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Food and Children

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COMO AFECTA LA ALIMENTACION DURANTE LA JORNADA ESCOLAR
Escrito por: López Pingarron Yazka y Pont Acosta Michelle

Una mala nutrición puede reducir la inmunidad, aumentar la vulnerabilidad a las enfermedades, alterar el desarrollo físico y mental, así como reducir la productividad en la vida diaria.

Según la OMS (organización mundial de la salud) la nutrición es la ingesta de alimentos en relación con las necesidades dietéticas del organismo. Una buena nutrición (una dieta suficiente y equilibrada combinada con el ejercicio físico regular) es un elemento fundamental de la buena salud.

En estos tiempos, se puede ver que en la mayoría de los niños que están en edad escolar (4 a 15 años) presentan una serie de malos hábitos alimenticios: tales como el aumento en el consumo de comida chatarra y procesada, mientras que la comida casera y los alimentos de origen natural parecen estar inexistentes para ellos. Esta mala alimentación influye en el rendimiento escolar de manera negativa.

Connie Crawley, especialista en nutrición infantil dice que “cuando los niños entran en la escuela, afrontan nuevas experiencias y desafíos. Uno de estas experiencias nuevas es el comer en la escuela. Los niños en esta edad y sobre todo en esta situación, toman la decisión que más les acomode, eligen que comer, cuál será la porción y a qué hora tomaran sus alimentos. En esta etapa, es bueno enseñarles la importancia de una dieta sana y balanceada, mostrarles como una mala alimentación afecta a su salud y a su rendimiento diario” (Crawley, 2004). Debido a esto encontramos una falta de responsabilidad por parte de los padres de familia en la educación alimenticia del niño; durante la jornada escolar se ha observado que las generaciones paternas de hoy en día, son cada vez más jóvenes; podemos afirmar que la mayoría trabaja por lo que no cuentan con tiempo suficiente, por lo tanto, son pocos los que pasan tiempo de calidad con sus hijos. Pocos se preocupan por mandarles a sus hijos almuerzo nutritivo a la escuela, ven más conveniente la oportunidad de darles dinero para que compren en la cooperativa escolar. Consideramos esto un error muy grande porque los niños a la hora de receso prefieren jugar, esto da lugar a que el niño adquiera alimentos chatarra lo cual es más práctico para dedicarle ciertos minutos extra a su juego.

Otro punto por el cual los alumnos no comen adecuadamente, es debido a la falta de tiempo que tienen, además de distraerse con el juego en receso, la fila para comprar es muy larga debido a que todos los grados salen y entran a la misma hora, muchos no tienen oportunidad de consumir lo adecuado.

Cabe mencionar que una mala alimentación provoca enfermedades como obesidad, diabetes, trastornos cardiovasculares, hipertensión arterial y algunos tipos de cáncer. Una mala alimentación ocasiona desnutrición, anemia, entre otras enfermedades que pueden presentar nuestros alumnos. “Se puede asumir que si un niño llega a la edad escolar después de haber padecido desnutrición crónica en sus primero años, retardo en el crecimiento y atraso en su desarrollo cognoscitivo, es bien probable que su rendimiento educativo se vea afectado negativamente en alguna forma e intensidad” (García, Campos, y Morales, 2013).

Muchas de las enfermedades son causadas, como ya lo mencionamos, por la mala alimentación; los actores que deben involucrarse para participar en el proceso alimenticio del alumno son los docentes, directivos, personal de apoyo, entre otros, pero principalmente deben ser los padres de familia, que son los tutores responsables de la salud de sus hijos.

Para llevar una vida saludable, la SEP recomienda permanecer en un ambiente saludable, realizar actividad física y llevar una alimentación correcta, la cual debe ser: completa, debe incluir todo los nutrimentos (carbohidratos, proteínas, lípidos, vitaminas y minerales); equilibrada, que los alimentos que se vayan a consumir tengan una proporción adecuada; inocua, que su consumo habitual no implique riesgos para la salud; suficiente, que cubra las necesidades nutrimentales; variada, que contenga diferentes alimentos de cada grupo en cada comida y adecuada, que sea acorde a los gustos, costumbres y recursos económicos, sin sacrificar las otras características.

Cuando comes comida poco saludable, no ves los efectos a corto plazo, pero se puede decir que es como poner un ladrillo más al muro que te separará del bienestar y salud. - Anónimo

Referencias
Crawley, C. (2004). Nutrición para los niños de la escuela primaria. Foods and nutrion, 8, 68-70.

Garcia, R., Campos, Z. y Morales, N. (2013). Alimentación y desempeño escolar. Recuperado de http://www.elmalhabitoalimenticio.blogspot.mx. 03-01-2015.

Secretaria de Educación Pública. (2010). Cómo preparar el refrigerio escolar y tener una alimentación correcta: Manual para madres y padres y para toda la familia. México: Material Gratuito

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