3390 citizen of Kelantan have to move because of their living place condition was not safe and it was damaged badly. The total victim in Kelantan was record the highest which is 24,765 victim. In Terengganu, there were about 4209 citizen had to leave their home due to the condition and to save their live. The total of victim in Terengganu was 21,606. At Pahang, the victim is not as many as Kelantan and Terengganu but the victim recorded also high which is 10,825. The flood also affect many infrastructure in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. It give a lot of loss to the state and it used lot of funds to recover back the......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nonpossessory Interests

...obtained by grant or reservation. In the case study Carvin v. Arkansas Power and Light, the flood easements obtained by AP&L were obtained by both methods. The flood easements gave AP&L the permission to ckear the properties of trees, brush and other obstructions and to submerge in water. AP&L recorded the easements, and anyone who purchased any of the lakeside property was aware of the flood easements. In May of 1990 heavy rains fell in the area, so reaching up to ten inches which casued the highest levels ever recorded. In order to avoid flooding Lake Hamilton AP&L decided to open the Carpenter dam gates. By opening the dam, Lake Catherine flooded and caused up to twenty-five feet of water to rise in some areas which caused extensive damage to many houses and flood water rose to roof levels in many areas. Dozens of landowners sued as they felt AP&L were negligent in opening one dam gate and not opening another one and for not notifying the owners that they were planning on opening the dams. AP&L stated there was no time to notify anyone as they had a duty to move quickly and to protect a wider area of residents that would have been affected by the flooding from the rains. The homeowners were well aware of the easements on their property. Even thought the easements were obtained years earlier, anyone who bought the land knew about the easements, but never thought they would need to worry about AP&L having to use the flood easements. The company......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Be Careful What You Sign

...Pruitt of the U.S. Office of Naval Research, is now commonly used to describe the science—and art—of identifying, observing, and measuring an object without coming into direct contact with it. It involves the detection and measurement of radiation of different wavelengths reflected or emitted from distant objects or materials, by which they may be identified and categorized by class/type, substance, and spatial distributions. There are various types of satellites being used for earth observation. It varies from the area that is being seen to the frequency of observations. One type used in disaster management would be polar-orbiting satellites that aviate in low-set ambit, but provide high spatial resolution. Infrared sensors would pick up floods, thermal sensors would spot the fires that are active, and microwave sensors are used to measure earth’s deformations before and during earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The major disaster in the developing world would be the drought in Africa. This kind of disaster along with many others starts slowly and may be predicted in advance. “The cause of droughts in the U.S. is the disposition winds from the west. A ridge which is caused by a jet stream making a big northern bend going over the central part of the woodlands with lesser meridional curves on specific side above the east and west coast states. A large anticyclone forms below the ridge and begins to rotate. This pattern is very stable and is called an omega block,......

Words: 2507 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Case for, or Against New Orleans

...Jason Coleman 06-11-12 New Orleans Recommendation Paper The Case For, or Against, New Orleans Management Decision Models B6025 Dr. Usha Dasari We will look at many factors in our case for rebuilding or not rebuilding New Orleans. This recommendation will be reviewed by state and local governments for their decision. We will perform a Cost-Benefit Analysis which will represent the residents of New Orleans, the residents of the surrounding floods plains, the Mayor of New Orleans, and the federal government represented by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) and the taxpayers. We will look at scenario models, risk management, and decision trees to support our decisions and analysis. This natural disaster took an enormous toll on the residents of New Orleans. Over 1200 lives were lost and countless injuries were suffered. The loss of revenue from the shutdown of businesses, loss of homes and possessions of residents caused much pain and human suffering. We will conclude with an executive summary which will summarize our decision for or against rebuilding of New Orleans. Prior to the hurricane New Orleans was a tourism magnet. The city offered many restaurants, festivals, and great weather. These positives made tourism a thriving market. Other boons for the economy of New Orleans were the mining, transportation, and warehousing along its waterways. More products came through this port than any other port in the world. There are many colleges in the area than......

Words: 2509 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Discuss the Causes of the Morpeth Flood of 2008 and Evaluate the Responses to It (40 Marks)

...Discuss the causes of the Morpeth Flood of 2008 and evaluate the responses to it (40 marks) On Saturday the 6th September 2008, Morpeth was described to have received the worst flooding in the town’s history, Morpeth is an old market town which is situated in a loop of the river Wansbeck in the northeast of England, about 15 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles west from the North sea. Morpeth is no stranger to flooding, a severe flood occurred in 1963, in which over 500 properties were flooded, the flood defences put in place were designed to contain a repeat of the flood magnitude in 1963, although the 2008 flood was in excess of this and the flood defences were not able to manage there were various questions that were raised post flood, these included whether the town could have been better prepared for the flood, was there enough warning of what was the come and did it leave the locals in the town enough time to react to the situation and also whether the town’s rescue plan was effective and stood up to the test. Despite questions being raised about the human errors that led to the Morpeth flood being so severe there were no questions asked about what physical features attributed towards the flood, this included the intense and sustained rainfall the Morpeth and the surrounding area was subject to, the summer of 2008 had been unusually wet in the north-east of England so the ground was already very saturated, figures from the Environmental agency rainfall......

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carvin vs. Arkansa Power and Light

...Case Study 4 CARVIN vs. ARKANSA POWER AND LIGHT, 14 F.3d 399, 1993 U.S. Court of Appeals for Eighth Circuit You be the Judge By: Jenny Wagner December 23, 2009 Did the easement relieve Arkansas Power and Lights from liability for flooding? Yes, Arkansas Power and Light should not be held liable for damage to property cased by flooding where an easement existed. In 1923-1947 Arkansas Power and Light (AP&L) constructed several dams on two Arkansas lakes, Hamilton and Catherine. AP & L obtained “flood easements” on property adjoining the lakes. AP&L sold lake side property and kept the easement in force. These flood easements permitted AP&L to “clear of trees, brush, and other obstruction and to submerge by water” certain acreage, which was described exactly, AP&L properly recorded the easements and when the current landowner bought lakeside property they were aware of the documents (Beatty, 2009, p. 455). In May of 1990, extraordinarily heavy rains caused water to reach the highest levels ever recorded. To prevent flooding to a wider area, AP&L opened the gates of Carpenter Dam causing Lake Catherine to flood which caused damage to several houses built on AP&L’s easement. Several home owners’s subsequently sued AP&L for causing the damage. AP&L should not be held liable for the damage caused by the flooding because the sole purpose for having the easements was to allow AP&L to flood the property. An easement gives one person......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Disaster Recovery at Marshall Field’s

...Case 1 Disaster Recovery at Marshall Field’s (Another Chicago River Story) Early in the morning on April 13, 1992, basements in Chicago’s downtown central business district began to flood. A hole the size of an automobile had developed between the river and an adjacent abandoned tunnel. The tunnel, built in the early 1900s for transporting coal, runs throughout the downtown area. When the tunnel flooded, so did the basements connected to it, some 272 in all, including that of major retailer Marshall Field’s. The problem was first noted at 5:30 A.M. by a member of the Marshall Field’s trouble desk who saw water pouring into the basement. The manager of maintenance was notified and immediately took charge. His first actions were to contact the Chicago Fire and Water Departments, and Marshall Field’s parent company, Dayton Hudson in Minneapolis. Electricity—and with it all elevator, computer, communication, and security services for the 15-story building—would soon be lost. The building was evacuated and elevators were moved above basement levels. A command post was quickly established and a team formed from various departments such as facilities, security, human resources, public relations, and financial, legal, insurance, and support services. Later that day, members of Dayton Hudson’s risk management group arrived from Minneapolis to take over coordinating the team’s efforts. The team initially met twice a week to evaluate progress as the store recovered.......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Buffalo Seiche

...Garrett Hileman October 18th, 1844 was the most disastrous flood that has ever hit the city of Buffalo since it was founded. The rising waters of Lake Erie came without warning and surprised the sleeping community. Many people were sleeping as the waters began to rise. For several days before the event of the flood a strong north-east wind had been driving the water in the lake to rise above normal levels. On October 18th a shift of the wind had taken place, and it blew from the opposite direction with astounding force never before or to be known to happen in Buffalo. With the sudden change in direction of the wind volumes of water began to build in a dreadful wave, which overflowed the lower districts of the city. The rising waters began at 12 o'clock (midnight) and in less than half an hour the whole lower part of the city south of the canal from Black Rock to the Hydraulics was submerged in water from two to eight feet in depth. The height in which the water rose to was completely unpredicted. Houses were blown down--unroofed--cellars flooded; in fact the great amount of damage done almost instantaneously. Upwards of eighty canal boats went ashore between Buffalo and Black Rock. In the lower districts there were many harbor craft and canal boats left by the receding waters, many canal boats being out on the commons, on Division, Eagle and Clinton streets along with many steamboats being taken by the rusing water and left abandoned. South Buffalo was dumped with......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Prevent the Flood

...Name : Anis Khoiriyyah NIM : 20100420226 Class : English IV – H Topic : Natural Disaster Theme : Keep Our Environment to Prevent Devastating Floods Introduction Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen Please take a moment, I want to ask you about this question. Have you ever throw the trash out of place? In your home? In the canteen? In the river? Or even in your environment at this time? Do you know that it can makes the environment is damage? Possibly you think that it is a trivial, but in many cases it can be disastrous for us. How terrible is it? What I want to do this morning is to talk to you about the need to care for our environment to prevent devastating  floods. First, I will explain the importance of protecting the environment. Then, I will recommend two ways of protecting the environment to prevent further devastating floods. Finally, I will summarize my presentation. Body Ladies and gentlemen... Not only has many tropical forests which are sources of nature, but also Indonesia has many rivers that serve to accommodate the rain water. The floods are happen  because of own human-made which ignore the nature conservation. So we must to take care of environment, so that it will be friendly to us. There are two efforts which should be done by all the people to take care of environment. The first, we must not throw away trash anywhere, especially in the river which can disturb the flowing of the water. Now, most of all the......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Winter Storm Case Study

...Winter Storm – December 2013 (5th to 6th December) Summary On 5th December 2013 a depression passed over the UK due to the Polar Jet stream being unusually for south. This caused the wettest December since 1776, with a series of low pressure weather systems bringing some characteristic storm events. However it was the storm event on the 5th of December that had the heaviest impact according to the Met Office. Causes The synoptic chart (left) shows the meteorological basis of the storm. At 1200 UTC a deep area of low pressure can be seen moving south-west across the UK; it can be seen just off the north-east coast of the UK at a pressure of 967 millibars. This alongside other oncoming depressions would (as well as bringing heavy stormy weather) cause a storm surge affecting the North Wales and North Sea coastline. Unlike the formation of depressions off the west coast of the UK, this depression was formed from Polar Maritime air, from Greenland, and Tropical Maritime air, from the Azores, however as it had been moved North by the Polar Jet Stream it had picked up much more moisture than any typical depression, however it had also been modified by Artic Maritime air, and it was this that gave the large scale impact of the storm event. Comparatively, the 5th December storm event was likened to the events of January 2012 and December 2011, however the length of the storm event, meant that the storm event in December 2013 had the most notable effect. The depression was......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Disaster Management

...Introduction Natural Hazard any natural event which has an adverse socio-economic impact on the human being. Alternatively, an extreme natural event, such as a cyclone, an earthquake or a flood, that is not caused by human beings. These are naturally occurring phenomena that only become hazardous due to the intervention of human infrastructure. The vulnerability of human infrastructure to destruction (risk) by a disaster is also an important factor in understanding natural hazards. The distribution and impact of natural hazards is unequal with greatest loss of life and property in the developing part of the world. This is not because of greater hazard frequency but simply because of greater vulnerability. Therefore, the people in the developing countries are at high risk than those of developed countries. Combining the risk factor the natural hazard can be defined as the probability of a change in the natural environment of a given magnitude occurring within specified time period in a given area while the associated risk is the consequent damage or loss of life, property and services. The frequency of major hazard appears to have increased since 1960 and the number of people killed each year has decreased at a rate of about 6% and the loss or property has also decreased steadily. This has taken place owing to increased awareness and better hazard management. The increase in the frequency of hazard can be assigned to such factors as better global news coverage, increasing......

Words: 12926 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Geography

...saturated and the soil will no longer be able to store water leading to increased surface runoff. Rainwater will enter the river much faster. As well as prolonged rainfall, brief periods of heavy rain can also lead to floods. If there’s a sudden “burst” of heavy rain, the rainwater won’t be able to infiltrate fast enough and the water will instead enter the river via surface runoff. This leads to a sudden and large increase in the river’s discharge which can result in a flash flood. Also when snow melts, large volumes of meltwater will enter the river increasing its discharge and triggering floods. Physical Factors- * The size and shape of a river’s drainage basin dictates how much precipitation the river can receive and how quickly it will arrive (the lag time). A large drainage basin means that the river’s catchment area is large so it will collect a lot of water, increasing discharge. * The permeability of the soil and rock in a drainage basin is a big factor in flooding. If the basin’s soil is impermeable, maybe because it has been saturated by previous rainfall or has been baked by prolonged heating, then any precipitation that falls won’t infiltrate and will instead run straight into the river, increasing the river’s discharge and triggering floods. Similarly, if the rocks in the area are non-porous or impermeable (such as granite or clay) then water won’t be able to infiltrate into the rocks and will, again, run straight off into the river increasing its......

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5