Free Essay

Fluency and Comprehension Study

In: English and Literature

Submitted By roctom28
Words 2140
Pages 9
Setting and Sample Population
The sample population for this study is four third grade students in a general education class in an urban district elementary school. There are 19 students in the class. The four students read at a grade below their grade level. They are non-fluent readers and have consistently performed below par in assessments in reading. Student A is a 9 year old male Hispanic who reads at the first grade level. Student B is a 9 year old African American male who presently reads at the second grade level. Student C is a 9 year Hispanic female who reads at the second grade level. Student D is a biracial (Hispanic and African American) who reads at the second grade level. All of these students receive free lunch and have satisfactory attendance. They do not have an IEP and none of them are English Language learners even though the Hispanic students are bilingual. These four students were chosen because it was noticed that even though they were just reading at one level below their reading level, they exhibit a great lack in comprehension skills. Their reading could also be described as non-fluent. Their reading is slow, choppy, and uninspired. There are also a lot of miscues, insertions, omissions and repetitions of known sight words. After readings like this they fail to answer or answer satisfactorily comprehension questions based on the readings. Samuels (1974), believes this happens because too much of their cognitive resources are used up in trying to read the words that there is little brain capacity left to comprehend the text. The trend continues and manifests itself in their poor performance on language arts tests and reading benchmarks. There was concern because the reading employed by the district focuses on teaching comprehension strategies such as main idea, author's purpose, making inferences, and cause and effect relationships. In whole group and small group where there is a lot of shared reading, such as modeling of fluent reading by the teacher, choral reading by class, or reading while accompanying the teacher, these students showed no real deficit in answering comprehension questions from the reading both orally and in writing. The problem arises when they have to do independent work. The decision was therefore taken to assess their level of fluency to see if it was affecting their level of comprehension as purported by the review of the literature. These students were also chosen because they were nearer the point where they could benefit from instruction that could help them score proficient on the state test and help the school meet the Annual Yearly Progress (AYP). A sample population of this size is adequate since they will be given intervention during the regular literacy block. A larger sample would prove time consuming.

The Elementary school where these students attend is in a low socioeconomic urban school district which is characterized by violence and illegal activities. The school serves PK-6, with a student population of 570. They school has been struggling academically for many years. It has not met AYP in many years. Last year the school received the School Improvement Grant (SIG) to increase educational output. As a result new personnel were hired to fulfill the mandate. The school day was also extended by one and a half hours. Plus there are other late programs that cater to underachieving students. The school has a regular literacy coach and a reading coach supplied by the owners of the School's reading program, 100 Book Challenge (100 BC). This coach meets with teachers about once per month to analyze teachers' implementation of the program and offer feedback on instruction and also to model best practices in reading instruction.

At present, morale at the school is high. The school had shown improvements even though it did not achieve AYP. The results for last's year’s state test showed that the third graders had the highest gains in the whole school. Each year it is expected that 5% more student need to pass than the year before to show the needed amount of growth. This is especially important as the school jockeys to renew the SIG. For the renewal the panel will assess school wide improvement in student learning using results from the state test, district benchmarks such as Learnia, Scholastic Math Inventory (SMI), increased reading levels in 100 BC. Failure to show the necessary progress could result in the closure of the school, the removal of the principal, or the transfer of staff whose students did not show adequate growth. At this site Harcourt reading series basal and leveled reading materials (StoryTown) are utilized. There is also a distinct reading program, 100 BC. Social Studies and Science deviate from the regular curriculum and are called research labs. Children read trade books according to their interest and answer research questions. The finished product for each marking period is a student made book based on their topic of choice or interest. Social Studies and Science classes provide extra reading time. Reading is stressed at this school. The literacy block is two hours with 30 minutes of compulsory silent reading. All students are expected to read at least one hour per day. Most of this reading is done in school.

Data Collection Procedures

The purpose of this study is to see the extent to which fluency intervention will impact comprehension. The intervention proposed is repeated reading. This could be teacher mediated, peer mediated or self mediated. The National Reading Panel (NRP), (2000), identifies fluency as one of the five main components of excellent reading instruction. Fluent reading is described as fast, accurate, and expressive reading. . One of the best ways to improve fluency is through repeated reading… (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006). Research in this area will further highlight fluency as one of the essentials reading skills, and prove that it can increase comprehension.
At the beginning of the school year, all students in the sample group were leveled for appropriate reading instruction. Students were leveled at their independent level. At this level reading should be easy, fast and fun. Students took part in the leveling by choosing the leveled book that they thought they could read as per the three criteria listed above: easy, fast, and fun. After they have decided on their independent level they were crossed referenced by the teacher using a norm referenced test. Readers at each level had certain prerequisite skills. The students are assessed using a cold read text at the independent level that they decided. Failure to meet the requirements at that level will see them drop to lower levels. If they are too advanced for one level they will advance to a higher level. The students instructional reading levels are assessed using the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) benchmark test or putting them a level higher on the 100 BC level. Knowing the students reading level is important to provide individualized and appropriate instruction to take them to the next level and above. It also provids important information on what they should know and to give further insight as to what account for their non-fluent reading practices. In the DRA test students respond to questions posed by the teacher to ascertain their reading engagement. Students are asked to explain how they choose books, the types of books they like to read and also to give a brief summary of one of their favorite books, who reads with you at home? They will also be asked questions such as: Would you rather listen to story or read a story to someone and why? Do you like to read alone, with a partner or in a group and why? Whom do you read with at home? These questions give clues as to the amount of reading students’ do, their knowledge of books and authors, their ability to summarize and give important details, the variety of reading materials read, highlight their interest and show their awareness as a reader. These components will be important as the intervention is undertaken. For example if students are in interested in certain topics, passages will be selected with those in mind. The student’s reading log, which is updated on a daily basis, will also be used to check for reading engagement.
The students will respond to a teacher made questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards reading. The students answered questions with a rating scale of one to four with four being the highest. The scores were totaled. The higher the score, the more positive the attitude towards reading, the lower the score the more negative the attitude toward reading. Students’ attitude toward reading speaks to their motivation to read. This factor should be ruled out to provide the appropriate intervention.
Students will be observed on a daily basis in whole group, small groups, and one on one conference. Students reading behaviors will be observed and documented. Behaviors such as how comfortably they read, their level of fluency, the types of errors made, posture, and mannerisms. Oral and written responses to comprehension questions were noted, and relevant samples noted with teacher feedback.

Students will complete the pretest on an individual basis. The pretest will consist of a cold read of three independent level passage. The pretest will be administered during the 30 minutes silent reading period during literacy. The participants will called on the do the pretest one at a time. This is to prevent the other participants to hear the text and become familiar with it. Students will read for one minute.

While the students read a running record will be used to record the number of errors made using a chart similar to the ones used in the DRA. Students’ number of miscues will be documented, and the percent of accuracy and the number of words read per minute will be calculated. The teacher will also be observing for fluent reading, that is, speed, and expressiveness. Miscues include:
a. omission
b. insertion
c. skipped lines or words
d. mispronunciation plus
e.reversals
f.. failure to read a word after 3 seconds

The following will not be counted as errors
a. self correction of miscues b. hesitation

After the number of correct words per minute is recorded for each passage, the median score will provide an index of students' fluency development relative to the intervention. After reading each paragraph, students will answer five multiple choice questions on each of the passages based on the literal and inferential levels of the Bloom’s Taxonomy, to collect data for the comprehension component. Students’ response will be also be documented and a score of point given to each correct response. The teacher makes notes and shares findings the next day with students and informs students the areas they will need to improve. The teacher models the intervention and ensures students understand. For example one of the students had a problem with reading phrases correctly. Teacher teaches mini lesson and models using a phrased-cued text to recognize the natural pauses in reading. Rasinki, 1990, 1994 believes that students’ ability to identify phrases as units will enhance their comprehension.

Over the four week period students will meet on a daily basis to complete fluency building activities. They will reread passage increments of one minute. The repeated reading in the first week will be teacher mediated, since teacher is using herself as a model for the students. Each time they will be told specific reason why they are rereading- to improve expression, to increase speed, and for comprehension. Student’s progress will be observed and noted.
Over the next few weeks a similar procedure will be followed. This time the strategy will be peer mediated or self mediated on a more regular basis. Students will chart their word per minute growth using a simple bar graph. On alternative days students have to answer one or two comprehension questions on the topic. Students and the peer mediator will chart their own progress. This was to get them involved in the study and take responsibility for their own fluency development. Near the end of the fourth week, students were given a posttest. The post test took the same format as the pretest. Students were given three cold read independent level passages and then answer five multiple choice questions based on each paragraph.

Discussion of Action (Intervention)
Although there is some debate about the

This study seeks to analyze the impact of repeated reading on fluency development and comprehension.
Discussion questions: What were the relationships, if any, between fluency interventions and comprehension? What was the nature of students' performance on the pre and post test?
How did students perform in peer mediated repeated reading as opposed to when it is teacher mediated. What factors influenced the success of the fluency intervention? Dependent variable - fluency and comprehension
Independent variable: repeated reading
Discussion of Action (Intervention)

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Literacy: Effect of Repeated Reading

...1 “Intensive Word Study and Repeated Reading Improves Reading Skills for Two Students with Learning Disabilities” Summary According to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), repeated oral reading improves comprehension, as well as reading fluency and word recognition when used in a reading program. The National Reading Panel also reports that these three factors; comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary are important factors for making meaning. The article focuses on the use of word study to help build vocabulary and fluency. The author, reading specialist; Deborah Staudt, describes how she improved the reading skills of her learning disabled students in a south- central school in Pennsylvania by integrating word study with timed repeated reading. Since her students struggled with fluency, fluency was the main goal in addition to comprehension and word recognition. Students were encouraged to set goals for themselves when tracking their reading time. This practice was used to help motivate students and build their automaticity. The author states that students are more likely to forget words more so if they are unable to automatically recognize and read words on their instructional level. Staudt describes how she began her program with the introduction of weekly poems. She recorded the time it took her students to read their poem each day. She also used previously learned poems for practice and to build their fluency. The poems were......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research: Tim Rasinski

...taking written information and interpreting it into language. However this means that one can read without full comprehension of what the text actually states, this where the ideas of reading expert Tim Rasinski come into play. Tim Rasinski is a well-accredited reading expert that advocates fluency in the beginner stages of reading. Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression, but fluency bridges the gap between reading and comprehension (resourses). Looking further into the reading theories of Tim Rasinski we can see the possible key to developing reading comprehension through fluency. Biography Timothy Rasinski started out his career in education by teaching for several years as an elementary and middle school classroom and Title I teacher in rural Nebraska (Recourses). He furthered his education and became a professor teaching education at the University of Georgia. Rasinski is currently a professor of literacy education at Kent State University in Ohio (Recourses). He has written over 150 articles and has been included in 15 books or curriculum programs on reading education (Recourses).. Rasinski however in most famous for co-authoring the award winning fluency program called Fluency First, a program aiding many struggling young readers. His theories draw their basis of the foundations of reading fluency and word study, His research has been conducted...

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Evaluation Assignment

...Evaluation Assignment I have decided to create an informal assessment regarding fluency and comprehension for my eighth grade class. I chose a lesson found online through www.havefunteaching.com. This lesson consists of a reading passage consisting of 506 words. At the end of the passage there are five questions that have been created to assess the student’s comprehension of that passage. For this assessment I plan to individually pull aside each student and explain to them the purpose of this assessment. I will explain that this will be an ongoing assessment that I will use to measure and set goals to make them more effective readers. I will tell them that they should not focus on being timed because as they become more fluent, they will become metacognitive readers. I will use the following form that I have created to keep a record of their progress for future reference. Reading Comprehension Log Student Name:__________________________________ Date:_____________ Grade Level | Passage Level | Fluency | Comprehension | Notes | Goals for next time | | | | | | | Student Name:__________________________________ Date:_____________ Grade Level | Passage Level | Fluency | Comprehension | Notes | Goals for next time | | | | | | | Student Name:__________________________________ Date:_____________ Grade Level | Passage Level | Fluency | Comprehension | Notes | Goals for next time | | | | | | | I feel......

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Action Plan for Teacher Intervention

...on the right track to achieving his academic goals in reading. The components that needed to be addressed were: phonemic awareness, word study and fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The action plan will include all learning goals, informative assessments and summative assessments. Action Plan for Teacher Intervention Learning Goals Activities Informal Assessments Summative Assessments Phonemic Awareness -Learn beginning and ending of Phonemes in words -Decode words in context and in isolation by applying common letter-sound correspondences -Combine sounds from letters and common spelling patterns -Use common syllabication patterns to decode words Use objects to have student identify beginning and ending sounds of words Use chanting or claps to identify word sounds of objects Play a signal game with a group and give separate signals for the beginning and ending sounds when they hear it Use index cards to help the student visualize and hear the beginning and ending sounds of words Student can be assessed during classroom activities Participation is key to this assessment (orally and in writing) Student will be assessed using a worksheet the complete individually away from the group to see if they are able to identify phonemes Word Study And Fluency -Read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency, rate, accuracy, expression, and...

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Reseach on Remedial Reading

...and adults who lack fluency in reading, writing, mathematics, and other skills. Selected factors that account for the large number of students who leave high school not having learned basic skills are discussed, as well as what teachers need to know to present more effective instruction in reading, mathematics, and writing. Remedial education does not represent a short-term trend in the United States. Each year, many first-year college students must enroll in a remedial reading class, a remedial mathematics class, or in a remedial writing class. The magnitude of the need for remedial education may be greater than generally recognized because many first-year college students avoid enrolling in remedial classes despite their lack of fluency in basic skills. Keywords Basic Education; Developmental Education; No Child Left Behind; National Assessment of Educational Progress; Non-Visual Information; Prior Knowledge; Remedial Education; Reading Fluency; Visual Information Overview Students in public schools throughout the United States have not shown significant improvement in reading or mathematics since the first National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in 1969. Referred to as "The Nation's Report Card," NAEP assesses student performance of thousands of students periodically in a wide range of subjects including reading, mathematics, writing, science, and U.S. history. The majority of individuals who have received remedial education have lacked fluency in reading,......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Thesis101

...University of South Florida Scholar Commons Graduate School Theses and Dissertations Graduate School 6-1-2010 Effects of reading comprehension and fluency abilities on the N400 event-related potential Annie Hirt Nelson University of South Florida Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd Part of the American Studies Commons Scholar Commons Citation Nelson, Annie Hirt, "Effects of reading comprehension and fluency abilities on the N400 event-related potential" (2010). Graduate School Theses and Dissertations. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/1721 This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Scholar Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Graduate School Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons. For more information, please contact scholarcommons@usf.edu. Effects of Reading Comprehension and Fluency Abilities on the N400 Event-Related Potential by Annie Hirt Nelson A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Childhood Education and Literacy Studies College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Mary Lou Morton, Ph.D. Jacqueline Hinckley, Ph.D. Jim King, Ed.D. Richard Marshall, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 1, 2010 Keywords: syntax, semantics, ERP, N400, sentence structure, children, indexical hypothesis Copyright © 2010, Annie Hirt......

Words: 26238 - Pages: 105

Premium Essay

Examples Of Integrative Motivation

...Participants performed essentially better on infallibility measures than fluency measures. In addition, real word reading measures were better forecasts of reading comprehension than non-word measures.Also, an interaction was found between word choices and spelling ability, recommend that the words students use in their essays play a mediating part on the influence of spelling ability on writing quality. Poor spelling skills may persuade students to use easier words, therefore diminishing the understandquality of their essays.The third study differentiated two factors fundamental text production: mechanics and content generation. Results of this dissertation lay a basis for future research on the understudied population of students with LBLD and suggest liable targets for...

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dysphasia

...Score: | 0.09/0.09 |   | | 2. | |   | Reduced verbal fluency and difficulties in comprehension and production of prosody have been reported following damage to the: | |   | Student Response | A. | right insular cortex. | B. | left orbitofrontal cortex. | C. | right orbitofrontal cortex. | D. | left insular cortex. | | Score: | 0/0.09 |   | | 3. | |   | The vocal intonation that helps us understand the literal meaning of what people say is termed: | |   | Student Response | A. | prosody. | B. | syntax. | C. | discourse. | D. | semantics. | | Score: | 0.09/0.09 |   | | 4. | |   | An alternative hypothesis for fluent aphasia posited by Dronkers and colleagues suggests that the role of the cortex of Wernicke's area is: | |   | Student Response | A. | long-term memory for semantic categories. | B. | short-term memory for speech sounds. | C. | identical to that of Broca's area. | D. | short-term memory for mouth movements. | | Score: | 0.09/0.09 |   | | 5. | |   | Results from electrical stimulation and imaging studies of conscious patients suggest that: | |   | Student Response | A. | there is surprisingly little variation in the organization of cortical language areas among subjects. | B. | speech areas occupy a smaller proportion of cortical areas than originally thought on the basis of lesion studies. | C. | localizationist theories...

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Importance of Early Literacy

...workforce. Increased literacy skills have been shown to strengthen family relationships, improve parenting skills and improve the overall quality of life. Literacy has different components, they are phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, fluency, language, vocabulary, and comprehension. Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units off sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables. Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding the words they can focus their attention on what the text means. Vocabulary and language skills are important students who are not literate in their own language may not understand some concepts and need to be taught about the functions of print. Vocabulary development is one of the greatest challenges to reading instruction because in order to read fluently and comprehend what is written, students need to use not just phonics, but context. Comprehension is very important. If you don’t...

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Essay

...lessons and examples. Introduction A Balanced Literacy program helps to create an environment that fosters the necessary language and phonic develop that students need in literacy. Through balanced literacy it will instill in students the necessary reading skills that they need in order to grow into proficient readers. Balanced literacy is made up of five different components that cater to individual needs for students to become lifelong readers. These components are the read aloud, guided reading, shared reading, independent reading, and word study. Researchers of education have stated that successful implementation of a balanced literacy program has to be teacher directed and have activities for students focused on their needs. In this paper it will address a balanced literacy program that will fit the needs of a second grade group of students. The program will implement the components of reading, writing, and language/word study. While also acknowledging specific instructional approaches that can be used in the program, then ending with a personal take...

Words: 1640 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Foreign Language Learning

...Learning a foreign language can be a daunting challenge, but can also be one of the most rewarding experiences in one’s life. The journey to fluency is a long and difficult path, in part because foreign language learning is not a single skill. It is the intensive coordination of multiple skill sets. These include memory, cognitive problem solving, internalizing grammar, speech fluidity, listening comprehension, and vocabulary. To the foreign language learner the process is slow and growth is almost imperceptible. However, through exposure to comprehensible input a language learner can improve (Krashen, 1985). The input hypothesis (IH) “assumes that we acquire language by understanding messages” (Krashen 1985). This hypothesis states that language learners only grow when exposed to language that is just out of their level of comfort, but can be understood (Krashen 1985, 1995). The language learner level is “l” and the level needed for growth is “i+l”. This pushes students to broaden their understanding and acquire more language knowledge. The type of input can be any type of language material as long as it is at...

Words: 5653 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Case Study for Julie

...Case Study for Julie Alexandra Neal SPE 300 August 25, 2014 Rebecca Hadley-Schlosser Case Study for Julie The intervention program called Fast ForWord is a program that is computer-based and has a purpose to help strengthen cognitive skills that are required in order to be successful in reading and learning. This program is for students to use individually or as a small group and is a type of curriculum. The program is supposed to be used for approximately 30-100 minutes per day for five days a week (which averages to about four to 16 weeks). Based on the research, the effects of this curriculum were small on the domains of reading fluency and alphabetics and there was a medium to large effect on the domains of reading comprehension and the general literacy achievements. The Wilson Reading System is an intervention type of curriculum that is meant for a small group and is designed to help promote accuracy in reading (also known as decoding) and spelling for students who have certain word-level deficits. This program is also meant to help with reading fluency as well as other things. According to the evidence, from this program, there was a small for fluency, alphabetics, and comprehension in the context of these domains. The curriculum program called Failure Free Reading helps improve vocabulary, efficiency, word recognition, and reading comprehension. It is extremely helpful for improving fluency in sight words. This program can be for small group,......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Read All About Us Literacy

...access Everyday Math and Reading assignments from home! Instructions are posted on the website….. WHAT’S BUZZING IN Technology? Parents can access Everyday Math and Reading assignments from home! Instructions are posted on the website….. From the Principal Corner Ways to Help Your Child Do Well in School * Read, Read, and Read! Take at least thirty minutes a day and read to your child every day. * Create an atmosphere conducive for reading. Give them support by helping them with their homework. * Make sure your child gets plenty of rest and a balance meal each day. Schedule regular check-ups. * Be a role model. Encourage them to be independent. Give your child responsibilities. * Choose a study time. Provide a place for them to study each day. Go over homework together. * Get involved. Meet with your child’s teacher, attend parent- teacher conferences, events, and volunteer in your class. * Build success. Praise them for their efforts and commitment. * Make school important. Parent Resources: Early Morning drop off for the tutorial reading program starts on Monday June 18th. Check with your child’s...

Words: 1611 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Thesis

...record a favorite story with bells or dings to signal page turning (the Next button) and allow younger siblings to listen to the read-aloud while following along. Teacher Tip #2 When students have read and listened to all books in their assignment/level, assign a running record for a Benchmark Book or Benchmark Passage to determine student accuracy and readiness to move to the next level. (If Raz-Kids is used during centers, have the student record their reading.) Teacher Tip #3 Use the Assignment report to see at a glance how much of the current assignment a student has completed and whether it may be time to assess a student's reading progress. Teacher Tip #4 Giving students access to the Book Room will help build listening comprehension, increased awareness of differing text structures, and broader vocabulary as students listen to books at higher levels. Teacher Tip #5 Play Raz-Kids songs on an interactive whiteboard during class transitions, and challenge students to be cleaned up and in their seats or in line before the song is complete. Teacher Tip #6 Use the correlation chart to help determine which level of books to assign to a student based on their grade or known guided-reading level. Teacher Tip #7 Include a date in a custom assignment title as a reminder of when a student was first given a particular assignment or when resources were updated. Teacher Tip #8 Make folders for each level labeled with a large letter/color according to the......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hsm 310

...’s teacher, Ms. Bee, expressed concern about Michael ’s low achievement in a variety of subjects, specifically in English and Literature. Ms. Bee referred Michael for assessment and requested that a reading intervention plan be created for him if necessary. In addition to the AIMSweb tests, Michael was also administered the Test of Auditory Processing Skills- Third Edition (TAPS-3) and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test- Second Edition (WAIT-II), in order to rule out any potential auditory processing or cognition problems. These measures were important to consider during the creation of an academic intervention plan for Michael Michael ’s ability to perform tasks in phoneme segmentation, nonsense word fluency, reading fluency and reading comprehension were assessed through the AIMSweb tests. Michael ’s auditory processing abilities were tested through the completion of...

Words: 4017 - Pages: 17