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Forces and Motion

For Students of Baldwin Wallace College

Spring Semester 2011

Monday – Wednesday
10:00 – 11:15 am
Room 139
Wilker

Faculty

Richard Heckathorn

The materials for this course were organized and edited by Richard Heckathorn using materials from a program called Operation Physics and includes materials developed by him.

The original OPERATION PHYSICS activity sequence to improve physics teaching and learning in upper elementary and middle schools was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Original Material Copyright 1992 by American Institute of Physics Materials edited and photoduplicated with permission.
FORCES & MOTION INTRODUCTION

WORKSHOP LEADER’S TOPIC INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION TO FORCES & MOTION

An understanding of force and motion is fundamental to the study of almost all other physics-related topics. Yet it is a topic often overlooked or only cursorily introduced in elementary and middle school science, even though it is a topic typically identified for inclusion in the curriculum for these grades. A primary reason for this is that many teachers do not feel comfortable about their own understanding of the topic. Consequently, this may be the most needed of all of the OPERATION PHYSICS workshops.

This workshop leader’s notebook is divided into two parts:

PART ONE Motion

Part One begins by introducing participants to the concepts of space and time. These concepts are then used in describing simple types of motion. These motions are then classified as accelerated and not accelerated (constant velocity). Emphasis is placed on distinguishing between speed and velocity, between average and instantaneous values and on accelerated motion. This section should not be skipped, for it develops ideas necessary to the understanding of other ideas which are introduced in the section on force.

PART TWO Forces

Part Two focuses on the nature of force and the effect of forces on the motion of objects. It begins by looking at motion if there were no forces (inertial effects), then develops the basic concept of what force is. Motion under the influence of balanced and unbalanced forces follows. Similarities among different kinds of forces is addressed briefly. Finally, action/reaction pairs and the effect of a net centripetal force are studied.

Throughout the book, activities have been designed to inductively lead participants to the recognition of important ideas through the exploration of various phenomena. Because the development of one idea leads to another, the activities chosen and the sequence in which they are presented in a workshop is extremely important.

There are a host of naive ideas that both children and adults commonly have about forces and motion. (These naive ideas are given in the workshop leader’s guides). For this reason, it is essential not to rush through the activities. For each activity, adequate time should be allowed for discussion in order to address participants’ naive ideas and replace them with more appropriate mental constructions.

APPENDIX: Instructions for building several items referred to in the activities are found in the appendix.

FORCE & MOTION MATERIALS LIST

Quantity Per Workshop Group Description 1 blindfold several candies or balloons for ‘hidden treasure’ 1 washer 1 ruler metric 1 graph paper cm graduations string light and heavy masking tape paper clips thumb tacks 1 scissors 3 stopwatches 1 meter stick 1 marble or ball something that moves at constant speed 3 corks or stoppers 1 or 2 hole 1 toy car free-wheeling (e.g. Hot Wheels(®) 1 inclined plane 1 liquid accelerometer see Appendix 1 wheeled cart dynamics cart, skate board 1 lump of clay 50 to 100 cm3 2 springs or large rubber bands 2 C-clamps 2 3 x 5 card 1 drinking glass or beaker 1 rubber eraser 1 ‘Hovercraft’ human-sized air puck (see appendix) 1 tank-type vacuum cleaner to provide air for hovercraft 1 50- or 100-foot extension cord 1 15- to 20-foot rope 1 8-foot rope paper 8.5 x 11 inches, for drawing 1 500-gram hooked mass 1 top-loading scale or balance 1 sponge or foam rubber 1 powered toy car travels at constant speed (CAPE-tech Buggy available from CAPE-tech, Box 115, Wynnewood, PA, 19096) 1 air puck see appendix 1 graduated cylinder 100 ml glycerine 100 ml 1 paper towel or coffee filter to use as parachute 1 helium-filled balloon optional 1 ring stand 1 test tube clamp to support objects from ring stand rubber bands to support up to 1 kg singly or in parallel 2 spring scale ten Newton capacity set metric weights to permit combinations to 500 g in 100-gram increments 2 pulleys 1 cloth to cover spring scale 2 block of wood to slide on table showing friction (or substitute a book) 1 ruler with groove to roll a marble in 2 sandpaper 1 nylon or silk cloth approx. I ft2 for low friction for rolling marble 1 towel or washcloth approx. I ft 2 for high friction for rolling marble 1 cardboard approx. I ft, 1 magnifying glass liquid soap one drop per participant 1 smooth board for friction; one side will have a piece of sandpaper tacked onto it. 1 wood block small but heavy 2 wood blocks for rubbing together 1 can for rolling friction 1 foam cup 1 plastic soda straw 2 bathroom scales 4 or 5 magnets 2 container identical, to hide magnets above 1 bottle glass or plastic, long neck 1 cork to fit bottle above 6 pencils round, to use as rollers 100 ml vinegar or acetic acid 2 tsp. baking soda 1 small plastic spoon 1 tissue paper 10 cm x 10 cm
2011 FORCE & MOTION PLANNING GUIDE
1A1F 13 Focus on Physics: Space Read
2A1F 15 Time Read
2A2 17 Why and How Do Humans Tell Time (Read)
1B1 21 Where Is It? Prepare before class then do in class Lab
1B2 23 The Treasure Hunt Read Discuss in class Lab
1B3 19 The Traveling Washer Do before class then discuss in class Lab
2A1F 15 Focus on Physics: Time Read Disc.
2A2 17 Why and How Humans Tell Time Homework Lab
2B1 25 Measuring Time with a Pendulum Not Do Lab
3A1 31 Finding Average Speed Do in class (groups of 3) Lab
3A2 35 Predicting an Unknown Position Do in class (groups of 3) Lab
3A3 37 Predicting an Unknown Time Do in class (groups of 3) Lab
3A4 39 Can You Walk at a Constant Speed? Maybe in class Lab
3A5 41 How Fast Can You Run? Optional Homework Lab
3A6D 43 How Fast Is It? Homework Can You Find Anything on the Web? Report if do. Disc.
3B1 45 Velocity Isn't Speed Do before class then discuss in class Lab
3B2 49 Walking Around a Square Lab Do before class then discuss in class Lab
3C1D 53 Interstate Highway Story Read before Class then discuss in class Disc.
3C2D 55 Speed and Velocity Read before Class then discuss in class Disc.
3B1A 47 Block Walk Do in class Lab
3C3 59 Speeding Up Not do Lab
4A1 65 Rolling on an Inclined Plane Do in class Lab.
4A2D 69 Speeding Up and Slowing Down Do before class then discuss in class Disc. 48 Zip Lock Accelerometer Make in class Lab
4A3 71 Classifying Motion Do in class Lab
4B1 77 Acceleration in Circular Motion Do in class Lab
4B2 81 Acceleration When Speed and Direction Change Do in class Lab
4C1F 85 Focus on Physics: Acceleration Units and Their Meaning Read Disc.
5A1F 88 Motion and Force Read Disc
2B2TN 27 Making a Low Friction Balloon Air Puck From a CD Discuss in Class Lab
5A2 89 The Coin and The Glass Homework Lab
5B1 91 Inertia Homework Lab
5B2F 93 Inertia-Newton's First Law of Motion Do before class then discuss in class Disc
5B3 95 Riding on Air Maybe Lab
6A1 99 Finding the Forces Homework Power Point will be available for checking Lab
6A2 111 Elasticity Not do Lab
6A3D 115 The Undercover Scale Do in class Disc
6B1 117 Balanced Vertical Forces Do in class Lab
6B2 119 Balanced Horizontal Forces Do in class Lab
6C1 121 How Strong Is Friction? Do in class with previous Lab
6C2 123 What Happens to the Speed of a Marble? Not do Lab
6C3 125 How Can You Reduce Frictional Force? Homework Lab
6C4D 127 What is Frictional Force? Read Disc
6C5D 129 Why Do You Oil Machines Read Disc
6C6D 131 Why Use Wheels? Read Disc
7A1F 135 Force and Acceleration Read Disc
7A2 137 Acceleration is Proportional to Net Force Do in class Lab
7A3D 141 Paper and Book Drop and Zoop Tube Do in class Disc
7A4D 143 The Falling Cup Do in class Disc
7B1 145 Forces on a Rope Do in class Disc
7B2D 147 A Circle of People Not do Disc
7B3 149 Dead man's Curve Do in class Lab
7B4 151 The Spinning Stopper Not do Disc
7B5D 153 Centripetal Force and Circular Motion Read Disc
8A1F 157 Types of Force Read Disc
8B1D 159 Who Exerts the Greater Force? Demo: Springs in Pipe Disc
8B2D 163 Are Forces Equal in a Collision? Disc
8B3D 167 Which Magnet Pushes Harder? Lab
8B4 169 Which Rubber Band Exerts the Greater Force? Do in class Lab
8B5D 171 Sprinklers and Rockets Disc
8B6 173 Forces and Rockets Lab
8B7F 175 Newton's Third Law Read Disc
8B8 177 Is Pressure the Same as Force? Read then Do in class Lab
8C1D 179 Playground Physics Read Disc 181 Appendix 1 Acceleration Activities plus a test 191 Appendix 2 Low Friction/Large Capacity Platform 192 Appendix 3 The Hoovercraft or Floating with Newton 195 Appendix 4 The Human Air Puck (Article from the Physics Teacher)

B-W PHYSICS FORCE & MOTION MATRIX

I. Space

A. Space is 3-dimensional.

1A1F 13 Focus on Physics Space

B. Both distance and direction are needed to describe the location of an object in space.

1B1 21 1. Where Is It? Lab L 30 min.
1B2 23 2. The Treasure Hunt Lab L 30 min.
1B3 19 3. The Traveling Washer Lab U 30 min.

II. Time

A. Time is needed to describe the rate at which changes occur.

2A1F 15 1. Focus on Physics: Time Disc. U 10 min.
2A2 17 2. Why and How Humans Tell Time Lab L/U 15 min.

B. Any event that occurs at regular intervals can be used to measure longer intervals of time.

2B1 25 1. Measuring Elapsed Time With a Pendulum Lab L/U 40 min.
2B2TN 27 2. Making a Low Friction Balloon Air Puck From a CD Lab L/U 20 min
B-W PHYSICS FORCE & MOTION MATRIX - 2

III. Speed and Velocity

A. Average speed is calculated by dividing distance traveled by the elapsed time. It does not include the direction of travel.

3A1 31 1. Finding Average Speed Lab L/U 45 min.
3A2 35 2. Predicting an Unknown Position Lab L/U 45 min.
3A3 37 3. Predicting an Unknown Time Lab L/U 45 min.
3A4 39 4. Can You Walk at a Constant Speed? Lab L/U 45 min.
3A5 41 5. How Fast Can You Run? Lab L/U 45 min.
3A6D 43 6. How Fast Is It? Disc. U 30 min.

B. Average velocity is calculated by dividing displacement by elapsed time. It is a vector so it includes the direction of travel

3B1 45 1. Velocity Isn’t Speed Lab L/U 30 min.
3B1D 47 1a. Block Walk Lab U 20 min
3B1B 48 2. Making A “Zip-Lock” Accelerometer Disc./Demo L/U 30 min.
3B2 49 3. Walking Around a Square Lab L/U 30 min.

C. Instantaneous speed and velocity describe the motion at a specific instant.

3C1D 53 1. Interstate Highway Story Disc. L/U 10 min.
3C2D 55 2. Speed and Velocity Disc./Demo, L/U 30 min.
3C3 59 3. Speeding Up Lab L/U 40 min.

IV. Acceleration

A. An object accelerates when it changes speed. Acceleration is a vector which does not always point in the direction of motion.

4A1 65 1. Rolling on an Inclined Plane Lab U 40 min.
4A2D 69 2. Speeding Up and Slowing Down Disc. U 30 min.
4A3 71 3. Classifying Motion Lab L/U 45 min.

B. Because acceleration is a vector, an object which changes direction is accelerating even if it is not changing speed.

4B1 77 1. Acceleration in Circular Motion Lab L/U 20 min.
4B2 81 2. Acceleration When Speed and Direction Change Lab L/U 30 min.

C. The units of acceleration show that it is calculated by dividing the change in velocity by the elapsed time.

4C1F 85 1. Focus on Physics: Acceleration Units and Their Meaning Disc. U 10 min.

B-W PHYSICS FORCE & MOTION MATRIX - 3

V. Motion When No Forces Act (Inertia)

A. When an object is at rest the forces acting on it are in balance.

5A1F 88 1. Motion and Force Disc 15 min
5A2 89 2. The Coin and The Glass Lab L/U 20 min

B. Objects in motion will not change velocity when there is no net force acting on them.

5B1 91 1. Inertia Lab LIU 20 min
5B2F 93 2. Inertia-Newton’s First Law of Motion Disc 15 min
5B3 95 3. Riding on Air Lab L/U 30 min

VI. Forces in Balance

A. When an object is at rest the forces acting on it are in balance.

6A1 99 1. Finding the Forces Lab U 90 min
6A2 111 2. Elasticity Lab U 40 min
6A3D 115 3. The Undercover Scale Disc 15 min

B. When an object has a constant velocity the forces acting on it are in balance.

6B1 117 1. Balanced Vertical Forces Lab LIU 20 min
6B2 119 2. Balanced Horizontal Forces Lab L/U 20 min

C. The force of friction is not a fixed force. It both hinders and helps motion.

6C1 121 1. How Strong Is Friction? Lab L/U 20 min
6C2 123 2. What Happens to the Speed of the Marble? Lab U 30 min
6C3 125 3. How Can You Reduce Frictional Force? Lab L 20 min
6C4D 127 4. What is Frictional Force? Disc 10 min
6C5D 129 5. Why Do You Oil Machines Disc 10 min
6C6D 131 6. Why Use Wheels? Disc 10 min

B-W PHYSICS FORCE & MOTION MATRIX - 4

VII. Unbalanced Forces Cause Acceleration (A is proportional to Net Force)

A. When the net force is parallel to the motion, an object accelerates in a straight line. The value of the acceleration is proportional to the net force.

7A1D 135 1. Force and Acceleration Disc 10 min
7A2 137 2. Acceleration is Proportional to Net Force Lab U 30 min
7A3D 141 3. Paper and Book Drop Disc 10 min
7A4D 143 4. The Falling Cup Disc 10 min

C. When the net force is perpendicular to the motion, an object moves in a circle at constant speed. This is an accelerated motion.
7B1 145 1. Force on a Rope Lab L/U 20 min
7B2D 147 2. A Circle of People Disc 15 min
7C3 149 3. Dead man’s Curve Lab LIU 20 min
7C4 151 4. The Spinning Stopper Lab U 30 min
7C5D 153 5. Centripetal Force and Circular Motion Disc

A. There is only two basic types of force: gravity and electromagnetism.

8A1F 157 1. Types of Force Disc 15 min

B. Forces always come in pairs. One force in the pair is always equal and opposite to the other.

8B1D 159 1. Who Exerts the Greater Force? Disc L/U 45 min
8B2D 163 2. Are Forces Equal in a Collision? Disc L/U 45 min
8B3D 167 3. Which Magnet Pushes Harder? Disc L/U 15 min
8B4 169 4. Which Rubber Ban Exerts the Greater Force? Lab L/U 30 min
8B5D 171 5. Sprinklers and Rockets Disc LIU 20 min
8B6 173 6. Forces and Rockets Lab L/U 30 min
8B7 175 7. Newton’s Third Law Disc 15 min
8B8 177 8. Is Pressure the Same as Force? Lab L/U 15 min

C. Review

8C1D 179 1. Playground Physics Disc 20 min

Appendix

181 Appendix 1 Acceleration Activities plus a test 191 Appendix 2 Low Friction/Large Capacity Platform 192 Appendix 3 The Hoovercraft or Floating with Newton 195 Appendix 4 The Human Air Puck (Article from the Physics Teacher) FORCES & MOTION INTRODUCTION

REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
FORCES & MOTION

Activities and Demonstrations

Blackman, James. The Big Book of Tricks and Magic Random House, Inc., New York, pp. 5,9, 16,35,46 and 54. Good resource for classroom with simple science and mathematical demonstrations and games that children can read and understand. Also has fun tricks.

Cherrier, Francois. Fascinating Experiments in Physics. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1978, pp. 45-51. Excellent resource with beautiful photographs of demonstrations done with clearly stated instructions. Contains very imaginative and unique ideas.

AETS Yearbook: Observing Science Classrooms: Observing Science Perspectives from Research and Practice. Ed. by Charles W. Anderson, December, 1984. In-depth discussion of student ideas on forces on moving objects and suggestions for instruction focusing on conceptual understanding.

Goldberg, Fred, M., and Anderson, John H. “Student Difficulties with Graphical Representations of Negative Values of Velocity”, The Physics Teacher, pg. 254-260. (1989). Article based on research into naive ideas students have about graphing velocity. The liquid accelerometer can be a make and take item for participants who attend the workshop. Parts for liquid level accelerometers are available from CAPE-tech, Box 115, Wynnewood, PA 19096. See construction directions in the appendix. The liquid accelerometer can also be purchased completely built

Duzen, Carl, Jane Nelson and Jim Nelson. “Classifying Motion”. The Physics Teacher, pg. 414-418. (1992). Description of ways to use a liquid level accelerometer in much the same way as Activities 4A3, 4B1 and 4B2. The article gives some helpful hints, suggests some good questions and shows a new purpose for its use.
FORCES & MOTION IWL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
SPACE

Since motion involves the change of an object’s position in space, we begin by showing that space is three-dimensional.

The activities in Part B explore the idea that both distance and direction must be specified in order to fully describe the position of an object and, therefore, to fully describe its motion. At least one of these activities should be done. The first two are especially suitable for younger children.

===============================================================================

Naive Ideas:

1. The location of an object can be described by stating only its distance from a given point. (Ignoring direction.) Activities: 1A1F, 1B1, 1B2, 1B3

2. The terms distance and displacement are synonymous and may be used interchangeably. Thus, the distance an object travels and its displacement are always the same. Activities: 1B2, 1B3

===============================================================================

A SPACE IS THREE-DIMENSIONAL.

1. Focus on Physics: Space

This discussion presents the argument that we need to give the location of an object clearly.

B BOTH DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ARE NEEDED TO DESCRIBE THE LOCATION OF AN OBJECT IN SPACE,

1. Activity: Where Is It? This activity introduces ways to describe the location of an object in three-dimensional space in the room.

2. Activity: The Treasure Hunt. This activity has the same goal as ‘Where Is It?’ but with a prize for successfully following directions. It may be done outdoors.

3. Activity: The Traveling Washer. This activity is done on paper. It emphasizes the difference between distance (a scalar) and displacement (a vector).

FORCES & MOTION 1A1F
FOCUS ON PHYSICS
SPACE
(Discussion)

Each of us has our own personal space. This space is associated with our sensory perceptions: 1) tactile (sense of touch); 2) auditory (sense of hearing); 3) visual (sense of sight); 4) olfactory (sense of smell); and 5) gustatory (sense of taste). It is obvious that each individual not only differs from others in these senses; but also, an individual’s senses may change with age. In order to be able to communicate with others in matters commercial, scientific, personal, etc., we need to have a common space.

We live in a three-dimensional world. By this, we mean that we have freedom to move in three distinct directions: Forward and Backward; Left and Right; and Up and Down. In our daily lives we often try to describe where an object is located by making reference to locations known to the person with whom we are communicating. In response to the question, “Where is the paperback you just bought?” an answer might be “Look in the den!” or “I placed it in the second drawer on the left side of the lower cabinet in the far right comer of my den.” The directions given for finding the book become more detailed as the questioner becomes less knowledgeable about your personal life. For a person from the same town you might add a phrase “My den is located in the basement of my house at 23 Center Court Drive.” For a person from out of town an additional phase must be added “in Attica, Kansas” or maybe “in Attica, Kansas, U.S.A.” Any person from a foreign country must then find a map of the U.S.A., and a detailed map of Kansas, in order to find the paperback in question.

The point of the exercise above is to illustrate that in order to communicate where an object is located, we must accurately describe the spot to another person. If you and that person have a common knowledge and understanding of space, the task becomes simple; if not, the task becomes more difficult.

What is needed is an ideal 3-dimensional space in which any object can be located. If you were going to invent a concept of space in which you could locate an object, what kind of space would you like? Would you like to have holes in it? edges? differences depending upon direction? Etc. The answer is obviously that you would like to invent an ideal space with three dimensions (North-South, East-West, Up-Down), with no holes (continuous), which extends without end in all directions (infinite), which is the same in all directions (isotropic), and which has the same “smoothness” everywhere (homogeneous). This type of space is one in which any object in the universe may be located given the point at which the space begins (the origin). This origin may be located anywhere from a comer of a room to a point in the heavens; but whatever point you use, it must be able to be referenced by another person.

Now that we have this ideal space, how do we define the location of an object in this space? What we now need is a universal standard of length with which we can mark off various points along the three directions of our space outward from the origin. Using this length standard, we can give three values (an East-West number, a North-South number, and an Up-Down number) which then uniquely locate an point in our space

The scientific community has adopted the standard of length as the Meter. This standard can be duplicated at any laboratory in the world and can be replicated in metal, plastic, wood or other materials which we then call rulers.

A diagram of our space (coordinate system) is shown at the right.

FORCES & MOTION 2A1F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
TIME
(Discussion)

Time is a concept invented by man to describe the changes that occur around us. Time is used to describe the duration of an event (such as a school prom, the blink of an eye, an airplane flight, an atomic vibration, a person’s life) or to describe the interval between events.

Since the dawn of history, humans have used the regular apparent movement of the sun across the sky as a way to measure both the duration of events and the interval between events.. Later in history, the regular back and forth swing of a pendulum was used to “time” events of shorter duration. Water clocks in which water dripped at a constant rate were also used. Today, rapidly vibrating quartz crystals are used in modem timepieces to allow for the measurement of events of extremely short duration. The use of these crystals in timing devices also allows for very precise measurement of events. Any observable phenomenon that recurs at regular intervals can be sued to make a timing device. Devices used to measure time are called clocks, watches, or timers.

Just as all material objects occupy space, all events occupy a time interval. An “event” may be that an object changes its position in space. To uniquely describe such an event, we need to know when the event started and when the event concluded. By subtracting the time measurement made at the beginning of the event from the time measurement made at the end of the event we find the duration of the event. In physics, we often use a stopwatch to measure the elapsed time of an event. On a stopwatch, the time of the beginning of the event is usually zero. At the end of the event, the time shown on the stopwatch is then the duration of the event, making subtraction unnecessary.

To fully describe an event, we may sometimes need to know when various changes comprising the event took place. For example, to describe the aging of an apple, we may need to know when changes in color, texture or size took place. To fully analyze an athlete’s performance in running the 50 yd dash, we may need to know when the athlete passed the 10 yard marker, the 20 yard marker and so on. Thus, time is important in analyzing and describing change.

In summary, to uniquely describe the position of an object (either stationary or in motion) we must be able to identify the location of the object in three-dimensional space and specify the time(s) the object was at that location. It is for this reason that time is often known as the fourth dimension.

During any discussion of time as a fourth dimension, the question “If time is another dimension, where are we today along the time axis?” usually arises . This question can be answered by pointing out that just as we may locate the origin of space at any point we may also locate the time origin at any point. We can set the origin to be the time when the earth was formed, the time of the “big bang” or any time that enables us to convey the proper meaning to others. Parents often find it useful to set the birth date of their child as the origin in describing changes that occur to the child. Calendar dates denoted BC or AC use still another origin for time.

Often when we want to look backward or forward in time, we set the time origin at the present. Using today’s date as the origin, carbon dating artifacts made of once living material enables us to tell how long ago the material of the artifact was alive. While it is, impossible to determine when the universe began, scientists are continually extrapolating backwards in time to identify certain events.

FORCES & MOTION 2A2

WHY AND HOW HUMANS TELL TIME

Materials: None

1. What do you use to tell time? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why do you need to tell time? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

3. If you were in a race, would you prefer to have the timer measure your time by’-counting 1001, 1002, etc. or by using a stopwatch? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

4. List times that are important in your life. Classify each of these answers as an instant in time or a time interval. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

5. Interview other students and list times that are important in their lives. Classify each of these answers as an instant in time or a time interval. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

6. List several events that take a long time to happen. Arrange these events in order from shortest time to longest time. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

7. List several events that require only a short time to occur. Arrange these events in order from longest time to shortest time. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 2A2TN

WHY AND HOW HUMANS TELL TIME

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The word “time” has more than one meaning. Classifying Communicating

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 15 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: None needed

ADVANCE PREPARATION: None Needed

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Direct participants to explain the “why” of their answers and direct their attention to the subjective nature of time in questions 4, 5, 6 and 7. Sharing of answers might be revealing.

RESPONSES TO 1. A clock or watch, stopwatch, calendar (typical answers).
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. In order to fully describe objects and events.

3. Stopwatch. The time intervals used for measurement are more regular and would likely be more fair.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The word “time” is used to indicate an instant (i.e., “It is now 3:00 p.m.”)

The word “time” is also used to describe an interval (i.e., “It takes 3 hours to drive from…. To…”)

The word “time” is also used to mean an event (i.e., “We had a great time yesterday.”)

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Investigate modem timing methods.

FORCES & MOTION 1B3

THE TRAVELING WASHER

Materials: washer or coin centimeter ruler centimeter graph paper

1. Label the paper “North, South, East, West”. Place a washer on a piece of paper in the lower left-hand comer. Draw a circle around the washer. Mark the center of this circle with the word “START.”

2. Move the washer in the manners listed below. After each move, draw a circle around the washer and measure the distance the washer moved using a centimeter ruler.

a. 2 centimeters North b. 5 centimeters East c. 5 centimeters North d. 3 centimeters West e. 4 centimeters North f. 6 centimeters East g. 3 centimeters South STOP Label this circle “FINISH.”

3. Find the total distance the washer traveled. _______centimeters

4. Using the centimeter ruler, draw a line from the “START” position to the “FINISH” position. Measure the length of this line using the centimeter ruler. This length is part of the “displacement”. _______centimeters

5. Which is longer, the total distance traveled or the “START-to-FINISH” line? ___________________________________________________________________________________

6. In what direction is the “FINISH” position in comparison to the “START” position? Circle one of the following: This direction is part of the “displacement”.

a. directly North c. directly East e. Northeast g. Southeast

b. directly South d. directly West f. Northwest h. Southwest

7. Describe the displacement of the washer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
8. Write instructions on how to get from the “START” position to the “FINISH” position using as few words as possible. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
9. Compare your instructions with instructions written by other participants. What are the characteristics of a good set of instructions? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 1B3TN

THE TRAVELING WASHER

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

The distance an object travels is not the same Communicating as its displacement Measuring
.
LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should be able to use a ruler and follow points on a compass.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Be sure that the final position of the washer will be on the paper.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Measured distances will vary depending on how the participants measure (e.g., from center to center of the washer or from edge to edge). You may choose to set the method of measurement OR simply discuss the differences in distances and possible causes. You may want to have participants practice with one-dimensional motion before beginning this activity.

RESPONSES TO 3. The total distance traveled is 28 centimeters.
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. 11.3 centimeters. 6. The final position is to the northeast of the starting position. 7. 11.3 cm northeast of START. 8. Written directions will vary. There are two simple directions. The first is: go 8 centimeters east, and then 8 centimeters north. Directions of this type are like plotting points on a graph, and makes use of rectangular coordinates. Directions of another type are: go 11.3 centimeters at an angle 45 degrees north of east. Directions of the latter type are commonly used in navigation, and make use of ranging or polar coordinates. 9. Unambiguous, brief.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Physicists distinguish between the length of the path traveled by an object and the length of the straight line drawn for the starting position to the final position. The length of the path traveled is called DISTANCE while the length of the line from the starting point to the final point (including the direction) is called the DISPLACEMENT.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants give a displacement that cannot be directly measured because of walls or other impediments.

FORCES & MOTION 1B1

WHERE IS IT?

Materials: a blindfold

1. Describe the location of some object (or person) in your classroom. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

2. Describe the location of the same object in another way. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

3. Do you think your descriptions of where the object is located would be good enough so that a blind person could find the object? Explain your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

4. One student should step into the hall while the class writes directions explaining how to get from the doorway to a specific object in the room.

5. Blindfold the participant in the hall and bring him/her to the door. Have one participant read the first set of directions to the blindfolded participant. Have the blindfolded participant follow the directions. Repeat for several sets of directions. Make sure that the participants read the directions exactly as written. Prompts like “a little farther,” “turn some more,” etcetera should not be allowed.

6. Repeat this procedure with other participants until participants write a description that leads the blindfolded participant to the object.

7. Describe the elements of a good position description. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 1B1TN

WHERE IS IT?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The position of an object can be described in more Measuring than one way. Communicating

LEVEL: DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Be able to follow directions like “turn left”.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Be sure that the blindfold is dark and comfortable.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Treat the initial descriptions in a brainstorming way; do not be judgmental. Terms such as “steps,” “left,” “right,” “waist high,” et cetera are acceptable. The teacher should stay near the blindfolded participant so that the participant does not run into something that might hurt them. This activity could be made into a game in which participants describe objects by position and other participants find the objects. In a game setting, be sure to reward good descriptions of the position, as well as the finder of the object.

RESPONSES TO 7. A good description will make use of clear directions in terms of
SOME QUESTIONS: coordinates or moving in a certain direction.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN The position of an object can be described by several methods. One method
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: commonly used in physics is the use of rectangular coordinates (i.e., how far to the right = X, forward = Y and up = Z). It is also possible to locate an object by describing how far away it is from the subject and the direction from the subject to the object. Data of this type are said to be given in polar coordinates (if using two dimensions) or spherical coordinates (if using three dimensions). This method of location is often called ranging. This activity is very similar to orienteering that participants may have done in scouting groups.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have the participants describe the position of something they cannot reach (i.e., the flag on a flagpole, a bird nest in a tall tree or a rock in the bottom of a pond). Participants could also research air traffic control as an application where location is important.

FORCES & MOTION 1B2

THE TREASURE HUNT

Materials: Candies, balloons, etc.

1. Participants should divide into groups.

2. Each group should receive a set of directions for locating hidden treasure in the classroom. Each group could have a different set of directions so that each group will find its own treasure.

3. Once the treasure is located, groups should reassemble to draw a map showing the location of the treasure. The map should include landmark items in the room, as well as a line showing the “start-to-finish” path (displacement). The actual path taken by the group member who found the treasure should also be plotted on the map.

4. After completion of this map, participants should form their own set of directions which should be the most direct route to the treasure from their starting position.

FORCES & MOTION 1B2TN

THE TREASURE HUNT

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The displacement of an object is the direction and distance Communicating from the initial position to final position of the object. Measuring

LEVEL: L DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students should know directions like “north” or “left”.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Place the “treasure” around the room. If the weather conditions are favorable, it would be nice to do this activity outside.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: The teacher may divide the students into as many groups as desired, depending on individual class factors such as space, number of participants, etcetera. The “treasure” may be given to participants. If so, it should be such that it can be shared by group members.

RESPONSES TO None
SOME QUESTIONS:

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The position of an object can be described by several methods. One method commonly used in physics is the use of rectangular coordinates (i.e., how far to the right = X, forward = Y and up = Z). It is also possible to locate an object by describing how far away it is from the subject and the direction from the subject to the object. Data of this type are said to be given in polar coordinates (if using two dimensions) or spherical coordinates (if using three dimensions). This method of location is often called ranging. This activity is very similar to orienteering that participants may have done in scouting groups.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: A clue could be placed at various locations with directions to the next position.

FORCES & MOTION 2B1
MEASURING ELAPSED TIME WITH A PENDULUM
Materials: String Thumb tacks or tape Scissors Objects to use as pendulum bobs (e. g., washers) Paper clip to hold washers on the end of the pendulum Clock that will read seconds. (A stopwatch is nice but not essential)
1. Tie a paper clip to the end of a piece of string. Use the opened paper clip to hang washers to make a pendulum bob. Adjust the pendulum, so that it takes one second to make a complete cycle. (The time for one complete cycle is the time for the pendulum to swing over and back to its starting point.) To time your pendulum, use a clock or stopwatch to measure several complete cycles.
2. When you believe that your pendulum has a period of one second, write a description of how you made the pendulum, and how to operate your pendulum in the space below: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. When you complete your description of your one second pendulum, use a thumb tack or tape to support your pendulum on the bulletin board or blackboard.
4. Compare your pendulum with those of the other students. How is your pendulum similar to the other pendulums? How is it different? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Use your pendulum to find the duration of some event, such as the time it takes someone to walk to the front of the room. Have another team use their pendulum to time the same event. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. How much difference is there in the time of the event as measured by the different pendulums used? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Did the event end exactly at the end of a pendulum swing? At the end of the first half of a swing? How accurately do you know the time for the event? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Is this an acceptable error? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Make a pendulum that will allow you to measure Limes more accurately, perhaps to one-quarter second or to one-tenth of a second. Describe your new pendulum so someone else could build one like it. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 2B1TN

MEASURING ELAPSED TIME WITH A PENDULUM

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
A regularly repetitive motion can be used to measure time. Observing
A clock or stopwatch is not necessary. Measuring Communicating

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 40 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students must be able to use a stopwatch or other timing device to measure period of the pendulum.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: You will need to find a place for students to hang their pendulums. It is nice to be able to swing the pendulums after they are displayed. One way to do this is from an overhead support.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Make a place for each participant or group to hang their pendulum when it is completed. A nice pendulum can be made using a film can. Poke a hole in the bottom of the canister; extend the string through the hole; and tie a knot in the string so that it does not pull through the bottom. Different objects can be placed inside the can to make pendulum bobs of different mass. Participants may wonder whether the mass, the length, or the amplitude of the swing affect the period. They should discover that only the length of the pendulum affects its period.

NOTE: If only limited workshop time is available for this activity, you may “tell” the participants that only the length affects the period of a pendulum, and they should (in step 1) adjust the length to make a “1-second pendulum”

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. The length of the pendulums will be very nearly the same, about 25 cm. The pendulums may differ in any other respects. (e. g., mass, length of swing, type of object used as a pendulum bob, etc.)

6. Times should agree to within about one-half second.

7. Answer is accurate to one-half second.

8. Answer hinges on the total length of the event. Being off by one-half second is less important over a minute than over two seconds.

9. A pendulum accurate to 0.1 second will have a period of 0.2 second. It must be about 1 cm long.
POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: All timing mechanisms depend somehow on regularly repetitive motions. An electric wall-clock depends on the constancy of the alternating electric current (60 cycles per second). Virtually all new battery-operated clocks and watches rely on the vibration of a quartz crystal (about 24,000 cycles per second). Older battery-operated clocks and wristwatches as well as nearly all spring-driven (wind up) timepieces depend on the back and forth rotation of a wheel. Participants can probably supply variations.
FORCES & MOTION 2B2

MAKING A LOW FRICTION BALLOON AIR PUCK FROM A CD

Materials: an old CD Rom disk slide cap from bottle of hand dish washing soap balloon (to fit over top of cap) 3x5 or 4x6 card stock hot glue gun & glue stick

Construction

1. Cut a circle from the card stock to fit inside plastic ring on CD (about one inch in diameter)
2. Hot glue card-stock circle to bottom of CD (flat side)
3. Hot glue plastic cap, screw end down over card-stock circle on CD.
4. Punch small hole through (small nail - about 1/16 inch in diameter.
5. When the glue is dry, push cap to closed position.
6. Blow up balloon and put neck of balloon over top of cap.

Investigation: (Write down your prediction to each question before performing the procedure?

1. Place puck on smooth level surface with cap closed. What does the puck do? Did the puck behave as you expected’? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

2. If you give the puck a push with the cap closed, what will it do? Did the puck behave as you expected? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

3. Next open the cap by pulling up on its tip so that air is released from the balloon. Release the puck. What does it do? Did the puck behave as you expected? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
4. If you give the puck a gentle push with the cap open, what will it do? Did the puck behave as you expected? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

5. Based on what you have done, what would you say is needed to keep the puck moving on a level surface? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
SPEED AND VELOCITY

This section begins by defining speed. Several activities in Part A allow the workshop to be tailored to the needs of the group. Some of the activities in Part A require calculations using ratios or the equation speed=distance/time. The activities am based on the concept of average speed.

In Part B a distinction is drawn between the scalar speed and the vector velocity. (The terms scalar and vector are not used in the activities; it is left to the discretion of the workshop leaders whether they should be introduced.) Participants will see that changing the direction of travel changes the velocity even if the speed stays constant. The difference between ‘distance’ and ‘displacement’ is emphasized. The activities are based on the concept of average velocity.

In Part C the need for knowing the instantaneous speed or velocity is introduced.

Although changes in speed and velocity are important ideas in this section, the term acceleration is not used. (See Section IV.)

===============================================================================

Naive Ideas:

1. There is only one kind of speed (or velocity). There is only one way to calculate speed. Activities: 3A1, 3A2, 3A3, 3A4, 3A5, 3A6D, 3C1D 3C2D, 3C3

2. Velocity is another word for speed. An object’s speed and velocity are always the same. Activities: 3B1, 3B2, 3B3D

===============================================================================

A . AVERAGE SPEED IS CALCULATED BY DIVIDING DISTANCE TRAVELED BY THE ELAPSED TIME, IT DOES NOT INCLUDE THE DIRECTION OF TRAVEL.

1. Activity: Finding Average Speed

This activity develops the concept that average speed is the distance traveled divided by the time required to travel that distance.

2. Activity: Predicting an Unknown Position

Participants practice using average speed to make calculations using ratios or the equation distance = speed x time.

3. Activity: Predicting an Unknown Time

This is very similar to the previous activity but the equation is solved for a different unknown.

4. Activity: Can You Walk at a Constant Speed? This activity gives participants a chance to measure the speed at which they walk.

FORCES & MOTION 3WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
SPEED AND VELOCITY - 2

5. Activity: How Fast Can You Run?

Although similar to the previous activity, here participants are asked to make calculations of distance based on their average speeds. Here is a good excuse to go outdoors!

6. Discussion: How Fast Is It?

Participants are asked to research some values that might be typical for some commonly-used expressions of speeds. They also discover that sometimes time alone is used incorrectly as speed.

B AVERAGE VELOCITY IS CALCULATED By DIVIDING DISPLACEMENT BY ELAPSED TIME, IT IS A VECTOR SO IT INCLUDES THE DIRECTION 0 TRAVEL.

1. Activity: Velocity Isn’t Speed

This activity introduces the distinction between speed and velocity.

2. Activity: Walking Around a Square

The participants explore further the distinction between speed and velocity. The difference between distance and displacement is emphasized.

3. Discussion: The Flying Plane

Using a paper airplane that flies in a loop, a much more complicated motion than those used before, the concept of average velocity is made clear. This activity may form a basis for part C on instantaneous values.

C INSTANTANEOUS SPEED AND VELOCITY DESCRIBE THE MOTION AT A SPECIFIC INSTANT.

1. Discussion: The Interstate Highway Story

This discussion makes it obvious that there is a distinction between average speed and instantaneous speed and that instantaneous speed gives more detailed information about a motion.

2. Discussion: Speed and Velocity

The leader demonstrates an object moving in a circle at constant speed. The discussion centers on how to find the instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity.

3. Activity: Speeding Up

Participants use a toy car rolling down an inclined plane to see how to use the average speed to find the instantaneous speed at the bottom of the incline. Calculations are required.
FORCES & MOTION 3A1

FINDING AVERAGE SPEED

Materials stop watches (2 or 3) Meter stick Masking tape Marble (as large as is convenient) or some other object that goes at nearly constant speed

1. Use masking tape to mark four positions, in a straight line, equal distances (30 to 40 cm) apart. Record the position of the 4 positions of markers A, B, C, and D in Row-B. Turn on the stomper car. Start the stomper car before the first marker.

2. Start all of the stopwatches when the marble passes the first marker (position zero, time zero). Stop one of the stopwatches when the marble passes the first marker A. Stop the other stopwatches in sequence as the marble passes markers B, C and D. Record the times in row C.

3. Calculate the time for each interval. Record this information in Row-E.

4. Calculate the distance interval for each interval. Record this information in Row-F.

5. Calculate the average speed for each interval. Record this information in Row-G

A. Location A B C D B. Position (m) 0 _______ _______ _______ C. Time (s) _______ _______ _______ _______

D. Interval Identity A-B B-C C-D E. Interval time (s) ________ ________ ________ F. Interval distance (m) ________ ________ ________ G. Average Speed (m/s) ________ ________ ________

FORCES & MOTION 3A1

6. Did the average speed turn out to be the same for all of the above? Discuss your results. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

7. You placed your markers equal distances apart. How would your results compare if the distances had not been equal? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

8. Repeat the experiment. But this time make the distance between each marker different.

A. Location A B C D B. Position (m) 0 _______ _______ _______ C. Time (s) _______ _______ _______ _______

D. Interval Identity A-B B-C C-D E. Interval time (s) ________ ________ ________ F. Interval distance (m) ________ ________ ________ G. Average Speed (m/s) ________ ________ ________
9. Did the average speed turn out to be the same for all of the above? Discuss your results. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. Does the information obtained from this part of the investigation support or disprove your prediction in question 7? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 3A1TN

FINDING AVERAGE SPEED

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average speed is the distance traveled Interpreting data divided by the time required to travel Using numbers that distance. Predicting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: The participants should be able to use proportional reasoning.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Low friction air pucks can be substituted for the marbles. If you wish to use these, they can be constructed before the workshop or they can be made as a make and take item. Instructions for making two different kinds of air pucks are in the appendix.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Anything that moves at a nearly-constant speed can be used instead of marbles: balls, cans, coasting toys (like Hot Wheels(& cars), or wind up or battery-operated toys.

Make a “track” with meter sticks for rolling spheres by placing two meter sticks side by side with a small space between them.

Discuss variations in answers to question 4.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 6. The answer should be ‘yes’. Uncertainties in measurements and irregular surfaces may result in varying answers. There might be a pattern of generally slowing down due to friction.

9. Results will be the same.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Dividing distance traveled by elapsed time gives average speed. If the speed is constant, longer distances require longer times and the ratio stays the same. (If the averages are increasing or decreasing, the object is accelerating; do not address acceleration yet.)

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Repeat using unequal distances. Repeat using circular motion.

FORCES & MOTION 3A2
PREDICTING AN UNKNOWN POSITION
Materials:
2 stopwatches 1 meter stick 1 marble (as large as is convenient) or other object which rolls at constant speed 2 markers, each made out of a cork or rubber stopper and a pencil (or masking tape)

1. Locate points A and B. Measure and record this distance between them in Row-D

2. Run the Stomper car past the markers. Start the marble before the first marker. Start both stopwatches when the marble passes A. Stop one stopwatch when the marble passes point B. A second team member chooses the position of point C (known only to them) and stops the second stopwatch when the car passes point C.

3. Record the time the car passes both Point-B and Point-C in Row-B.

4. Record the time for the car to go from both A to B and A to C in Row-E

5. Calculate the average speed for region A to B. Record this in Row-F.

6. Predict the distance from point A to C. Record in Row-H.

7. Have the second person measure the distance between point A and chosen point C. Record this in Row-I.

8. How far off was the prediction? ____________ Discuss whether this is an acceptable amount of error. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
Trial for Person Selection Point C

A. Location A B C B. Time (s) 0 ________ ________ C. Interval A-B A-C D. Distance (m) AB E. Time (s) AB AC F. Average Speed (m/s) AB H. Distance m (predicted) A C I. Distance (m) measured A C
9. Repeat the activity, giving each member of the team a chance to choose the position of C. Record this information on their sheet.

FORCES & MOTION 3A2TN

PREDICTING AN UNKNOWN POSITION

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance Measuring travelled by elapsed time. It does not include Using numbers direction of travel. Predicting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: The participants should be able to use proportional reasoning.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: If you wish to use the air pucks, they can be made before the workshop or they can be constructed as a make and take item. Instructions for making two different air pucks can be found in the appendix.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Anything that moves at a constant speed can be used: balls, cans, coasting toys (like Hot Wheels cars), or wind-up or battery-operated toys.

Give groups clear instructions about the tasks and the order and manner in which they should be done.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 8. Errors will be smaller if larger distances or slower motions are used.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Average speed is the ratio of distance traveled to the elapsed time.

When speeds are constant, knowing the average speed and an elapsed time allows an unknown distance to be calculated. Show how a calculation using proportional reasoning leads to the equation that defines average speed: Ave. speed = distance traveled / elapsed time.

The next activity is a variation on this theme (predicting an unknown time); as a set-up for that activity, consider asking participants what other kinds of data and predictions would make use of this equation.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants repeat calculations for the marble rolling from B to C using existing data.

Use a fourth marker and third stopwatch (and a third team member).This increases the number of possible unknowns substantially.

FORCES & MOTION 3A3

PREDICTING AN UNKNOWN TIME

Materials: 2 stopwatches 1 meter stick 1 battery operated car which rolls at constant speed 3 markers, each made out of a cork or rubber stopper and a pencil (or masking tape)

1. Label the markers A, B and C. Place the markers A and B 30 to 40 cm apart on the table or floor. Place the third marker some larger distance (at least about 60 cm) away from B so they form a straight line.

2. Roll the marble past the markers. Start the marble before the first marker. Start both stopwatches when the marble passes A. Stop one stopwatch when the marble passes B. Stop the second stopwatch when the marble passes C. (The team member who measures the time it takes the marble to roll from A to C is to keep it secret until later.) Record the data in the spaces below.

3. Distance from A to B: ____________ Time from A to B: ____________ Average speed of the marble moving from A to B: ____________ (Use the space below to show how you found the average speed.)

4. Distance from A to C: ____________ Use this distance and the average speed of the marble as it moved from A to B to predict how long it took the marble to roll from A to C. (Use the space below to show how you found this distance.)

Predicted time from A to C: ____________

5. Have the team member who timed the marble to position C reveal that value. Measured time from A to C: ____________

6. How far off was the prediction? _______________ Discuss whether this is an acceptable amount of error. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
7. Repeat the activity, giving each member of the team a chance to time the marble from A to C. Change the position of C each time. Use the space below to record your data, show your calculations, and record your predictions.

FORCES & MOTION 3A3TN

PREDICTING AN UNKNOWN TIME

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance Measuring traveled by the elapsed time. It does not include Using numbers the direction of travel. Predicting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: The participants should be able to use proportional reasoning.
ADVANCE PREPARATION: If you wish to use the low frictional force devices, they can be made before the workshop or they can be made as a make and take item.

Instructions for making two different kinds of air pucks can be found in the appendix.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Anything that moves at a constant speed can be used. If toy cars are not available, a large marble can be rolled down an inclined plane and across a horizontal surface past the markers.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 6. Errors will be smaller if larger distances or slower motions are used.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Average speed is the ratio of distance traveled to the elapsed time.

When speeds are constant, knowing the average speed and a distance allows an unknown time to be calculated. Show how a calculation using proportional reasoning leads to the equation that defines average speed: Ave. speed = distance traveled / elapsed time.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants repeat calculations for the marble rolling from B to C using existing data.

Use a fourth marker and third stopwatch (and a third team member). This increases the number of possible unknowns substantially.
FORCES & MOTION 3A4

CAN YOU WALK AT A CONSTANT SPEED?

Materials: 3 stopwatches 1 meter stick or tape measure

1. Mark a track with three (or more) equally-spaced distance intervals as shown below. You need a team member with a stop watch at each mark except A. The more marks you use the more interesting this becomes. Make the distance between marks two or more meters.

A B C D E Position (m) 0 4 8 12 16

2. Position a participant with a stopwatch at the distance markers at B, C, D and E.

3. Challenge participants to walk down the hall at a constant speed. Each timer starts his/her stopwatch on a given signal (i.e., blowing a whistle) as the walker passes A. Each timer stops his/her stopwatch when the moving participant passes them. Record these times in row C.

4. Calculate the time to travel each interval. Then place your calculation in row E.

5. Determine the distance traveled in each interval. Record this information in row F

6. Calculate the average speed for each interval. Record this information in row G.

A. Location A B C D E B. Position (m) 0 4 8 12 16 C. Time (s) 0 _______ _______ _______ _______ D. Interval Identity A-B B-C C-D D-E E. Interval time (s) ________ ________ ________ ________ F. Interval distance (m) ________ ________ ________ ________ G. Average Speed (m/s) ________ ________ ________ ________ Average speed using average speed for the 4 intervals. __________ (m/s)

7. Were you able to walk with a constant average speed? Was everyone? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3A4TN

CAN YOU WALK AT A CONSTANT SPEED?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

Average speed is calculated by divining the distance Measuring traveled by the elapsed time. Using numbers

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants need to know how to make measurements of distance and time intervals, and to calculate average speed.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Find a suitable location for the track, especially if many intervals or long distances will be used.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: This activity should have at least four members per team. Encourage each member to get data for their own walk.

Have walkers start walking before point A. This enables them to get up to speed before being timed.

There is no real reason to have the distance intervals equal. Nor do they need to be any particular distance; participants might enjoy trying very long or very short distance intervals.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: There are many possible choices for the second and third intervals; participants can use whichever ones appeal to them.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Moving at constant speed is not as easy as it sounds. Very rarely will a participant be able to move at the same average speed in all intervals. Some attention should be given to significant figures when making the comparison of results.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Increase or decrease the distance between markers. Use more than three intervals.

Vary the distance between timing stations. See if this has any effect on the ability to maintain a constant speed.

Have participants walk in a circular path or around obstacles, such as chairs.

Have participants walk blindfolded
FORCES & MOTION 3A5

HOW FAST CAN YOU RUN?

Materials: 1 meter stick or tape measure 1 stopwatch chalk or masking tape

1. Measure off a distance of about 20 meters on a sidewalk, parking lot or in a hallway. Mark the beginning and the end of the distance with chalk or masking tape.

2. Time each team member as they walk or run the distance. Have the runner or walker start moving before the first mark. Start the timer when the participant crosses the first mark and stop timing as they cross the ending mark.

3. Calculate the average speed for each Learn member and fill in the information in the table below:

|Name of Student |Distance |Time |Average Speed |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |

4. Would the average speed be different if you started from rest at the first mark, rather than already moving when you crossed it? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
5. If you could keep the same speed, how long would it take to run (or walk) 100 meters? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
6. If you could keep the same speed, how far would you go in 30 seconds? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 3A5TN

HOW FAST CAN YOU RUN?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance Measuring traveled by the elapsed time. It does not include Using numbers the direction of travel.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants need to be able to measure distance and time intervals and to calculate average speed.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Check to see if it is permitted to make chalk marks on the sidewalk or parking lot. (Use masking tape as an alternative.)

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Individual participants might wish to run (or walk) longer or shorter distances; they don’t need to run (or walk) the same distance as anyone else.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. The average speed will be slightly less.

5. The time to complete 100 meters will be five times the time to complete 20 meters (or 100 m divided by the average speed).

6. Distance = average speed x 30 sec.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Speed is the ratio of distance traveled divided by the time taken for the travel. Students should be able to calculate the speed of a moving body by using Average speed = Distance / Time.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants calculate whether anyone in the class could run a mile in under 4 minutes if they kept the same average speed found in question 3. (One mile = 1610 m).

Have participants calculate how long it would take to run (or walk) from their home to their school. They might have to estimate the distance.

Have students analyze running races.

FORCES & MOTION 3A6D

HOW FAST IS IT?
(Discussion)

A number of expressions are used which refer to the slowness or quickness of an event. For example, you say something happened as “quick as a flash.” This usually means that the event happened very quickly, like a flash of lightning. The speed of light is about 300,000 kilometers per second.

(Expressions such as these are useful in everyday speaking and writing, but are not very useful for accurate measurements. For example, the fine for a speeding ticket must be based on an accurate measurement of speed.)

1. Below are a number of expressions related to speed. But some of them are times, not speeds! Cross them out.

2. You might want to use a library or the internet to find the approximate speeds for the remaining expressions.

Expression Speed (Be sure to include units)

a. “slow as a turtle” __________________________________________________________________

b. “quick as a fox” ___________________________________________________________________

c. “in the blink of an eye” _____________________________________________________________

d. “move at a snail’s pace” ____________________________________________________________

e. “faster than a = speeding bullet” ______________________________________________________

f. “slower than molasses in January” _____________________________________________________

g. “quick as a wink” _________________________________________________________________

h. “fastball pitch” ____________________________________________________________________

i. “a mile a minute” _________________________________________________________________

j. “escape velocity” __________________________________________________________________

k. “runs like a deer” ___________________________________________________________________

2. Use the space below to write a short paragraph using some of these expressions or others you may know. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3A6DTN

HOW FAST IS IT?
(Discussion)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average speed is calculated by dividing distance Using numbers travelled by the elapsed time. It does not include the direction of travel.

LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: None

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Participants can be allowed to estimate values instead of looking them up.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: a. 0.8 kilometer/hour b. 48 kilometer/hour C. about 0.1 second (This is a time; it should be crossed out.) d. 5.0 centimeter/minute e. 275 meter/second to 320 meter/second f. 0.001 meter/minute g. about 1/4 second (This is a time; it should be crossed out.) h. 137 kilometer/hour or more i. 96.5 kilometer/hour j. 40,000 kilometer/hour k. 56 kilometer/hour

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The idea is to ‘estimate speeds

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants convert all speeds into the same units.

Have participants rank the expressions before estimating or calculating speeds.

FORCES & MOTION 3B1

VELOCITY ISN’T SPEED

Materials: 1 stopwatch 1 meter stick or tape measure

1. Measure a straight-line distance of two or three meters that you can walk. Mark the ends, calling one end A and the other end B.

2. Time someone walking from A to B. Calculate the average speed for the walk. Show your calculation below.

Distance: _______________ Time: _______________ Avg. speed: _______________

3. Have the same person walk back from B to A. Try for the same speed. Calculate the average speed for the walk. Show your calculation below.

Distance: _______________ Time: _______________ Avg. speed: _______________

4. When you walk from A to B you might have the same speed as when you walk from B to A, but you are doing something quite different. When the direction of travel is different, the result is different. When we talk about how fast something moves, we sometimes need to consider the direction of travel.

When the direction doesn’t matter we use the term speed. When the direction does matter we use the term velocity.

What were the velocities for the two walks above?

Average velocity walking from A to B: _______________

Average velocity walking from B to A: _______________

5. When you are driving a car on a one-way street, is your speed as important as your velocity? Why? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
6. Driving on the freeway with the cruise control set, does your velocity stay constant along with your speed? Explain. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 3B1TN

VELOCITY ISN’T SPEED

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average velocity is calculated by dividing displacement Using numbers by elapsed time. It is a vector so it includes the Inferring direction of travel. Communicating

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students must know how to find average speed. They should have done activity 1B3

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Be sure participants have discussed the distinction between displacement and distance traveled (activity 1113). You might want to discuss it before beginning this activity.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. The values will be the same as for the speeds, but they have opposite directions (right v. left or north vs. south, for example). These answers must have directions to be considered velocities.

5. No. The velocity is more important. If the velocity is wrong you might be going the wrong way or you might be driving onto the sidewalk.

6. No. Your velocity changes as you turn comers and as you go over hills.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN THE
SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Velocity and speed have different definitions and may serve different purposes. Unlike speed, velocity requires a direction in order to be fully expressed.

You might want to use the term ‘vector’, although it is not used in this book.

Review the terms distance traveled, displacement, position, average speed and average velocity.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Have participants suggest velocities for a walker that will have significantly different results, like walking into a wall instead of away from a wall.

FORCES & MOTION 3B1A

IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION?
Block Walk

The following is taken from
Conceptual Physics
Second Edition

Adapted for Operation Physics Force and Motion Workshop by Dick Heckathorn

Much of the confusion that arrives in analyzing the motion of objects comes about from mixing up “how fast” with “how far”. When we wish to specify how fast something is traveling we are talking about speed or velocity. When we wish to specify how far that object has gone, we are talking about distance.

The most confusing concept and one of the most difficult encountered is “how quickly does speed or velocity change”. This we call acceleration. What makes acceleration so complex is that it is a rate of a rate. It is often confused with velocity which is itself a rate (the rate at which distance is covered). Acceleration is not velocity, nor is it even a change in velocity; acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes.

The following activity is designed to illustrate the difference between velocity and acceleration.

To show constant velocity:

1. Go into the hall or to a place that has floor tile on the floor. If none is available, place masking tape on the floor at an evenly spaced distance, say 9 or 12 inches (1 tile)

2. While someone claps at a regular rate, move 1 tile per clap (or if you would like every other clap). Do this for about 10 claps.

3. Next do 2 tiles per clap, then 3 tiles per clap and finally 4 tiles per clap.

4. What type of motion have you demonstrated? [steady velocity at 1 tile per clap (1 tile/clap)]

To show an acceleration of 1 tape interval/clap/clap:

1. While someone claps at a regular rate, move 1/2 tile during the first clap interval, 1 tiles during the second clap interval, 1.5 tiles during the third clap interval, 2 tiles during the fourth clap interval and so forth. (Note ... Make original step smaller.)

2. How long did it take before you were unable to accelerate at 1/2 tile/clap/clap? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Describe to someone near you velocity, acceleration and the difference between the two.

FORCES & MOTION 3B1B

MAKING A “ZIP LOCK BAG” ACCELEROMETER

by
Virginia Langland in

The May 1994 Physics Teacher Magazine rewritten by

Dick Heckathorn June 6, 1994
Materials:
Zip lock bag - quart size or sandwich size (1) Cardboard (2) 2 1 -cm x 2 1 -cm for quart size or 19-cm x 19-cm for sandwich size zip lock bag duct tape food coloring water rubber band (1) knife to cut cardboard

Construction:

1. Cut two pieces of cardboard 6-cm wider and 6-cm taller than the zip lock bag used.
2. Outline the bag on the center of one of the pieces of cardboard.
3. Cut an rectangular outline in the center of the cardboard which is 4-cm smaller than the bag. This will allow 2-cm overlap of the bag on the cardboard.
4. Center the bag over the opening as though you were framing a picture.
5. Tape the bottom and sides of the bag to the cardboard. Do not tape the top of the bag to the cardboard.
6. Tape the second piece of cardboard to the first piece so that the bag is between the two pieces of cardboard. Do not tape the tops together.
7. Fill the bag half full of colored water. Zip the bag dosed.
8. Slip a rubber band over the cardboard frame and adjust it so that it is at the top of the water.

Use:
1. Hold the accelerometer perfectly still and in an upright position. What is the orientation of the liquid relative to the rubber band? Since there is no acceleration - the orientation of the liquid indicates no acceleration.
2. Slowly speed up moving in a horizontal direction. What is the orientation of the liquid relative to the rubber band? Any orientation different from the rubber band indicates that there is acceleration. The liquid above the rubber band forms a shape of half an arrow. The direction that it points is the direction of the acceleration. The greater the slope, the greater the acceleration.
3. Move in a straight line at constant speed. What is the orientation of the liquid relative to the rubber band? Is there acceleration and if so, in what direction?
4. While moving in a straight line at constant speed, come to a stop. What is the orientation of the liquid relative to the rubber band as you come to a stop? Is there acceleration and if so, in what direction?
5. Hold the accelerometer at arms length so that the plane of the accelerometer is at right angles to you arm. Slowly spin around. Is there acceleration and if so, in what direction?
6. Next hold the accelerometer at arms length so that the plane of the accelerometer is parallel to your outstretched arm. Slow spin around. Is there acceleration and if so, in what direction?
7. What other types of motion can you make and in so doing examine the acceleration?

FORCES & MOTION 3B2

WALKING AROUND A SQUARE

Materials: 1 stopwatch 1 meter stick or tape measure

1. Use masking tape to mark the comers of a square that you can walk. Make each side an ‘easy’ distance, like 2 meters. Measure the length of the sides and diagonals and record these on the diagram below.

2. In Activity IB3 two different kinds of distance were introduced. Distance traveled was defined differently than displacement. DISTANCE TRAVELED is measured along the path. DISPLACEMENT is measured in a straight line from the starting position to the ending position. Determine the distance-traveled and the displacement for each of the walks listed below. Finally, have a team member take each of the four walks listed, always following the perimeter of the rectangle. Use a stopwatch to time each walk.

Walking from A to B: Distance traveled: ________ Displacement: _________ Time: ___________

Walking from A to B to C Distance traveled: ________ Displacement: _________ Time: ___________

Walking from A to B to C to D Distance traveled: ________ Displacement: _________ Time: __________

Walking from A around the square. back to A Distance traveled: ________ Displacement: _________ Time: __________

3. Suppose you wanted to calculate your average speed for each of the four walks. Do you feel uncertain about which distance you would use? In physics both kinds of distance have meaning and usefulness. Which one is used depends on the requirements of the problem at hand; answers which are meaningless or not helpful are discarded in favor of those that are meaningful or helpful. Later you will find out about kinds of questions that require us to divide displacement by time.

In order to help avoid confusion, physicists use two different words: speed and velocity. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the elapsed time. Velocity is calculated by dividing the displacement by the elapsed time. You may be uncomfortable with the value you get for the velocity for the walk from A back to A again, but there are circumstances where this value is the necessary one!

4. Remember that displacement is given using two statements: how far and which way. Distance traveled is given by stating only how far. In number 2 above, did you give both how far and which way for the displacements? If not, go back now and add the direction to each of the displacements. You can use words like north, northeast, etc.

FORCES & MOTION 3B2

WALKING AROUND A SQUARE - 2

5. Since velocity is found by dividing displacement by elapsed time, velocity must also have a direction associated with it. In the walks you did, your speed may have been constant, but, because the direction you were walking changed when you turned a comer, your velocity was different for each of the four legs.

6. Now use the data from number 2 above to calculate your average speeds and average velocities.

Walking from A to B Average speed: _______________ Average velocity: _______________

Walking from A to C Average speed: _______________ Average velocity: _______________

Walking from A to D Average speed: _______________ Average velocity: _______________

Walking from A back to A Average speed: _______________ Average velocity: _______________

7. With your team, discuss this statement: “The average velocity of the Earth as it orbits the sun is zero.” Compare this statement to one which would give the Earth’s average velocity for a period of six months. Write a paragraph which sums up your conclusion. Make clear the distinction between speed and velocity.

___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3B2TN

WALKING AROUND A SQUARE

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Average velocity is calculated by dividing displacement Using numbers by elapsed time. It is a vector quantity so it includes Inferring direction of travel. Communicating

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

NOTE: The major reason for distinguishing velocity from speed is to help with understanding acceleration when the speed is constant, as in circular motion, which provides essential background for centripetal force in MOTION. If you are not doing those lessons, this activity can be skipped.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students must know how to find average speed. They should have done activity 1B3.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Plenty of space is required for this activity; you may want to conduct it outdoors.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Be sure participants have discussed the distinction between displacement and distance traveled (activity 1B3). You might want to discuss it again before beginning this activity. If participants walk a square, naming the direction from A to C is easier than for a rectangle. Available space may dictate that a rectangle be used; allow participants fudge a bit and use directions like ‘northeast’ anyway.

The next section addresses the distinction between instantaneous and average values. Depending on your audience, you may find it necessary to define those terms during this activity.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. The distances increase as the sum of the sides of the square. The displacements increase, then decrease to zero for the last one. Directions should be included, but there is a reminder in number 4. 6. The average speeds will be approximately equal. The average velocities will differ in magnitude and direction: A to C will be larger than A to B (the length of a hypotenuse) and have a direction like ‘northeast’; A to D win have a magnitude equal to the length of side AD divided by the time and a direction like ‘north’; A back to A will have a magnitude of zero and no direction. 7. The speed of the Earth is nearly constant. If considered for a whole-number of years, the average velocity is zero. For six months the average velocity is not zero--it is the diameter of the Earth’s orbit divided by six months (in seconds?) - With a direction that is hard to name, but ‘toward the sun’ could be considered correct. (A drawing may convey the idea most easily.)
POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN THE
SUMMARY DISCUSSION: - Average speed is calculated by dividing distance traveled by elapsed time. Average velocity is calculated by dividing displacement by elapsed time. - You might want to use the term ‘vector’ in your discussion, although it is not used in this book. - Review the terms distance traveled, displacement, position, average speed and average velocity. - Some participants will remain uneasy about zero average velocities for a moving object. Try to persuade them that in later activities (involving acceleration and centripetal force) this idea becomes useful.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: - Have participants walk in a circle or in a jagged path. - Have participants use a magnetic compass to give directions in degrees.

FORCES & MOTION 3C1D

INTERSTATE HIGHWAY STORY
(Discussion)

Our ability to understand the natural world depends upon our experiences. The terms invented to describe these experiences are pointless until we have had the experience. The story of a trip on an interstate highway will probably be similar to experiences of the participants. It is intended to trigger a discussion which will lead to a definition of average speed.

Background for the Story:

One way of introducing motion is to relate the following or a similar story to the participants. (NOTE: Participants tend to pay more attention to a lesson if they believe that the story is a true experience about their teacher. You might want to change some of the details to suit your area.)

Pittsburgh and Philadelphia are connected by an interstate highway. There are mile markers along the interstate highway starting with the zero mile marker at the Ohio-Pennsylvania border and progressing east toward Philadelphia. When you enter the highway, you are given a card indicating the time and the position where you enter the highway. This card is given to the toll-taker when you leave the highway so that you can be charged for the distance you traveled on the highway.

A TRIP ON THE INTERSTATE

One day I was traveling west on the Ohio Turnpike and recorded the following information. At 1:00 p.m. I entered the interstate at mile marker 50. At 5:00 p.m. I left the interstate at mile marker 250. “What was my speed?” and “Should I have been issued a speeding ticket?”

Most participants will realize that you traveled 200 miles (250 miles - 50 miles) in a time interval of 4 hours (5:00 p.m. - 1:00 P.M.). Thus, your average speed was 50 miles per hour.

At this point, confess to the participants that you forgot to tell them about the ice cream store near Youngstown (a town just off the interstate) and you could not resist stopping there for some ice cream. In fact, tell them that you stopped at 2:00 p.m. and the ice cream was so good, that you did not resume your trip until 4:00 p.m. Again, ask “What was my speed?” and “Should I have been issued a speeding ticket?” (This changes the average speed to 100 miles per hour!)

(In the discussion that follows, you might want to use the word ‘speed’ or the phrase ‘average speed’. Using ‘average speed’ here is a good setup for later activities that distinguish between average and instantaneous values. Be careful to avoid using the word ‘velocity’ in this discussion!)

Let the participants discuss the meaning(s) of the word speed. Note that during this discussion, the primary goal is not to get the “right answer,” but to develop the reason for having the word and the understanding that speed is calculated by dividing a distance traveled by the elapsed time. You should not tell a participant that they are correct until they have developed a reasonable argument to support their answer and you have given participants an opportunity to challenge each other’s statements. The correct answer must be accompanied by a compelling argument. (NOTE: This illustrates a general teaching technique. When participants use the ideas they are trying to understand in a debate or discussion, they will come to understand the ideas much better. All teachers know that ideas are learned better when participants are responsible for finding a way to explain the ideas to others.)

At the end of this lesson or perhaps the next day, help participants formalize their understanding of the word speed. In general, participants will need help to understand that all they can determine when given information about the beginning and the ending of a trip is the average speed of the trip. If the road is a toll road a toll-taker who looks at the information on the card will only be able to tell your average speed, not whether you were speeding for a short while. In fact, the police are usually interested only in the speed at a particular instant. The distinction between average and instantaneous speed is developed in Activities 3C2 and 3C3.

FORCES & MOTION 3C2D

SPEED AND VELOCITY

MATERIALS: Object that will move in a circle

1. Sketch a circle here.

2. The instructor will show you where to mark two points your circle. Label these points 1 and 2.

3. Watch as the instructor makes an object move in a circle. Do you think the object traveled at a constant speed as it moved from point 1 to point 2? Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
4. How could you find the instantaneous speed of the object when it was at point 1? Discuss your answer. A diagram may help. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
5. If you wanted to know the velocity at a specific position, what would you have to do differently? Make a diagram using an arrow to describe the instantaneous velocity at four different points on a circle. Label each arrow with a possible value and with a possible direction. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
6. When an object moves in a circle at constant speed, is its velocity constant? Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3C2DTN

SPEED AND VELOCITY
(Demonstration/Discussion)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity Observing describe the motion at a specific instant. Inferring

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

NOTE: This activity is intended to be a demonstration/discussion.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: The participants should know how to find average speed and average velocity.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Tie an object to a string so it can be made to travel in a circle.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Activity 7B3 provides a demonstration of this lesson.

The following paragraphs provide a suggested narrative for the discussion.

1. (For questions I and 2): Use a vertical motion so the speed will more likely be changing. Choose points 1 and 2 about 90 degrees apart.

2. (For question 3): Guide participants to agree the speed was not changing.

3. (For question 4): Ask “How can we determine the actual speed of the object when it was at point 1?” Guide the participants to select two points which are (a) symmetrically located with respect to the position in question and (b) very close together. Discuss how much time should elapse as the object moves between these two points in order to agree that we adequately know the speed “at” the selected position (1/100 sec.?, 1/1,000,000 sec.?). Define this average speed as the ‘instantaneous speed’. Point out that this would be the reading on a speedometer.

(Because there are an infinite number of points along the circle, it is impossible for us to know the time at which the object was at every point. However, if we know the elapsed time between any two points, we can describe the motion of the object. If we know positions and times that are closer together, we can describe the motion more accurately. If we know the exact position of the object at 1/10 of a second intervals, we can provide a better description of the motion than if we only know its position at I second intervals.)

4. You may want to review the idea that in order to accurately describe the motion of the object, we need to know not only its various positions in a 3-dimensional coordinate system, but we also need information about the time at which the object was at various positions. Time is a basic idea fundamental to the concept of change. In fact, humans invented the concept of time in order to describe changes that occur. Time enables us to describe the rate at which changes occur.
FORCES & MOTION 3C2DTN

SPEED AND VELOCITY - 2
(Demonstration/Discussion)

5. (For question 5): Review the distinction between speed and velocity. Ask: “How would we find the velocity here?”, referring to point 1. (The magnitude is the same; we just need to add the direction.) Draw an arrow to represent the instantaneous velocity, emphasizing the term. Continue for points 2, 3 and 4, all 90 degrees apart. Use numbers that reflect the changing speed. Use directions like ‘up’, ‘left’, etc.

6. (For question 6): Show that the velocity is changing even though the speed is not.

7. Review the lesson. Emphasize that when we use a very small elapsed time the average speed or velocity becomes the instantaneous speed or velocity.

8. Review the idea that for any concept, like velocity, involving magnitude and direction, any change in either means there has been a change in that concept. This might be an appropriate time to mention acceleration and force as two additional examples of this, since they are the next topics covered.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 3. No, it slowed down while ascending and speeded up coming back down.

4. By choosing points on either side of the position in question and very close together.

5. Add a direction to the magnitude.

6. No. The velocity is changing direction, so it is not constant.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: When we use a very small elapsed time the average speed or velocity becomes the instantaneous speed or velocity.

Velocity, like displacement, requires both magnitude and direction to be fully expressed.

Review the idea that for any concept, like velocity, involving magnitude and direction, any change in either one means there has been a change in that concept. This might be an appropriate time to mention acceleration and force as two additional examples of this, since they are the next topics covered.

FORCES & MOTION 3C3

SPEEDING UP

Materials: 1 free-wheeling toy car 1 inclined plane 1 stopwatch masking tape

1. Use masking tape to mark the inclined plane in three places: near the top (A), at the bottom (C), and midway between (B). Release the car at the first mark (A). Measure the time interval needed for the car to roll to the middle mark (B). Use the measured distance and time interval to calculate the average speed of the toy car. Record your data below:

Distance (A to B): _______________ Time: _______________

2. Calculate the average speed. Show your calculation in the space below.

Average speed (A to B): _______________

3. Release the car at the first mark(A). Measure the time interval needed for the car to roll from the middle mark (B) to the bottom mark (C). Use the measured distance and time interval to calculate the average speed of the toy car. Record your data below:

Distance (B to C): _______________ Time: _______________

4. Calculate the average speed. Show your calculation in the space below.

Average speed (B to C:

5. Release the car at the first mark(A). Measure the time interval needed for the car to roll to the bottom mark(C). Use the measured distance and time interval to calculate the aver-age speed of the toy car. Record your data below:

Distance (A to C): _______________ Time: _______________

6. Calculate the average speed. Show your calculation in the space below.

Average speed (A to C): _______________

7. Is the average speed the same everywhere? Discuss your answer. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

8. Did the car have a greater average speed between A and B or between B and C? Explain your answer. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3C3

SPEEDING UP - 2

9. It is clear that the speed of the car is continuously changing. The instantaneous speed is the speed of the car at a particular point. The reading on a speedometer is the instantaneous speed. Where do you think the instantaneous speed of the car was the greatest? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
10. When the car rolls off the end of the inclined plane and onto the level table, does its speed stay nearly constant for awhile? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
11. Where on the ramp is the instantaneous speed of the car newly the same as the speed it has while rolling on the level table? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
12. Find the average speed of the car while rolling on the table. Start the car at the upper mark (A). Record your data and show your calculation below.

Distance: ____________ Time: ____________ Average speed: ____________

13. Is this average speed greater than any of the average speeds you found for the car while on the inclined plane? Should this value be close to the instantaneous speed of the car at the bottom of the inclined plane? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
14. How else could you find the instantaneous speed of the car at the bottom of the inclined plane? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 3C3TN

SPEEDING UP

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Instantaneous speed and velocity describe Using numbers the motion at a specific instant. Inferring

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 40 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know how to calculate average speed.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Identify a steepness for the incline which gives good results.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Anything that will accelerate uniformly can be used instead of toys (marble, can). Show participants how to set up their inclined plane. Urge participants to avoid steep inclines. Longer times give better results. However, very shallow inclines allow friction to affect results.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 7. No.

8. The average speed is greatest between markers B and C.

9. At the bottom of the inclined plane.

10. Yes

11. At the bottom of the inclined plane.

13. Yes. Yes.

14. Find the average speed between two marks which are very close together and very near the bottom of the inclined plane.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Instantaneous values of speed allow a more precise description of motion at a given point when the speed is changing.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Use a sonic ranger to get more-nearly instantaneous values of the whole motion.

FORCES & MOTION 4WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE - ACCELERATION

This section focuses on the description of objects with changing velocities. When not only how much the velocity changes but also how much time elapses during that change is known the rate of change of velocity. This is the acceleration. An understanding of acceleration is necessary to have to is possible to a complete understanding of much of the material in the second part of this book, FORCES.

Part A takes the simplest case: an object moving in a straight line with a changing speed. It is shown that an object is accelerating whether it is speeding up or slowing down. The acceleration of an object speeding up is called positive; the acceleration of an object slowing down is called negative. (Although an object speeding up can properly be considered negative - and vice versa - that issue is felt to be beyond the necessary scope of the intended audience.) The last activity in part A has the students use an accelerometer as a tool to help them classify motions as accelerated and non-accelerated. These classifications prepare students for understanding Newton’s laws in FORCES.

In part B it is shown that an object may be accelerating even if its speed is constant. This is introduced in an activity involving circular motion. Students use an accelerometer to see that the acceleration vector is directed toward the center of the circle. (This idea is explored further in section 7 in FORCES.) The idea that the acceleration is not always in the same direction as the motion is explored further using an accelerometer as a pendulum bob.

This section concludes with a brief discussion of the units of acceleration. This discussion is intended to show that although we may write the units as “meters per second squared” we cannot calculate the acceleration by dividing a distance by the square of the elapsed time.

======================================================================================

Naive Ideas:

1. Different accelerations can be described by telling which object is “faster”. Activities: 4A1, 4A2D, 4A3
2. Acceleration always means that an object is speeding up. Activities: 4A2D, 4A3, 4B1, 4B2 (See also 7B1, 7B2D and 7B3 in FORCES)
3. Acceleration is always in a straight line. Activities: 4B1
4. Acceleration always occurs in the same direction as an object is moving. Activities: 4A2D, 4A3. 4B1. 4B2 (See also 7B3 in FORCES)
5. If an object has a speed of zero (even instantaneously), it is not accelerating. Activities: 4A3, 4B2

======================================================================================

A AN OBJECT ACCELERATES WHEN IT CHANGES SPEED. ACCELERATION IS A VECTOR WHICH DOES NOT ALWAYS POINT IN THE DIRECTION OF MOTION.

1. Activity: Rolling on an Inclined Plane.

This activity introduces acceleration as a quantity calculated by dividing the change in velocity by the elapsed time. It uses the simple case of a constant acceleration in a straight line.

2. Discussion: Speeding Up and Slowing Down.

This discussion emphasizes that acceleration is not related to an object’s speed. The idea of a negative acceleration is pursued.

3. Activity: Classifying Motion.

This activity introduces the accelerometer as a tool. Participants use the accelerometer to classify motion and accelerated and non-accelerated, a necessary distinction for learning about Newton’s laws.
FORCES & MOTION 4WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE - ACCELERATION - 2

B. BECAUSE ACCELERATION IS A VECTOR, AN OBJECT WHICH CHANGES DIRECTION IS ACCELERATING EVEN IF IT IS NOT CHANGING SPEED,

1. Activity: Acceleration in Circular Motion.

Using an accelerometer, participants see that an object moving in a circle has an acceleration that is directed toward the center of the circle. They see that the acceleration is greater farther from the center.

2. Activity: Acceleration When Speed and Direction Change.

An accelerometer undergoing simple harmonic motion reinforces that the acceleration vector is not necessarily in the same direction as the motion. It provides proof that an object may be accelerating even if it is at rest at some instant during its motion.

C. THE UNITS OF ACCERATION SHOW THAT IT IS CALCULATED BY DIVIDING THE CHANGE IN VELOCITY BY THE CHANGE IN TIME.

1. Focus on Physics: Acceleration Units and Their Meaning.

In this discussion the instructor leads the participants to understand that the units m/s2 should be read as “meters per second per second” to reflect the definition of acceleration as change in velocity divided by the elapsed time.

FORCES & MOTION 4A1

ROLLING ON AN INCLINED PLANE

Materials: Inclined plane Free-wheeling toy car Masking tape or chalk or movable place-markers meter stick stop watch

1. Adjust the inclined plane so it takes the car at least 4 seconds to reach the bottom.

2. A timekeeper will call out seconds. Release the car at the top of the incline at one of the seconds.

3. Every time the timekeeper calls out another second, mark the incline to show where the car was at that second.

4. Record the position of the cart at the beginning and at the end of each second of travel in Row C

5. Measure the distance between the marks to find out how far the ball rolled during each second. Record your measurements in Row E.

6. Calculate the average speed for each of the time intervals. Use the average distance from above. (The elapsed time is always one second.) Record the information in Row F.

7. What is the relationship between the average speed for each interval? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
Data Table

A. Location A B C D E B. Time (sec) 0 1 2 3 4 C. Position (m) _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ D. Interval Identity A-B B-C C-D D-E E. Interval distance (m) ________ ________ ________ ________ F. Average Speed (cm/s) ________ ________ ________ ________ G. Change in speed (cm/s) ________ _______ _______ H. Acceleration (cm/s2) ________ _______ _______

8. What happened to the average speed of the car as it rolled down the incline? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
9. Record the change in speed between one second and the next and record it in Row G.

10. Did the average speed change by about the same amount with every passing second? Give the value. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4A1

ROLLING ON AN INCLINED PLANE - 2

11. Your answer to number 10 is called the rate of change of velocity. It is the change in velocity divided by the elapsed time. Its units are the units of velocity divided by the unit of time (usually meters per second divided by seconds or in this case centimeters per second divided by seconds; we would say “centimeters per second per second”). The rate of change of velocity is called the acceleration. Record the acceleration for each interval change in Row H.

13. When you set up the inclined plane, what do you think the acceleration of the car would have been if the end of the incline had been lifted twice as high? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________
14. Repeat the experiment using twice the height for the elevated end of the incline. (It probably won’t be possible to get data for as many seconds this time. Even if it takes only two seconds for the car to roll down the incline, you will have enough data to check your predictions.)

Data Table

A. Location A B C D E B. Time (sec) 0 1 2 3 4 C. Position (m) _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ D. Interval Identity A-B B-C C-D D-E E. Interval distance (m) ________ ________ ________ ________ F. Average Speed (cm/s) ________ ________ ________ ________ G. Change in speed. (cm/s) ________ _______ _______ H. Acceleration (cm/s2) ________ _______ _______

15. Discuss how well your new data matched your predictions. Include comments about the efforts of some other teams. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

17. For your first set of data, if the car could continue accelerating on the same incline for 10 seconds, what would you predict for its average velocity during the tenth second? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

18. The acceleration of gravity on Earth is 9.8 meters per second per second. If a rock is dropped from a sufficient height, how fast will it be going after:

One second? ____________ Two seconds? _____________ Three seconds? _______________
FORCES & MOTION 4A1TN

ROLLING ON AN INCLINED PLANE - 2

ROLLING ON AN INCLINED PLANE

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
An object accelerates when it changes speed. Measuring
Acceleration is a vector which does not always Using numbers point in the direction of motion. Interpreting

LEVEL: U DURATION: 40 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know how to calculate average velocity.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Find inclined planes and the amount of inclination that will allow for times at least 3 seconds long. Strive for 5 seconds.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Free-wheeling cars like Hot Wheels® work well, but marbles, cans, or anything that will have a uniform acceleration are useful. A stop watch is not necessary. Any clock showing seconds, even if only by a blinking colon, works well. Consider having participants use a pendulum. It is best to make a separate run for each second; that is, the participant marks the first second during the first run, then the car is released again and the point for the second second is marked, etcetera. If time is short, consider skipping the second set of trials (questions 15 and 16).

SOME QUESTIONS: 6. It increased. 7-10. These answers should be the same. 11. Yes. Values will vary. 12. Same answer as for number 11, but with units. 13. Twice as much as answer to 12. 14. Each is twice as large as corresponding values in question 5. 16. Results should compare favorably. 17. The answer is NOT ten times the average velocity during the first second. Neither is it twice the average velocity during the fifth second, nor is it easy to generalize. Urge participants to continue the progression in question 5. 18. 9.8 m/s, 19.6 m/s, 29.4 m/s. This is much more straight forward than number 17 because we are dealing with final velocities. Participants might be receptive to a discussion of how to get the final velocities if the averages are known (vf = 2 Vavg). If the initial velocity is zero and if taken from time = zero.)

FORCES & MOTION 4A2D

SPEEDING UP AND SLOWING DOWN
(Discussion)

MATERIALS: None

1. It is a common error to confuse the speed of an object with its acceleration; many people say that something with a large acceleration (like a car that can go from zero to 60 miles per hour in 4 seconds) is “fast”. Of course, such a car may be able to go very fast indeed, but not necessarily. Conversely, some things can go very fast but have a small acceleration.

2. List two or three things that may have a large acceleration but do not usually have large speeds. (You will need to decide just what ‘large speed’ means.) Discuss your decision and your list with the class. ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. List two or three things that reach large speeds, but don’t necessarily have large accelerations. (Your benchmark for ‘large speed’ need not be the same as for number 2.) Discuss your decision and your list with the class. ______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Rank the following in terms of their acceleration, with the smallest acceleration as 1.

____ a. Arrow being shot from a bow.

____ b. Throwing a baseball.

____ c. Falling rock.

____ d. Driven golf ball.

____ e. Space shuttle taking off.

____ f. Family car starting off.

____ g. Dragster starting off.

____ h. ‘Putting’ a shot.

5. Which of the examples above probably has the greatest maximum speed?

6. Do you think it also has the greatest acceleration?

7. Remember that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. In each of these pairs, circle the example with the greatest acceleration.

A baseball being thrown or The thrown baseball being caught

A rock falling or A falling rock hitting the ground

A track runner starting off or The track runner stopping at the end of the race

A car stopping for a red light or A car hitting a big tree from 40 miles per hour at 40 miles per hour

8. Suppose the baseball above is thrown at 90 miles per hour. It might take a pitcher 0.5 second to accelerate the ball. Calculate the acceleration of the ball. What will be the units of your answer?

9. Suppose the pitched baseball is still moving 90 miles per hour when it hits the catcher’s glove. It might take the ball 0.1 second to stop. Calculate the acceleration of the ball.

FORCES & MOTION 4A2DTN

SPEEDING UP AND SLOWING DOWN
(Discussion)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The acceleration of an object is not related to Classifying its speed. Slowing down is a negative acceleration. Using numbers

LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know the definition of acceleration.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Give participants time to work on one question at a time, then compare and discuss answers with the class. In questions 2 - 4, the ‘answers’ are immaterial. The questions are intended to give participants a chance to wrestle with the naive idea that speed and acceleration are related. Discourage use of ‘deceleration’, use ‘negative acceleration’ for objects slowing down.

SOME QUESTIONS: 5. The space shuttle. 6. No. 7. Being caught. Hitting the ground. Starting off. Hitting a tree. 8. 190 miles per hour per second 9. - 900 miles per hour per second (Acceleration has a negative value because the ball is slowing down.)

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The average acceleration of an object is its change in velocity divided by the elapsed time.

The acceleration of an object and its maximum speed are not related.

The change in velocity is Final velocity - Initial velocity. If the change in velocity is negative, the acceleration is negative. A negative acceleration may be larger than a positive acceleration.

FORCES & MOTION 4A3

CLASSIFYING MOTION

Materials: 1 liquid accelerometer. 1 cart, roller skate or skate board 1 inclined plane. 1 lump of clay string or tape

Physicists classify motion into two types, accelerated and not accelerated. In this activity you will use an accelerometer to tell whether a certain motion is an accelerated motion or not. An accelerometer is a device which tells whether an object is accelerating, by how much and in which direction.

Remember that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, and that velocity requires both magnitude and direction to be fully described.

1. Here is a list of five motions which can be described simply. After each one, write accelerated motion or not accelerated motion.

A. Not moving: ____________________

B. Speeding Up: ____________________

C. Moving at constant speed in a straight line: ____________________

D. Slowing Down: ____________________

E. Changing Direction: ____________________

Mount the accelerometer on the cart with clay, tape or string.

For each of the situations below, (1) decide which of the above descriptions fits best and label the diagram with the appropriate capital letter from the list above; (2) do the activity and (3) add to the diagram to show how the top of the liquid appears. (If you place a rubber band around the accelerometer at the liquid level it will be easier to observe the changes in the surface of the liquid in the accelerometer.)

2. The cart sits at rest on a horizontal surface.

3. Give the cart a long slow push, but enough to cause a change in the level of the liquid. Describe the behavior of the liquid during the time you are pushing on the cart. (Motion to the right.)

FORCES & MOTION 4A3

CLASSIFYING MOTION - 2

4. Move the cart t a constant speed Motion to the right

5. With the cart moving, slow it down rapidly enough to cause a change in the level of the liquid. (Motion to the right.)

6. For numbers 3, 4 and 5 above, repeat the motions but be more aggressive (use larger accelerations and speeds). Describe, for each case, how the level of the liquid is different this time.

For number 3: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ For number 4: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ For number 5: _____________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Describe, in general, how the accelerometer displays the amount of acceleration. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Describe, in general, how the accelerometer displays the direction of the acceleration. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4A3

CLASSIFYING MOTION - 3

Set up the inclined plane so it makes an angle of 20 to 30 degrees with the horizontal. With the cart held at rest on the incline, use clay to adjust the accelerometer on the cart so the top of the liquid is parallel to the top of the accelerometer.

Give the cart a push so it will coast from near the bottom of the incline to near the top. Watch the behavior of the liquid closely during the motion as the cart coasts up and down the inclined plane. For each of the situations below (1) decide which of the descriptions in the list in question 1 above fits best and label the diagram with the appropriate capital letter, (2) do the activity and (3) add to the diagram to show how the top of the liquid appears.

9. The cart is coasting up the inclined plane. (Motion to the left.)

10. The cart is momentarily stopped at the top of the incline.

11. The cart is coasting down the inclined plane. (Motion to the right.)

12. How does the amount and direction of the acceleration change as the cart coasts on the inclined plane? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4A3

CLASSIFYING MOTION - 4

13. What does this tell you about the acceleration of the cart when it is momentarily stopped at the top of its motion? _____________________________________________________________________________________________

14. When the top of the liquid is lower on the right we say the accelerometer is ‘pointing’ to the right. This means the direction of the acceleration is toward the right. When will an accelerometer indicate acceleration toward the right? (Circle those that do.)

The acceleration is to the right when it is:

a. Moving toward the right and speeding up. d. Moving toward the left and speeding up. b. Moving toward the right and slowing down. e. Moving toward the left and slowing down. c. Moving toward the right at constant speed. f. Moving toward the left at constant speed.

g. Momentarily at rest as it changes its direction near the top of an inclined plane which has the, high end on the left.

15. When an object is moving to the right, when will the acceleration be zero? _____________________________________________________________________________________________
16. When an object is moving to the right, when will the acceleration be to the right? _____________________________________________________________________________________________
17. When an object is moving to the right, when will the acceleration be to the left? (There are two answers.) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4A3TN

CLASSIFYING MOTION

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The direction of the acceleration of an object is not Classifying always in the direction of the motion. Inferring Interpreting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know the definition of acceleration.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Instructions for building liquid accelerometers can be found in the appendix.

Determine how to best get the necessary angle for the incline.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: This activity could be done as a demonstration.

To achieve constant acceleration, a string from the cart to a falling weight could be used.

The accelerometer can be fastened to the cart with clay, string, tape or rubber bands.

A wedge-shaped block could be used instead of clay to level the accelerometer when using the inclined plane.

Instead of using the inclined plane, the accelerometer can be suspended from pulleys which run along a sloping rope or wire.

SOME QUESTIONS: 1 A and C are not accelerating. 2. Type A, liquid is lower on the right. 3. Type B, liquid is lower on the right. 4. Type C, liquid is level. 5. Type D, liquid is lower on the left. 6. For # 3 and # 5: liquid level is farther from horizontal; For # 4: no difference. 7. The greater the acceleration, the more the liquid ‘tips’. 8. The lower side of the liquid is the direction of the acceleration. 9. Type D, liquid is lower on the right. 10. Type E, liquid is lower on the right. 11. Type B, liquid is lower on the right. 12. There is no change. 13. The acceleration is not zero! 14. a, e and g should be circled. 15. When the speed is constant. 16. When it is speeding up. 17. When it is slowing down AND if it is momentarily stopped while changing directions.

FORCES & MOTION 4A3TN

CLASSIFYING MOTION 2

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The direction of the acceleration is not always in the same direction as the motion. The accelerometer shows the direction of the acceleration.

The acceleration is not zero when an object is momentarily stopped as it changes direction. This will be problematic for many. Emphasize that the accelerometer is a tool trusted by physicists and that in later activities (in FORCES) this interpretation will be seen to make more sense.

The accelerometer is a trustworthy tool.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Demonstrate other types of accelerometers. (Pendulum, mass between two springs in horizontal tube, cork on string submerged in water, helium-filled balloon.)

Use falling weights suspended over the back side of the inclined plane to achieve constant accelerations.

Use large, relatively weak rubber bands to replace the inclined plane.

FORCES & MOTION 4B1

ACCELERATION IN CIRCULAR MOTION

Materials: liquid accelerometer. (1) string

1. Hold the liquid accelerometer in your hand. Hold it so it is perpendicular to your outstretched arm. Rotate your body so the accelerometer moves in a circle at a constant speed Draw the accelerometer showing the level of the liquid.

2. Repeat number 1, but hold the accelerometer so it is parallel to your outstretched arm. Rotate your body so the accelerometer moves in a circle at a constant speed. A team mate will have to watch to see what happens to the liquid. Draw the accelerometer showing the level of the liquid.

3. Repeat number 2 with the accelerometer held closer to your body. Rotate your body at the same rate as before. Draw two accelerometers, one close to your body and one farther from your body to show how the level of the liquid is different.

4. When an object moves in a circle at a constant speed, is it accelerating? In which direction? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. When an object moves in a circle at a constant speed, does the amount of acceleration depend on how far from the center it is measured? Describe the relationship. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4B1

ACCELERATION IN CIRCULAR MOTION 2

6. Suppose the accelerometer could be secured to the top of your head. If you rotated your body as before, what would the liquid in the accelerometer look like? Make a drawing to show your prediction.

7. You can check your prediction by hanging the accelerometer from two strings to make a pendulum. Hold the ends of the string so they come together in one hand. Twist the accelerometer several times to ‘wind up’ the strings. Release the accelerometer. Make a drawing to show the results.

8. How does the result of number 7 support your answer to number 5? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Draw a large accelerometer (spanning the width of this sheet of paper) with the curved liquid surface you saw in number 7. Suppose the acceleration at the outside edge of the accelerometer is 5 meters per second per second. Label the diagram with the numbers 0 through 5 to show the acceleration at various places along the entire width of the accelerometer.

FORCES & MOTION 4B1TN

ACCELERATION IN CIRCULAR MOTION

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
This activity introduces the idea that an object Inferring moving in a circle has an acceleration (toward the Predicting center of the circle). It reinforces the idea that the Interpreting direction of the acceleration of an object is not always in the direction of motion.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have done “Classifying Motion” (activity 4A3

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Instructions for building liquid accelerometers are in the appendix.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: This activity can be done as a demonstration. A phonograph turntable or other mechanical device makes number 7 easier to study.

SOME QUESTIONS: 1. The liquid is level. 2. The low end of the liquid is toward the center of the rotation. 3. The one closer to the body is not tipped as steeply. 4. Yes. Toward the center of the circle. 5. Yes. The acceleration is greater farther out. 6. The surface of the liquid is curved with the lowest point in the center. 8. The surface is curved to reflect that the liquid surface is steeper farther away from the axis of rotation. 9. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: An object moving in a circle at a constant speed is accelerating. The acceleration is greater farther from the center

The direction of the acceleration is not always in the same direction as the motion. The accelerometer shows the direction of the acceleration without bias.

The accelerometer is a trustworthy tool.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Hold an accelerometer in a car turning a comer. (A helium-filled balloon can serve as an accelerometer large enough for spectators to see from a safe distance.)

Introduce the accelerometers high school physics students use at amusement parks. Take participants to a nearby amusement park for a day to take data.

FORCES & MOTION 4B2

ACCELERATION WHEN SPEED AND DIRECTION CHANGE

Materials: 1 liquid accelerometer. string cart 2 springs 2 clamps clay or tape

As a pendulum swings it continually changes speed. At each end of its path it stops and changes direction. You used an accelerometer to study the similar motion of a cart coasting on an inclined plane and changing its direction near the top of the plane.

You will make a pendulum out of an accelerometer. If you suspend it from the two upper comers with two parallel strings the accelerometer will stay level. This makes it easy to see what happens to the liquid as it swings.

1. The diagrams below show ten different positions for the accelerometer-pendulum. Predict how the liquid will look for each case. (Draw the top of the liquid.)

2. Now actually swing your accelerometer pendulum and compare how the liquid looks with your prediction. Make any necessary changes on the diagrams above.

FORCES & MOTION 4B2

ACCELERATION WHEN SPEED AND DIRECTION CHANGE 2

Secure the accelerometer to a cart with clay, tape or string. As shown below, connect two springs to the cart. Clamp the other ends of the springs to the table. When the cart is moved to one side and released it will oscillate back and forth.

3. The diagram below shows ten different positions for the accelerometer on the cart. Show how the liquid looks for each case. (Draw the top of the liquid.)

4. Are the accelerations of trhe cart in this situation similar to the accelerations of a pendulum? How _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. When is the acceleration greatest? What is the pendulum doing at that moment? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. When is the acceleration smallest? (it should appear to be zero.) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

7. When is the acceleration toward the left? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 4B2TN

ACCELERATION WHEN SPEED AND DIRECTION CHANGE

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The direction of the acceleration of an object is not Inferring always in the direction of the motion. Predicting Interpreting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have done “Classifying Motion” (4A3)
ADVANCE PREPARATION: Instructions for building liquid accelerometers are in the appendix.

Identify springs or large rubber bands that will give appropriate accelerations for question 3.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: This activity can be done as a demonstration. The strings supporting the accelerometer to make a pendulum must be parallel all the way to the upper end. Hold one string in each hand. Use paper clips to connect the accelerometer to the strings. The accelerometer can be fastened to the cart with clay, string, tape or rubber bands.
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. The low side of the liquid is always toward the center. The level of the liquid is steepest at the ends of the motion, decreases as the pendulum nears the center of the motion and is horizontal in the middle of the motion. The liquid’s response is the same regardless of the direction of motion. 3. Same as for number 1. 4. Yes. 5. At the ends of the motion; the pendulum is stopped but is changing direction. 6. In the center of the motion; the pendulum has its greatest speed. 7. When the pendulum is speeding up as it moves toward the left AND when the pendulum is slowing down as it moves toward the right.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The direction of the acceleration is not always in the same direction as the motion, The accelerometer shows the direction of the acceleration without bias.

The acceleration is not zero when an object is momentarily stopped as it changes direction. This will be problematic for many. Emphasize that the accelerometer is a tool trusted by physicists and that in later activities (in FORCES) this interpretation will be seen to make more sense.

The accelerometer is a trustworthy tool.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Hold an accelerometer while swinging on a playground swing or while riding on other playground equipment.

Take participants to a nearby amusement park for a day to take data.
FORCES & MOTION 4C1F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
ACCELERATION UNITS AND THEIR MEANING
(Discussion)

This Focus On Physics is meant for teachers. For students, it is sufficient to simply describe acceleration in terms of speeding up, slowing down or changing direction.

The units for acceleration are given as distance units divided by time units squared (e.g., feet/second2, meters/second2, et cetera). ‘This is confusing because physicists pronounce this as meters per second squared and participants have difficulty with a “second squared”.

Remind participants that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity (or speed), so it must have velocity units divided by time units. If a car speeds up from 30 miles per hour to 35 miles per hour, the change in speed is 5 miles per hour. If it takes the car 1 second to accomplish this, the acceleration is 5 miles per hour per second, often written as 5 miles/hour/second .

Using the acceleration of 5.0 miles/hour/second as an example, this is equal to an acceleration of about 2.5 meters/second/second.

Show that 2.5 meters/second/second can be written as 2.5 meters/second x 1/second, or 2.5 meters/(second x second) which can be written as 2.5 meters/second2.

It is important that the participants understand that although acceleration units are written this way, they are often pronounced 2.5 meters per second, per second. This means that as each second goes by, the velocity increases 2.5 meters/second over the previous second.

FORCES & MOTION 5WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
MOTION WHEN THERE IS NO NET FORCE (INERTIA)

One of the most tenacious misconceptions about physics is that if an object is moving there must be a (net) force acting on it to push it along. It is also a common experience to have felt “pushed” forward while riding in a car that is slowing rapidly and to have felt “pushed” backward when the car speeds up. This common experience confuses participant’s notions about forces and the direction in which they act.

This section investigates the behavior of objects moving in a straight line when no (net) force acts along the line of motion, neither in the same direction as the motion nor in the opposite direction to the motion. This section does not emphasize the fact that other balanced, forces may be acting. (See section VI.)

In part A, objects are at rest and some classic demonstrations of inertia are seen. All three of Newton’s laws are introduced in the Focus on Physics.

In part B, objects are in motion and it is shown that no propelling forces exist. The Focus on Physics elaborates on Newton’s first law.
======================================================================================
Naive Ideas:

1. If an object is at rest, no forces are acting on the object. Activities: 5A1F, 5B2F. (See also 6A1, 6B1, 6B2)

2. An object at rest is held in place by a force (inertia). Activities: 5A1F, 5A2, 5B1, 5B2F

3. If an object is moving, a net force is acting on it. Activities: 5A1F, 5B1, 5B2F, 5B3. (See also 5A1, 8C1D)

4. Force is a property of an object. An object has force, and when it runs out of force it stops moving. Activities: 5A1F, 5A2, 5B1, 5B2F, 5B3. (See also 6A1, 8C1D)
======================================================================================
A. OBJECTS AT REST REMAIN AT REST WHEN NO NET FORCE ACTS ON THEM (INERTIA).

1. Focus on Physics: Motion and Force

This discussion introduces the understanding of motion as held by Aristotle, Galileo and Newton. Newtons three laws are introduced.

2. Activity: The Coin and the Glass

In this activity participants perform some demonstrations of inertia. They answer questions which lead them to conclude that the behaviors observed are not the result of forces acting.

B. OBJECTS IN MOTION WILL NOT CHANGE VELOCITY WHEN NO FORCES ACT,

1. Activity: Inertia

Participants perform demonstrations of inertia with the object initially moving. They are led to conclude that the behaviors observed are not the result of forces acting.

2. Focus on Physics: Inertia-Newton’s First Law of Motion

This discussion introduces the terminology of balanced and unbalanced forces. It also deals with some common expressions that participants may need to avoid because they imply ideas contrary to Newton’s first law.

3. Activity: Riding on Air

In this activity participants experience nearly-frictionless motion while riding on a huge air puck, putting “feeling” into Newton’s first law.

FORCES & MOTION 5A1F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
MOTION AND FORCE

One of the most intuitively obvious, but wrong, beliefs is that if you want an object to move, you must push or pull it along. Confirming observations are all around us: a vase in a museum showcase sits for years without moving, but when you give any object a push across a table it soon stops. Even a rolling ball on a level surface will eventually come to rest. Aristotle incorporated these observations into his world view and it stood unchallenged for almost 2000 years.

To Aristotle, all motion required explanation unless it was “natural”. In his view, things made out of ‘earth’ naturally wanted to return to the earth and so things fell. Things that were ‘holy’ naturally rose toward heaven (like smoke). No motion at all was obviously preferred by nature and required no further explanation. These three motions were considered “natural”.

Every other motion required an action and was considered unnatural. Think of how hard it is to move a large rock. Moving a mountain is clearly impossible. So how can the whole Earth be moving around the sun? Just think of how large a force must be necessary to keep it moving, Aristotle taught. It was ludicrous to think such a large force was possible, so the Earth must be at the center of the universe. And if you throw a ball upward, since it keeps moving after you release it, you must have “given” it some force which keeps pushing on it until, eventually, the ball “runs out of force” and gravity pulls it back downward.

This understanding of motion seems to be hard-wired in human brains and physics teachers must struggle valiantly to rid students of their Aristotelian thinking.

It was Galileo’s genius to figure out motion as we understand it today. He observed that if a ball is rolled down an inclined plane connected to a second mirror-image inclined plane, the ball rises to nearly its initial height on the second incline. Galileo reasoned that if friction could be eliminated the ball would rise to exactly the initial height on the second incline. Next Galileo considered the effect of making the second incline less steep. Galileo believed that the ball would still rise to its original height but would travel farther horizontally. The limit of these examples would occur if the second incline were horizontal. The ball would have to travel forever on the horizontal “incline” while seeking the original height. This reasoning led Galileo to suggest that horizontal motion at constant speed is a second type of natural motion (in addition to being at rest). Once in motion an object continues to move without a continuing force. The force of friction stops or impedes motion.

It was Isaac Newton, born in 1642, the year Galileo died, who formulated a coherent set of statements that incorporated motion and force. These statements have been so successful at explaining and predicting motion that they are now called laws. We know this set of statements as Newton’s three laws of motion. This is what they say:

I An object at rest will remain at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. An object in motion will not speed up, slow down or change its direction of motion unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. (Simply put: An object will not accelerate unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.)

II The acceleration of an object is proportional to the sum of all of the forces which act upon it.

The acceleration is also inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

III Whenever one object acts upon another, the second objects acts upon the first with a force that is equal and in the opposite direction to the first force.

Earlier sections of this book emphasize that we use two classifications of motion: accelerated motion and non-accelerated motion. The next sections show that non-accelerated motion does not require a cause or an explanation (this is ‘natural’ motion) but that accelerated motion does require a cause. The cause of acceleration is always a net force (sometimes called an unbalanced force). A net force results when the sum of all of the forces that act on an object does not equal zero.

FORCES & MOTION 5A2 THE COIN AND THE GLASS

Materials: 1 paper card 1 coin 1 cup, drinking glass, beaker, etc. 1 rubber eraser

Procedure:

1. Cover the cup with the paper card. Place the coin on top of the card as shown in the diagram above. What will happen to the coin if the card is pulled slowly in a horizontal direction? Write down your prediction. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Pull the card slowly to see if your prediction is correct. Why did the coin change velocity (from being at rest to having the small speed you saw)? What force caused it to accelerate? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Replace the card and coin on top of the glass. Predict what will happen to the coin if the card is flicked quickly in a horizontal direction with your finger. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Flick the card with your forefinger in a horizontal direction. Why doesn’t the coin move away with the card? Does something hold the coin back? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Place the rubber eraser on the card and flick the card again. Why doesn’t the eraser behave like the coin? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Imagine sitting in a powerful sports car which is at rest. The driver suddenly floors the accelerator. Describe what you would feel. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. What force, if any, pushes your body forward? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. What force, if any, pushes your body backward? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Imagine you are standing in the aisle of a bus which is stopped. You are not holding on when the bus begins to move. Describe what happens. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
10. What force, if any, pushes your body forward? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
11. What force, if any, pushes your body toward the back of the bus? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
12. Discuss how the examples in questions 6 and 9 are like flicking a card out from beneath a coin or eraser. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 5A2TN

THE COIN AND THE GLASS

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
An object at rest remains at rest unless a force Inferring acts to accelerate it. Inertia is not a force. Nothing Predicting acts to hold an object at rest. Interpreting data

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have discussed 5A1F. They should know what acceleration is.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Find rubber erasers that are tacky enough to feel a noticeable force of friction from the flicked card.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Have enough cups or glasses for pairs of students. Warn them not to get too rough.

Consider stopping the class to discuss the first four questions before letting them continue on. This might be a good time to discuss the term inertia.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. The coin moves along with the card. It was accelerated by the force of friction. 4. The force of friction is too small to give the coin an acceleration as large as that of the card. The coin is not held back. 7. Somehow the seat pushes you forward. 8. No force pushes you back. 10. Friction pushes your feet forward. Your upper body stays at rest. As your feet move out from beneath your center of gravity, you fall. 11. No force pushes you backward.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: An object at rest remains at rest unless a net force acts.

Inertia is not a force. It is a one-word statement of the first law.

Your finger exerted a horizontal force on the card. The card in turn exerted a horizontal force on the coin but for such a short time that the coin appeared not to move (in fact with a sudden flick of the card only an infinitesimal displacement occurs). The coin is said to have inertia the tendency to remain stationary if at rest. It did fall when the card slipped away because it was in effect a freely-falling body once the card was removed.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Pulling a table cloth out from under set of dishes is a favorite.

FORCES & MOTION 5B1

INERTIA

Materials: 1 paper card 1 coin 1 rubber eraser 1 accelerometer

1. Place a coin on a paper card. Slowly accelerate the card and then stop it suddenly. Describe what happens. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. After the card stopped, what force, if any, pushed the coin forward? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. After the card stopped, what force, if any, pushed backward on the coin? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. When you are riding in a car and the car comes to a sudden stop, describe what you feel. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What force, if any, pushes you forward while the car is stopping? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. What force, if any, pushes backward on you, causing you to stop? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. In number 4, in which direction is the acceleration of your body? Use an accelerometer and mimic the motion. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Write a statement that relates the direction of the acceleration of an object, like your body, to the direction of the force that acts on the object. Base your statement on number 4 above. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Read the paragraph below before going on.

Inertia is the word that physicists use to describe the fact that objects will remain at rest or in motion with constant velocity unless acted on by some external influence (by a net force). Inertia is a characteristic of the object itself. Inertia is not a force.

9. Could the answer to number 2 above be: “Inertia pushed the coin forward”? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
10. When you throw a ball, what keeps it moving after it leaves your hand? (Answer with a sentence or two.) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 5B1TN

INERTIA

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

Inertia is a characteristic of all objects. Inertia Inferring is not a force; it is a measure of the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with constant velocity. The acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have done activity 5A2. They should have used an accelerometer to find the direction of acceleration.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Substitute a dynamics cart or other cart for the paper card; use a wood block or plastic bottle that will topple when the cart stops suddenly. This could be a demonstration.

Most participants will find this difficult. Consider making this a discussion.

Participants might act out the various situations described. Encourage them to use the accelerometer.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. None. 3. Friction. 5. None. 6. Friction or a seat belt. 7. Backwards (in the opposite direction from the motion). 8. When the car stops, the body’s acceleration is backwards because the net force on the body is backwards. 9. No. 10. Nothing keeps it moving. It is put in motion by the hand and all objects in motion remain in motion until a net force stops them.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Inertia is an intrinsic characteristic of all matter. This characteristic is exhibited by the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion at constant velocity.

Inertia is not a force.

The direction of the acceleration of an object is the same as the direction of the net force causing the acceleration.

FORCES & MOTION 5B2F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
INERTIA - NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION
(Discussion)

Inertia is the word that physicists use to describe the fact that an object “tries” to keep whatever velocity it has at the moment.

If an object is not moving, it tries to stay that way. For example, if you put a marble on a level table, it stays where you put it. Nothing is acting to keep it at rest; it is a property of matter to behave this way. This property of matter is called inertia.

If an object is moving, it tries to keep moving in the same direction in a straight line without changing speed. For example, if you give a marble a push with your hand, it keeps on rolling even after you stop pushing it. It rolls in a straight line. Nothing is acting to keep it moving or to guide it in a straight line; it is a property of matter to behave this way. This property of matter is called inertia.

Inertia is a property of objects. Inertia is not a force. Inertia is the tendency of objects to keep the velocity they have, i.e. to not accelerate.

But objects do accelerate sometimes. When an object accelerates at least one force must be acting on the object. If more than one force acts on an object, it will only accelerate if the sum of the forces acting is not zero. We then say that the forces acting are not balanced or that “an unbalanced force” is acting. We sometimes call an unbalanced force a “net” force. When an unbalanced force acts on an object it will change velocity.

If you hold an object at rest in your hand, two forces are acting on the object: gravity is pulling down on it and your hand is pulling up on it. The forces are in opposite directions and they must be of equal strength. The two forces add to zero so we say they are in balance or that “a balanced force” is acting. When a balanced force acts on an object it will not change velocity.

You may be tempted to say that when you accelerate an object you have “overcome” its inertia but, since inertia is a property of the object and is not a force acting on the object, you cannot overcome or cancel its effect. The smallest unbalanced force you can imagine will give an object acceleration, but the value of the acceleration might be very small. Perhaps it feels like you have to overcome something when you get something started moving. This is probably because of the effect of friction. So you do have to overcome friction, but the inertia of an object cannot be affected.

Newton’s first law declares: An object will not accelerate unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.

FORCES & MOTION 5B3

RIDING ON AIR

Materials: Human-sized air puck (“Hovercraft”) (See pages 191-197 for plans, discussion, etc.) tank-type vacuum cleaner long (50 ft. or 100 ft.) extension cord rope (15-20 ft.)

1. Have someone sit at the center of the Hovercraft. Have the rider hold a tank-vacuum cleaner with the hose disconnected from the “intake” and connected to the “blower” (exhaust) end. The rider should hold one end of the rope. A partner pulls on the rope to start and stop the motion. Turn on the blower.

2. Pull horizontally for a short time on the air puck. Describe the motion of the puck. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Pull just as hard but for a longer time. Describe the motion. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

4. When you stop pulling what happens to the air puck? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. After you stop pushing, are any forces acting on the air puck? What keeps it moving? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. What kind of force could cause the air puck to slow down? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 5B3TN

RIDING ON AIR

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Inertia is a characteristic of all objects. Inertia Predicting is not a force; it is a measure of the tendency of an Inferring object to remain at rest or in motion with constant velocity. But perhaps the main idea here is to have fun!

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have done activities 5A2 and 5B1.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Build the human-sized air puck. Instructions can be found in Appendix 2 and 3 with Appendix 4 containing an article from the November, 1989 issue of The Physics Teach , page 615.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: The questions can be answered by observing a marble rolling on a level surface or by using the balloon air puck or the film-can dry ice puck described in the appendix. Ile major advantage of using the human air puck you can ride is that the participants can feel the accelerations. Encourage them to use an accelerometer. Have them discuss the orientation of the accelerometer for motions when the rope is being pulled.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. Small acceleration, slow final velocity, in a straight line. 3. Larger acceleration, faster final velocity. 4. Constant velocity.

5. No force acts to keep it moving. Friction is absent or very small. If the floor is not level, gravity acts to cause the puck to follow a curved path, to speed up, or to slow down. 6. Friction or pulling backward on the rope or gravity if the puck is going up hill.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Inertia is an intrinsic characteristic of all matter. This characteristic is exhibited by the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion at constant velocity.

Inertia is not a force.

The direction of the acceleration of an object is the same as the direction of the net force causing the acceleration.
FORCES & MOTION 6WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
FORCES IN BALANCE

This section adds an important detail that is glossed over in section 5 when an object is at rest or in motion with constant velocity, it is not because there are no forces acting but because the forces that are acting are in balance.

Part A begins by having the participants identify all of the forces acting on objects in various situations, including some which are accelerating. Participants are encouraged to name the forces and make diagrams showing the forces as vectors. Elastic forces are investigated and a classic demonstration of a horizontal scale with two equal weights attached give participants practice thinking about forces in interesting situations.

In part B, participants investigate objects at rest and in motion at constant velocity, finding the effect of balanced forces.

Part C investigates the force of friction. This might be a very important set of lessons since friction is the ‘hidden’ force that lies behind the common misconception that a force is required to sustain motion. It also gives participants a chance to recognize that friction is not always a ‘problem’, but is a very helpful - even a necessary force.

======================================================================================

Naive Ideas
1. If an object is at rest, no forces are acting on the object. Activities: 6A1, 6B1, 6B2

2. Only animate objects can exert a force. Thus, if an object is at rest on a table, no forces are acting on it. Activities: 6A1, 6A2

3. A rigid solid cannot be compressed or stretched. Activities: 6A1

4. Springs and rubber bands have a specific strength (exert a single force). Activities: 6A2 (See also 8B4

5. A scale measures the total (net) force acting on an object. Activities: 6A2 6A3D, 6B1, 6B2, 6C1. (See also 7A2)

6. The faster an object moves, the greater the force that is acting. Activities: 6B1, 6B2

7. The force of friction is a fixed value that depends only on the surfaces in contact. Activities: 6B2, 6C1, 6C5D. (See also 7A2)

8. Friction results only when rough surfaces slide against each other. Activities: 6C2, 6C4F, 6C6D

9. Friction always hinders motion; you always want to eliminate friction. Activities: 6C4F. (See also 8B7F)
======================================================================================

A . WHEN AN OBJECT IS AT REST THE FORCES ACTING ON IT ARE IN BALANCE,

1. Activity: Finding the Forces

Participants learn to identify forces and to make free-body diagrams for objects which are at rest, moving with constant velocity and accelerating.

2. Activity: Elasticity

This activity demonstrates that the stretch of a spring or rubber band is proportional, up to a limit, to the force applied to each end individually. The net force on the spring is zero.

FORCES & MOTION 6WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
FORCES IN BALANCE - 2

3. Demonstration: The Undercover Scale

A classic in which a scale is suspended between horizontal strings which are run over pulleys and have equal weights attached. The scale is hidden and participants predict the reading on the scale.

B WHEN AN OBJECT HAS A CONSTANT VELOCITY THE FORCES ACTING ON IT ARE IN BALANCE,

1. Activity: Balanced Vertical Forces Participants use a scale to find the upward force on an object at rest and moving upward at different speeds. They are led to conclude that the net force is zero in each case.

2. Activity: Balanced Horizontal Forces Participants use a scale to find the horizontal force on an object sliding horizontally at different speeds. They are led to conclude that the net force is zero in each case.

C THE FORCE OF FRICTION IS NOT A FIXED FORCE, IT BOTH HINDERS AND HELPS MOTION,

1. Activity: How Strong is Friction Participants use a scale to find that the force of friction responds to how hard they pull, varying from zero to some maximum. The maximum force of friction is reached when the object begins to slide. They also find that the force of friction increases with the weight of the sliding object.

2. Activity: What Happens to the Speed of the Marble? In this activity a rolling marble illustrates the different frictional effects of different surfaces.

3. Activity: How Can You Reduce Frictional Force? This activity introduces the idea that lubricants reduce friction by reducing the roughness of the surfaces.

4. Discussion/Demonstration: What is Frictional Force? This discussion explains friction on the atomic level.

5. Discussion/Demonstration: Why Do You Oil Machines? This discussion explains that lubricants work by providing a new surface which prevents the original surfaces from coming in contact with each other.

6. Discussion/Demonstration: Why Use Wheels? This discussion explains why using wheels results in less friction than sliding.

FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES

Materials: 1 . set of six arrows 12. graduated cylinder (100 ml) 2. clean paper for drawings 13. marble (to fit graduated cylinder) 3. 500-gram hooked mass 14. glycerine (to fill graduated cylinder) 4. rubber band 15. paper towels or coffee filters 5. wire spring 16. washer 6. platform spring scale 17. scissors 7. strong laboratory table 18. tape 8. sponge or foam rubber 19. string 9. two identical books 20. 3 x 5 card 10. meter stick 21. helium-filled balloon (optional) 11. toy car (powered) or air puck 22. skate board (optional)

Before you begin, obtain or make a set of six paper or cardboard arrows: two short arrows, two medium arrows and two long arrows. These arrows represent what physicists call “vectors.” These arrows can be labeled to represent various types of forces. As you do this activity you are to label your arrows to indicate the names of the forces needed to explain your observations. Use names like gravity, hand, table, etc.

You are to determine all the forces that act on each of the lettered items, and then label and attach the arrows to the item to show the name, the direction, and the relative size of all forces acting on the item. When physicists draw diagrams like this, they are called “free body diagrams.” It is customary to place the arrows with the tail of the arrow at the point where the force is applied to the object or at the center of the object. Physicists call the point at the center of the object the object’s “center of mass.” Placing the arrows on real objects in this way is not always possible, but do the best you can.

Obtain several sheets of paper on which to draw a “free body diagram” for each of the activities below.

How do you recognize the presence of forces acting on a particular object? First, remember that everything that touches an object exerts a force on that object. So the first question to ask yourself is, “What touches this object?” In addition a few forces (gravity, magnetism and static electricity) act even though they do not touch the object. Physicists call these non-touching forces “action at a distance.”

Second, remember that if the object is not accelerating the forces must be balanced (i.e., the net force is zero). If the object is accelerating, then all the forces are not balanced. One way to show an unbalanced situation is to use arrows of different lengths.

If you would like some background on forces and how to locate them, ask the workshop leader to help you.

THE ACTIVITIES

A. Get a 500-gram hooked mass. (We will call it the HM.) Have someone hold it in their outstretched hand. Use the arrows to indicate all the forces acting on the HM. Care must be taken in all of these activities to distinguish between the object that the force acts ON, and the source of the force,

What happens to the HM if you push harder with your hand? Which arrow (i.e., force) is affected by pushing harder?

How was the arrow affected? How should the free-body diagram be changed to show this? What happens to the HM when you push on it harder?

FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 2

What happens if you quickly remove your hand from under the HM? Which arrow (i.e., force) is affected by the removal of your hand? How was the arrow affected? How should the free-body diagram be changed to show this? What was the result of this action on the motion of the HM?

B. Hang the hooked mass from a rubber band. While you do this watch the shape of the rubber band. Use the arrows to indicate the forces acting on the HM. What must the rubber band do in order to exert a force on the HM?

C. Hang the hooked mass from a spring. While you do this watch the shape of the spring. Use the arrows to indicate the forces acting on the HM. What must the spring do in order to exert a force on the HM?

D. Please note that the rubber band in part B above and the spring in part C above exert force on the HM by stretching. Hang the hooked mass from a string. While you do this watch the shape of the string. What must be doing the stretching to support the HM now? What is similar about the items (hand, rubber band, spring and string) supporting the HM in A - D above? in B (rubber band), and C (spring)? in B (rubber band), C (spring), and D (string)? in A (hand), B (rubber band), C (spring), and D (string)?

E. Release the string to drop the HM. (Please catch it!) Review what happens when an unbalanced force acts on the MI. What force acting on the HM was affected by releasing the suing?

F. Place two books about a meter apart so that a meter stick can be placed across them making a bridge. Place the hooked mass in the middle of the meter stick. The meter stick should be visibly deflected. Add arrows to indicate the forces acting on the HM. Remove the HM and you should no longer be able to detect the deflection of the meter stick. Is the meter stick still deflected when the HM is not on it, and you cannot see any deflection? Imagine that the meter stick is a steel beam, with the HM on it. Would you expect to see the beam deflect? Would the beam deflect?

G. Place the HM on a platform spring scale. Add the arrows representing the forces acting on the HM. What is the common name for the gravitational force acting on an object?

H. This activity is designed to illustrate the deflection of a apparently rigid support such as the steel beam mentioned in activity E. Make a pendulum from a washer and a piece of string. Suspend the pendulum over the edge of a strong table. When the pendulum swings it should just miss hitting the floor. One way to assure this is to place a piece of paper on the floor, and then adjust the length of the string until the washer just touches the paper. When this is accomplished, tape the string in place and remove the paper. Now swing the pendulum. Have someone stand on the table at the point where the pendulum is suspended. Be sure that the pendulum is going back and fourth and not in an oval. Observe the behavior of the pendulum. What does this observation tell you about the table when it is supporting a cylinder? Add arrows to indicate the forces acting on the person standing on the table. Add arrows to the table showing the forces acting on it.

Place the HM on the table. Add arrows to illustrate the forces acting on the cylinder. What is similar about the items supporting the cylinder in: F (meter stick), G (spring scale), and H (table)?

I. Place the hooked mass on a soft sponge or piece of foam rubber. The sponge should be soft and about the size of the HM. Push the HM with a slight horizontal force. The force you apply should be large enough to affect the sponge, but not so large as to make the sponge or the HM slide. Add arrows to indicate all the forces acting on the HM. As you push harder, what happens to the sponge?

FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 3

J. Remove the sponge from under the HM, and let the HM rest on the table. Repeat activity 1 above. When you push on the HM without causing it to move, what are the characteristics of the force that is counteracting your push?

You will notice that as you gradually increase the horizontal force you are exerting on the HM, the HM will eventually start to slide across the table. Push the HM so that it moves with constant speed in a straight line.

Add arrows to the sliding HM to show all the forces acting on it. How do the arrows on the sliding HM compare with the arrows on the stationary HM in parts H and I? (This is the last activity with the hooked mass.)

K. Run a toy car or a low-friction air puck across the table. It should move at a constant velocity. Add arrows to indicate the forces acting on it.

L. Attach a string to a toy car or a low-friction air puck so that it runs in a circle at constant speed on the table. Add arrows to indicate the forces acting on it. [NOTE: Physicists call a force than keeps an object moving in a circle with constant speed a centripetal force. Centripetal, though, is the name of a direction (toward the center), not the name of a kind of force, so you should not label any of your arrows centripetal force. Use the name of the kind of force.)

M. Drop a marble into a graduated cylinder nearly filled with glycerin. Determine whether the marbles have a constant speed as they fall. Since you can’t attach the arrows to the marble in the graduated cylinder, just make the drawing on the last pages of this activity indicating the names, directions, and relative sizes of all the forces acting on the marble as it falls through the glycerin.

N. Make a parachute from a paper towel. Use a washer or other appropriate item to make a paratrooper. (Or use a basket-type coffee filter, in which case you don’t need a paratrooper.) Drop the parachute and determine if it falls with constant speed. On the last pages of this activity, make the drawing of the forces acting on the parachute.

0. Place a coin at the edge of the table. Give it a flick with your finger so it hits the floor some distance away. Make a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the coin (i) setting on the table, (ii) while your finger is in the process of flicking it and (W) while it is moving through the air.

In part D you dropped a 500-gram mass. Compare your diagram for that with the one you just made for (iii).

P. Out of a 3 x 5 card, make a device that allows you to flick one coin at the same time that you simply drop a second coin. See the diagram below. Make a free-body diagram showing the forces on the coins while they are moving through the air.
FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 4

Q. Have someone take a step forward with the right foot. Place arrows on the left foot while it is pushing against the floor to show the forces acting on the body when it begins to move forward.

R. Have someone stand on a skate board and step off in a forward direction. (Have others provide support so the ‘subject’ doesn’t fall.) Place arrows on the foot that pushes against the skate board and on the skate board to show the forces acting on each.

S. Suspend a helium-filled balloon by taping its string to the top of a table. Add arrows to indicate all the forces acting on the balloon.

T. “Drop” a helium-filled balloon. This amounts to letting go of the string holding the balloon in example S above. Determine if it rises with constant speed and use arrows to indicate the forces acting on it.
FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 5
FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 6

FORCES & MOTION 6A1

FINDING THE FORCES 7

FORCES & MOTION 6A1TN

FINDING THE FORCES

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

This activity is designed to help participants learn to Observing identify forces acting on objects. It reinforces the idea Inferring that objects accelerate when forces are out of balance and that objects may move even when one or more forces act.

LEVEL: U DURATION: 90 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know the definition of acceleration and that acceleration is the result of unbalanced forces. They should know that inertia is not a force.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Check the table intended to be used in part H to make sure it sags enough. The hooked mass can be used here instead of a washer.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: The workshop is a set of activities in the format of a self paced tutorial. Instructions for making a low-friction air puck for K and L are found in the appendix.

Flat-bottomed coffee filters work as well as parachutes. Demonstrate making a free-body diagram before participants begin.

Depending on the group of teachers, it may be helpful to stop after every few activities for group discussion,

Regarding activity L, avoid using the term centripetal force. “The force of the string on the car” causes fewer problems.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: To recognize the presence of forces, remember that everything that touches an object exerts a force on that object. If one force acts on an object and it isn’t accelerating, there must be some other force acting on the object to balance the first. Friction is a helpful force, useful for starting and stopping (activities Q and R), and more.

When forces act by contact, there is a stretching, compression or deflection of the objects, even if the amount is too small to be seen. Objects can move without a force pushing them along (K and L, especially if an air puck was used).

A few forces (gravity, static electricity and magnetism) act even though they do not touch the object.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: For activity F, you may graph the observed deflection verses the amount of weight applied using several different masses. This can also be done with a spring balance used to pull down on the meter stick.

FORCES & MOTION 6A1TN

[pic]
FORCES & MOTION 6A1TN

FORCES & MOTION 6A1TN

FORCES & MOTION 6A2

ELASTICITY

Materials: 1 ring stand 1 meter stick 2 paper clips 2 clamps 1 rubber band 1 ten-Newton spring scale 1 support for rubber band and mass 1 spring set of metric masses permitting combinations up to 500 grams

The Problem

How does the stretch of a rubber band compare with that of a steel spring? When a spring is stretched and then released, it generally regains its original shape and length. The ability of a body, like the spring, to regain its original shape after a force has stretched it and is removed is called elasticity. When the force stretching the spring exceeds a certain value, called the elastic limit, the spring no longer returns to its original shape after the stretching force is removed. Instead, the spring remains permanently deformed. In this activity, you are going to compare the behavior of a metal spring to that of a rubber band.

Gathering the Data

1. Hang an object on the scale. The object should hang at rest on the spring scale. What forces act on the object? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Which of the above forces is acting on the scale? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the total force acting on the scale? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Since the mass reaches static equilibrium (comes to rest), the gravitational force exerted on the object is balanced by the force exerted by the spring.

The metric unit of mass is the gram with its divisions and multiples. The metric unit for weight is the Newton with its divisions and multiples. On the surface of the earth 100 grams has a weight (i.e., is pulled by a gravitational force) of about one Newton. For each mass, measure the reading on the spring- balance due to the gravitational force on the mass (i.e., the weight of the object) and record your results in the table below.

Support a spring from a fixed support as you did the spring balance. Repeat the procedure followed with the spring balance and record the change in length in the table below. Repeat the procedure for the rubber band.

| |Applied Force (N) |Change in Length (cm) |
|Suspended Mass (g) |Spring |Rubber Band |Spring |Rubber Band |
|100 | | | | |
|200 | | | | |
|300 | | | | |
|400 | | | | |
|500 | | | | |

Solving the Problem

Plot the data from the table above with the weight on the horizontal axis and the corresponding change in length on the vertical axis. Use a solid line for the spring graph and a dotted line for the rubber band graph.
FORCES & MOTION 6A2
ELASTICITY - 2

4. What are the similarities and differences between the graphs for the spring and the rubber band? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Why do you think there are differences? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. What would be the change in length of the rubber band if the mass hung from it was 600 g? 1,000 g? Try these (borrow masses from another team, if necessary) and compare the results with your predictions. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Within what limits, if any, does the graph for the rubber band show that it behaves like the spring? Explain this result. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 6A2TN

ELASTICITY

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The stretch of a spring is proportional to the force Measuring applied to it. A rubber band behaves similarly up Inferring to a limit. The net force on the spring is zero. Predicting

LEVEL: U DURATION: 40 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Be sure to make clear which forces are acting on the system. The gravitational force (i.e., the weight) is acting down, while the elastic force is acting up on the objects that are suspended for the spring of rubber band.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Determine whether the rubber bands available will support I kg (question 6). If necessary use two or more rubber bands in parallel or tie two or more rubber bands end to end to get the desired response.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Participants can work in groups of 2 to 3. If using weight hangers and slotted weights, remind participants to include the mass of the hangers.

Be sure that the participants understand that the distance to be measured is the stretch (i.e., increase in length) not the total length of the spring or rubber band.

You might want to sacrifice one spring to show the result of exceeding the elastic limit.

SOME QUESTIONS: 1. Gravity and the spring. 3. Zero 4. Depending the individual springs and rubber bands used, the graphs may both be straight lines. The graph for the rubber band may level off if the elastic limit is approached. If the graph for the spring changes from a straight line it has been ruined!
POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
TIE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: As long as an elastic body is not stretched or deformed beyond its elastic limit, it obeys Hooke’s Law. This means that the stretch of the spring is directly proportional to the force applied to it.

The stretch of the spring or a rubber band can be measured by hanging a series of weights from each of them and measuring the corresponding increase in length of the spring or rubber band. To see if these objects obey Hooke’s Law, you can plot the gravitational force or weights applied to the spring or rubber band against the increase in the length. According to Hooke’s Law of direct proportionality, these graphs should be straight lines as long as the objects are elastic and you do not exceed their elastic limits. After the elastic limits are exceeded, the graphs will no longer remain straight.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: 1. Discuss the wisdom of spring balances having a stop which prevents stretching the spring beyond a certain length. 2. Make a scale using a rubber band. Calibrate it by marking on paper wrapped around a meter stick. 3. The roadbed of a suspension bridge is supported from the main cables by vertical wires. Should these wires be elastic or inelastic? Explain. 4. A steel wire is said to be very elastic, but it does not stretch very much even when large forces are applied to it. Explain. 5. The elastic constant of the spring k is defined as the force required to produce an elongation of one distance unit (usually N/m). Determine the value of the elastic constant for a given spring in Newtons/meter.
FORCES & MOTION 6A3D

THE UNDERCOVER SCALE
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: 2 pulleys string I spring balance 2 pulley supports 2 equal weights I piece of cloth

Assemble the apparatus as shown in the diagram below. Begin with the cloth placed over the spring balance so that it cannot be read.

1. Ask the participants to predict the reading of the balance. Separate participants with common answers into groups.

2. Have a participant in each group defend their position. Allow any participant(s) that are convinced by another group’s argument to move to that group.

3. Remove the cloth. Discuss the reasoning that lead to the correct and incorrect answers.

4. Remove one weight and hold that end of the string in the same position it was. Ask participants to imagine how it feels to be pulling that string. Point out that the reading on the scale hasn’t changed.

5. Move your hand until the string is horizontal and not using the pulley. Ask how they think it feels. Point out that the reading on the scale hasn’t changed.

6. Move your hand until the string is vertical. Ask how they think it feels. Point out that the reading on the scale hasn’t changed.

7. While watching the reading on the scale, slowly reverse the process and replace the weight.

8. Make the point that a scale which is not accelerating must always read the value of only one of the forces acting on it, otherwise it would always read zero (if it showed the net force) or we Would always have to divide the reading by two (if it showed the sum of the absolute values of the forces acting on it).

9. Encourage participants to repeat the demonstration (steps 4 - 7) for themselves.

FORCES & MOTION 6B1

BALANCED VERTICAL FORCES

Materials: hooked mass spring scale

1. Attach the scale to the hooked mass. Pull upward on the scale with a force that is too small to lift the mass. The reading on the scale is the force you are exerting on the mass. Because you are exerting a force on the mass but it is not accelerating, what can you say about other forces acting on the mass? (What is the name and magnitude of the force or forces?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Find the smallest force that lifts the mass at constant speed. What is the value of the force you used? What can you say about other forces acting on the mass now? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Lift the mass at a faster constant speed. How does the reading on the scale compare with the one you used in question 2? What can you say about other forces acting on the mass now? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Does exerting a force upward on the mass always cause it to move? Explain. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Can an object be moving when the net force acting on it is zero? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. If the net force acting on an object is zero, what kinds of motion can happen?

FORCES & MOTION 6B1TN

BALANCED VERTICAL FORCES

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
A force acting on an object does not necessarily Measuring cause motion. An object may move even Inferring if the net force acting is zero.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min,

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should be able to identify forces acting (as in VIA I).

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Use scales sensitive enough to show a wide range of forces before the object begins to move upward. Use 1 kilogram if available.
MANAGEMENT TIPS: Remind participants to always pull so any motion is at constant speed.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. Gravity is acting with a force equal to the scale reading but in the opposite direction. The net force is zero. 2. Same as 1. 3. Same as 1. 4. No. Other forces may balance the force you exert. 5. Yes. 6. Both no motion and motion at constant speed.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Exerting a force on an object does not necessarily cause a motion. Other forces may act to balance the force exerted.

An object may move even though the net force is zero.

Compare these results to motion when no forces aft (section 5).

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Repeat this activity using two spring scales hooked end to end. Have students identify the force acting on each spring scale and compare the readings on the scales for each step of the activity.
FORCES & MOTION 6B2

BALANCED HORIZONTAL FORCES

Materials: book or block of wood string spring scale

1. Tie a string to a book. Attach the scale to the string. Pull on the scale with a force that is too small to move the book. The reading on the scale is the force you are exerting on the book. Because you are exerting a force on the book but it is not accelerating, what can you say about other forces acting on the book? (What is the name and magnitude of the force or forces?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Find the smallest force that moves the book at constant speed. What is the value of the force you used? What can you say about other forces acting on the book now? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Slide the book at a faster constant speed. How does the reading on the scale compare with the one you used in question 2? What can you say about other forces acting on the book now? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Does exerting a force on a book always cause it to move? Explain. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Can an object be moving when the net force acting on it is zero? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
6. If the net force acting on an object is zero, what kinds of motion can happen? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 6B2TN

BALANCED HORIZONTAL FORCES

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

A force acting on an object does not necessarily Measuring cause motion. An object may move even Inferring if the net force acting is zero.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should be able to identify forces acting (as in 6A1).

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Use scales sensitive enough to show a wide range of forces before the object begins to slide, If necessary, slide chairs or desks instead of books.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Remind participants to always pull with the scale horizontal.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. Friction is acting with a force equal to the scale reading but in the opposite direction. The net force is zero. 2. Same as 1. 3. Same as 1. 4. No. Other forces may balance the force you exert. 5. Yes. 6. Both no motion and motion at constant speed.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Exerting a force on an object does not necessarily cause. a motion. Other forces may act to balance the force exerted.

An object may move even though the net force is zero.

Compare these results to motion when no forces act (section 5).

FORCES & MOTION 6C1

HOW STRONG IS FRICTION?

Materials: two books or blocks of wood string spring scale

1 Tie a string to a book. Attach the scale to the string. Pull horizontally on the scale with a force too small to slide the book. The reading on the scale is the force you are exerting on the book. Why doesn’t the book move? (What is the name of the force pulling backward on the book? What is the value of that force?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Make a diagram to show the two horizontal forces acting on the book, using arrows to show the amount and the direction of the forces. Add the two vertical forces acting on the book.

3. While watching the scale, slowly pull harder and harder until you are pulling hard enough to slide the book slowly at a constant speed. What is the name of the force pulling backward on the book? What is the value of the largest force you used? _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Make two diagrams, like the one you drew above, to show the horizontal and the vertical forces acting (a) when you are pulling harder than in number 1 above but still not hard enough to slide the book and (b) when the book is sliding slowly at a constant speed. Make the length of the arrows appropriate to make comparisons among the three diagrams.

5. Discuss the amount of force that friction can exert on a sliding object. (What determined how hard friction pulled?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. If a second book was placed on top of the first book, what do you predict the maximum force of friction will be? _____________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Place the second book on top of the first. How much force does it take to slide the two books at a slow, constant speed? What is the value of the force of friction when the books are sliding? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Make a diagram to show the horizontal forces and the vertical forces acting on the two books. The diagram should show how the forces compare to when there was a single book.

9. What else (besides your answer to number 5) determines how hard friction pulls? _____________________________________________________________________________________________

10. How large is the force of friction between the book and the table when you pull horizontally on the book? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 6C1TN

HOW STRONG IS FRICTION?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The force of sliding friction is not a fixed value. Measuring
It varies from zero to a maximum depending on how Inferring much force is applied. The maximum force is reached Predicting when the object is sliding. The force also changes with the force between the object and the surface (with the weight of the object).

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should be able to identify forces acting (as in 6A1).

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Use scales sensitive enough to show a wide range of forces before the object begins to slide. You might need to slide a desk or a chair instead. Check to see that you can stack one desk on top of the other.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Remind participants to always pull horizontally and to. keep the speed constant.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. Friction is pulling backward on the book with a force equal to the reading on the scale. 2. The horizontal forces must be equal and opposite. So must the vertical forces. 4. The horizontal forces should be longer in (a) than in number 2. They should be longer in (b) than in (a). The vertical forces should be the same length in all three diagrams. 5. Friction can exert a range of forces depending on how hard you pull. The largest force of friction happens when the object is sliding. 7. The force exerted and the force of friction should be about double the previous value. 9. The weight of the object (the force between the object and the surface). 11. The force of friction can be anything from zero to (varies) depending on how hard you pull.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The force of friction opposes the applied force.

The force of friction varies with the applied force and with the force between the object and the surface it sets on.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Add more and more books. Plot a graph of the resulting force of friction.

FORCES & MOTION 6C2

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SPEED OF THE MARBLE?

Materials: ruler with groove nylon or silk a marble cardboard sandpaper washcloth

1. Lift one end of the ruler and roll the marble down the groove and onto the table. Describe how the speed of the marble changes as it rolls on the table. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Repeat, but this time place the lower end of the ruler on the sheet of sandpaper. Compare the change in the speed of the marble as it rolls on the sandpaper with when it rolled on the table. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Explain why there is a difference. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Repeat this activity using the cardboard, nylon or silk and the washcloth. Observe the speed of the marble as it rolls across each material. Be sure that the material is stretched taut. Rank the materials from “fastest” to “slowest”. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What characteristic of the surfaces seems to determine how the marble slows down? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. If you could have any surface you wanted, what surface would you choose to allow the marble to roll the farthest? Why? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Would any surface allow the marble to roll indefinitely? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Do you think a newly-paved highway saves gasoline? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Imagine trying to roll a piece of heavy furniture along a paved street. Would you prefer that the furniture have small wheels or large wheels? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
10. Why does the smoothness of a surface affect the amount of friction that acts on rolling objects? (Your answer to number 9 provides a clue.) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 6C2TN

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SPEED OF THE MARBLE?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

The nature of the frictional force on a rolling Observing object depends on the surface an object moves Classifying over. Rough surfaces lift the object, wasting energy and slowing it down.

LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: None

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Get materials.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: It is important that the surfaces be level and unwrinkled. Any materials which provide a wide range of roughness can be substituted for those listed. Larger pieces will have more noticeable effects. Remind participants to keep the angle of the ruler the same for all trials.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. The speed is nearly constant.

2. The marble slows down more (per cm of travel).

5. The roughness.

6. The smoothest surface imaginable will offer the least friction.

7. No. Even the smallest irregularities have some, small effect.

8. Yes. Being smooth, there is little rolling friction.

9. Large wheels roll over small irregularities while small wheels push against them, tending to stop the motion.

10. The irregularities exert a backwards force on the rolling object and lift it, wasting energy (converting kinetic energy into heat).

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Different surfaces have different values of frictional force. The friction that slows the ball is always in the opposite direction to the direction of travel of the ball. Irregularities push backwards on the rolling object, slowing it down, and lift it, “wasting” energy (converting kinetic energy into heat).

FORCES & MOTION 6C3

HOW CAN YOU REDUCE FRICTIONAL FORCE?

Materials: hand lens liquid soap

1. Rub the palms of your hands together. Listen to the sound. Do they sound rough? Do they warm up when you rub them together? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Look at light reflected from your palms. Do they look dull, or shiny? Use a hand lens to look closely at your hands. Do they look rough? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Put a drop of liquid soap on your hands. Add a little water. Rub them together again. Do they sound rough? Do they get warm when you rub them together? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Look at light reflected from your palms. Do they look dull, or shiny? Use a hand lens to look closely at your hands. Do they look rough? _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Why do you think soap and water reduce the friction between your hands? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Is all of the frictional force gone? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Name some substances that act as lubricants. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 6C3TN

HOW CAN YOU REDUCE FRICTIONAL FORCE?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The force of sliding friction depends, in part, Observing on the roughness of the surfaces. A lubricant Inferring

LEVEL: L DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know that friction is a force.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Make certain sinks are available. If not, you might use plastic tubs or buckets. Paper towels are needed.
MANAGEMENT TIPS: Tell the participants to use only a small amount of liquid soap. Provide a few ml of soap in a beaker with a medicine dropper. Inexpensive dish washing detergent could be used for this activity.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. Hands will probably sound rough and get warm.

2. Hands will probably look dull to the naked eye and rough with the hand lens.

3. Hands will not sound rough. They will probably not warm up as much as with no soap and water.

4. Hands will look shiny and smooth.

5. Soap and water fill in the ‘valleys’ in rough surfaces. They also prevent the skin from touching at all, to some extent.

6. No. There is always some friction when molecules are touching.

7. Oil, wax, glycerin, graphite.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The soap allowed your hands to slide more easily over each other. Lubricants usually prevent surfaces from touching each other.

The energy converted into heat by friction is usually wasted.

Non-lubricated surfaces wear out faster. An automobile engine without oil is ruined in a few minutes.

Smoother surfaces may have less friction than rough ones, but very smooth surfaces have a lot of friction. (Consider demonstrating with two pieces of very clean glass.)

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Measure the force of friction between surfaces without lubrication and with various kinds of lubricants (oil, wax, graphite).

FORCES & MOTION 6C4D

WHAT IS FRICTIONAL FORCE?
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: tacks sandpaper smooth board small, but heavy, block rubber band

Tack a piece of sandpaper to one side of a board and leave the other side of the, board smooth. Then place a tack in a small but heavy block or other piece of finished wood. The tack should be free enough so that you can loop a rubber band around it. Hold the rubber band and pull the block across the smooth side of the board. Notice how much the rubber band is stretched. Then pull the block across the sandpaper. Again, watch the “ rubber band. You will see that the rubber band stretches mom when you pull your block across the rough sandpaper. The greater stretch of the rubber band indicates that you are using a larger force to pull the block across the sandpaper than the smooth board.

Explanation:

Sliding frictional force is the result of two surfaces adhering to each other. Although the surface of a solid may look smooth, it is really a “boiling sea” of activity. The electrons in the solid are always moving near the surface. When two surfaces get close to each other, there is a weak chemical bond that holds the surfaces together. As the surfaces move past each other, these bonds stretch and are eventually broken.

Some frictional force is necessary. The frictional force between a tire and the road is necessary for a car to gain speed and to stop. The frictional force between the tires and the road helps to prevent skidding and spinning.

Too much frictional force wastes energy, produces unwanted heat and causes moving parts to wear out too quickly.

FORCES & MOTION 6C5D

WHY DO YOU OIL MACHINES?
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: 2 blocks of wood soap

Slide two blocks of wood over each other. Then rub soap over each surface and slide the blocks over each other again. You will see that the surfaces slide more easily after the soap has been placed between the sliding surfaces.

Explanation

The soap fills in the low places of the surfaces of the wood and also forms a coat over the surfaces. The pieces of wood, therefore, do not touch one another and cannot rub. Instead, the soapy surfaces slide against one another with less friction. Try coating a dull safety pin with soap. Notice how much easier it is to use.

Water can also act as a lubricant to reduce friction. Water slides at amusement parks are sprinkled with water to make the slides smoother. It is for this reason that tires have grooves. If they did not, the tire would slide on the water. The grooves make it possible for the water to pass by the tire. The tire can then touch the road and provide better traction. Lion.

For most tools and machines, we use oil or grease to do the job the soap did on our blocks of wood. The oil and grease smooth the surfaces so that there will be less rubbing. They are used because they do not dry up as quickly as soap, water or other lubricants.

Do you know now why a drop or two of oil will stop the squeak in a door hinge? It is handy to know, too, that a little wax (a kind of hard oil) will help you open and close your desk drawers more easily.

The amount of frictional force depends on the kinds of surfaces in contact and the force pressing them together. The rougher the surfaces, the greater the frictional force will be. The greater the force pushing the surfaces of the objects together, the greater the frictional force will be.

FORCES & MOTION 6C6D

WHY USE WHEELS?
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: food or drink can

Place a food or drink can in an upright position and slide it across a table. Then turn it on its side and roll it back. You will see that it is much easier to roll the can than it is to slide it.

Explanation

Sliding frictional force is the result of two effects:

1. Surfaces experiencing frictional force must pass by each other. Because the surfaces are not exactly smooth, they catch on each other when the hills of one surface fall into the valleys of the other surface. The surfaces must now be raised past one another in order to continue moving past each other.

2. Although the surface of a solid looks smooth, it is really a “boiling sea” of activity. The electrons in the solid are always moving near the surface. When two surfaces get close to each other, there are weak chemical bonds which hold the surfaces together. As the surfaces move past each other, these bonds stretch and are eventually broken.

There is less rolling frictional force than sliding frictional force. In sliding, the bumps on the rough surfaces catch against each other. In rolling, the bumps of the wheel roll over the bumps of the rough surface without catching as much. In addition, when you slide the can, the surface of the can rubs against the surface of the table; whereas when you roll the can, the point where the can touches the table is at rest for a moment and then another point touches the table and so on.

FORCES & MOTION 7WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
UNBALANCED FORCES CAUSE ACCELERATION (A NET FORCE)

This section investigates the motion of an object in terms of the net force acting on it. It uses the idea that acceleration and force are vectors and that the direction of the net force is the same as the direction of the acceleration.

In part A, motion is restricted to a straight line. An activity involves horizontal motion with sliding friction and an applied force, measured with a scale, yielding the net force. Two demonstrations use objects moving vertically, one in which air friction is important and one in which air friction can be safely ignored.

In part B, motion is circular at constant speed. The net force is shown to be toward the center of the circle. The terms a centripetal’ and ‘centrifugal’ are used in the Teachers Notes but not in the activities themselves. A final Focus on Physics elaborates on these terms for those who feel they should be addressed.

Naive Ideas

======================================================================================

1. The acceleration of an object depends only on how much force you apply to it. Activities: 7AIF, 7A2. (See also 8B1D, 8B2D)

2. A scale measures the total (net) force acting on an object. Activity: 7A2

3. The force of friction is a fixed value that depends only on the surfaces in contact. Activity 7A2

4. The effect of air friction depends only on the force of air friction. Activity: 7A3D

5. The effect of air friction is always noticeable. Activities: 7A3D, 7A4D

6. The motion of an object is always in the direction of the net force applied to the object. Activities: 7B1, 7B2, 7B3, 7B4. (See also 8C1D)

7. Centripetal and centrifugal forces are “kinds” of forces. Activity: 7B5F

======================================================================================

A WHEN THE NET FORCE IS PARALLEL TO THE MOTION, AN OBJECT ACCELERATES IN A STRAIGHT LINE, THE VALUE OF THE ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE NET FORCE.

1. Focus on Physics: Force and Acceleration This is a primer on Newton’s second law, comparing phrases people typically use that are misleading from the point of view of physics with ‘correct’ phrases. It includes a ‘thought experiment’ to help convince the reader that it is necessary to use the sum of all forces acting on an object in order to predict its acceleration.

2. Activity: Acceleration is Proportional to Net Force. A scale is used to measure the force applied to a sliding, accelerating object when friction is significant. The data show that the acceleration is NOT proportional to the reading on the scale but IS proportional to the vector sum of the force of friction and the reading on the scale.

3. Demonstration: Paper and Book Drop

A classic in which the effect of air friction does not correlate with the amount of air friction.

4. Demonstration: The Falling Cup

FORCES & MOTION 7WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE
UNBALANCED FORCES CAUSE ACCELERATION (A NET FORCE) - 2

A cup with water in it and a hole in the bottom is dropped. The demonstration can be used to show that all objects (cup and water) have the same acceleration when air resistance is negligible. It can also show that the effect of air friction is different on the empty cup than on the same cup when it is heavier (more massive).

B WHEN THE NET FORCE IS PERPENDICULAR TO THE MOTION, AN OBJECT MOVES IN A CIRCLE AT CONSTANT SPEED. THIS IS AN ACCELERATED MOTION,

1. Activity: Force on a Rope

By pulling on a rope attached to a participant who attempts to walk in a straight line, the walker is forced to move in a circle. The force is toward the center of the circle. Higher speeds require more force.

2. Demonstration: A Circle of People

Similar to the above, but a circle of people push the walker toward the center, resulting in circular motion.

3. Activity: Dead Man’s Curve

A motorized toy car which normally travels a straight path is forced to move in a circle because it is attached to a string. Cutting the string at the proper moment allows the car to move tangentially, striking a target.

4. Activity: The Spinning Stopper

A stopper, tied to a string, moves in a circle when the string exerts a force toward the center. The faster the stopper moves, the greater the force required to cause the circular motion (when the radius of the circle is held constant).

5. Focus on Physics: Centripetal Force and Circular Motion

Although the above activities can be done very well without invoking the terms ‘centripetal’ or centrifugal’, many participants will want to explain circular motion in terms of centrifugal force. This focus introduces the terms and explains their proper use.

FORCES & MOTION 7A1F

FORCE AND ACCELERATION
Focus on Physics

When the forces acting on an object are balanced the object will not accelerate. It can almost go without saying, then, that if the forces acting on an object are not in balance, the object will accelerate. Still, a couple of issues deserve attention.

When we discuss the motion of an accelerating object it is typical to refer to ‘the force’ acting on it. While it is possible to have a situation where only one force is acting on an object, great care must be taken to make it so; it is much more likely that two or more forces are acting on the object in question. Consider the case of a ball rolling on a level table. Even if the rolling friction could be zero there are at least two forces acting on the ball: gravity is pulling down and the table is pushing up. The reason the ball is not accelerating is that the downward force of gravity and the upward force of the table are exactly equal and exactly opposite. The sum of the forces is zero.

It seems wise, then, to use the phrase ‘net force’ instead of the word force. Acceleration is not the result of ‘a force’ acting on an object, but is the result of ‘a net force’ acting. Since ‘net’ is used to mean ‘the sum of all,’ it is consistent to refer to a net force even in those rare instances when there is only one force acting on the object.

Getting in the habit of referring to the net force is likely to pay off in fewer errors or misunderstandings, especially when friction is important. If, for example, a spring scale is attached to a fairly heavy object like a chair, it is clear that just exerting ‘a force’ on the object by pulling on the scale does not necessarily cause an acceleration. A student can easily miss this though if a large enough force is applied to immediately cause an acceleration. Many students think the reading on the scale is ‘the force’ acting on the chair. When exercising the habit of always saying ‘the net force’ when discussing motion, students are constrained to consider the possibility of other forces, such as friction, being important.

When we say “a net force is acting” we mean “the sum of all of the forces acting on the object is NOT ZERO”. Some people are very cautious and will say “a non-zero net force is acting,” but misunderstandings are rare even when not being cautious. Another phrase the means the same thing is “an unbalanced force.”. You saw this phrase used in the discussion of Newton’s laws in Focus on Physics 5A1F. HOW it is said is less important than finding a way to make sure that all of the forces acting on an object are considered!

It is reasonable to wonder why it is so important to be clear on this issue. One reason has to do with the results of an experiment to see the different accelerations an object has when different forces are applied. The results of all such experiments are given in

Newton’s SECOND LAW: The acceleration of an object is proportional to the sum of all of the forces which act upon it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. It is often written as one of these equations: A = F/M or F = MA, where F is the net force.

(When you read Newton’s second law you see that the amount of acceleration depends not only on the net force but also on the mass of the object. It is not the intent of this book to deal with the effect of changing mass, so we will always consider the net force acting on ‘an object’ which will always have the same mass.)

Newton’s second law says that “the acceleration is proportional to the net force”. To be ‘proportional to’ means that a doubling of the value of the causative agent results in an increase in the effect which is the same amount regardless of which initial values are chosen. An easier way to say the same thing is: a resulting graph is a straight line that slopes upward to the right. Using the second law as a test, we can perform a thought experiment to see that the net force works, whereas the applied force does not work.

Suppose we knew that the maximum force of sliding friction between a chair and the floor was 5 Newtons. Any applied force from 0 Newtons to 5 Newtons would have no effect on the chair if it was initially at rest. If we attached a spring scale and pulled with a force of 2 Newtons, the chair would not accelerate. If we pull twice as hard, the scale would show a force of 4 Newtons, but the acceleration is still zero. Newton’s second law predicts more acceleration when there is a larger force! The reading on the scale is the force we apply to the chair, but the net force must include the friction. Newton’s law does not refer to the applied force only!
FORCES & MOTION 7A1F

FORCE AND ACCELERATION
Focus on Physics - 2

Perhaps a situation in which the acceleration is not zero is more satisfying. Suppose we pull on the chair so the scale reads 6 Newtons. With friction pulling back with 5 Newtons, the net force is one Newton. This might give some particular chair an acceleration of 10 cm/second/second. What reading on the scale is needed to give the chair an acceleration of 20 cm/second/second, 12 Newtons or 7 Newtons? All experiments, when carefully done, give the same answer: Changing the reading on the scale to 7 Newtons doubles the acceleration to 20!

This can only mean that using only the reading on the scale will not accurately predict the acceleration of an object when another force is also acting on the object. Changing the reading on the scale from 6 to 7 Newtons caused a change in the net force from I to 2 Newtons, though; a doubling of the net force which caused the doubling of the acceleration. Continuing to apply Newton’s second law correctly predicts that a reading on the scale of 8 Newtons causes the chair to have an acceleration of 30 cm/second/second, 9 Newtons increases the acceleration to 40 cm/second/second, etc.

In summary, Newton’s second law predicts how changing the net force acting on an object affects the acceleration. It is important to distinguish between applied force and net force.

FORCES & MOTION 7A2

ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO NET FORCE

Materials: chair or desk objects to use as ‘markers’ spring scale stop watch or watch with second hand meter stick

1. Attach the spring scale to a chair or desk and pull horizontally with a force of 3 or 4 Newtons. Why doesn’t the chair accelerate? What is the value of the net force acting on the chair? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Pull horizontally on the scale until the chair slides slowly at a constant speed. Make a diagram with arrows to show (a) the force you are applying and (b) the force of friction acting on the chair. Label the arrows with the values of the forces.

3. When an object is sliding at constant speed the force of friction is at its maximum. If the chair is made to accelerate, the force of friction will be known. The applied force is the reading on the scale. What is the maximum force of friction acting on the chair? How is the net force calculated? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. When objects start from rest and have a constant acceleration, their accelerations can be compared by comparing the distances they travel in equal times. For example, if one object travel s three meters in three seconds and a second object travels six meters in three seconds, the second object has twice the acceleration of the first. (The instructor can show you the equation that proves this.)

Take data to determine whether the acceleration of an object depends on the force you apply to it or on the net force acting on it.

Using a force that is 2 Newtons larger than friction, pull the chair across the floor. Strive to keep the reading on the scale from changing! Have someone mark the position of the chair at the moment it starts to move and at the end of two seconds. Measure the distance the chair moved. Record the data in the table below.

Repeat with readings on the scale that are four, six, and eight Newtons larger than the force of friction.

|Applied Force |Force of Friction |Net Force |Distance Traveled |
|(N) |(N) |(N) |(N) |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |

FORCES & MOTION 7A2

ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO NET FORCE - 2

5. Remember that accelerations can be compared by comparing distances when objects accelerate uniformly from rest. Look at the ‘Distance Traveled’ column to look for doublings of the acceleration.

6. Did the applied force ever get to be twice as large as the first one? If so, did the acceleration double at the same time? 1 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Did the net force ever double? Did the acceleration double at the same time? (Since it is pretty hard to keep a constant force, don’t expect to find precise results. If the distance traveled approximately doubled, it is fair to say the acceleration doubled.) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Does your data seem to show that the acceleration is proportional to the applied force or to the net force? Write a discussion of your -answer. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 7A2TN

ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO NET FORCE

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Acceleration is proportional to the net force, not the applied Inferring force. The applied force is the reading on a scale; the net Interpreting data force must be calculated when more than one force acts.

LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should know the definition of acceleration and that acceleration is the result of unbalanced forces.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Find a way to attach the spring scales to the available chairs or desks. Make sure the force of friction between the chairs and the floor allow the scales to show readings for forces up to eight Newtons more than friction.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Other sliding objects can be substituted for chairs, but the force of sliding friction should be large enough that the acceleration stays fairly small throughout the experiment. The force of sliding friction should be at least 9 Newtons, It might be a good idea to show, before the activity begins, that accelerations can be compared by comparing distances if objects accelerate uniformly for equal times starting from rest. (d = 1/2 a t2.) (See question 4.) Remind participants to keep the scale horizontal, to pull straight along the line of motion, and to strive to keep the reading constant. Have participants suggest ways to deal with scale readings which vary.

SOME QUESTIONS: 1. The chair doesn’t accelerate because friction is pulling just as hard as they are, and in the opposite direction. The net force is zero. 2. The diagram should show equal and opposite vectors. ‘Me values of the forces are the reading on the scale. 3. The answer varies, but is the reading on the scale when the chair is moving at constant speed. The net force = scale reading – maximum force of friction. 4. Although the values for three columns will vary from team to team, the values in the Net Force column should be 2, 4, 6 and 8 Newtons for all. The values in the Force of Friction column should be constant and the same value as the label for the arrow in the diagram for question 2. 6. No. 7. Yes, the net force doubled from 2 to 4 and from 4 to 8. The acceleration should have approximately doubled in each case. 8. The acceleration is proportional to the net force, inferred from the fact that the acceleration approximately doubled when the net force was doubled.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Newton’s second law doesn’t say that the acceleration is proportional to “the force” (which many will take to mean “the applied force”) Acceleration is proportional to the net force. It is not necessary to know the values of accelerations of a body in order to compare the accelerations under different forces. We can compare accelerations by comparing distances traveled in equal times. (This works only when the object starts from rest and when the acceleration is constant.) When an object is moving at constant speed (not accelerating) the value of the force of friction acting is the reading on the scale. This is because the net force must be zero.
FORCES & MOTION 7A2TN

ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO NET FORCE - 2

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Actually calculate accelerations before making comparisons.

Graph acceleration vs. applied force and acceleration vs. net force.

Have participants predict how the graph will change if the mass of the accelerating object is changed, perhaps by piling books on the chair. Repeat the experiment with more mass to test predictions.

Have participants predict how the graph will change if the friction acting on the accelerating object is changed, perhaps by sliding the chair on a rug. Repeat the experiment on a different surface to test predictions.

FORCES & MOTION 7A3D

PAPER AND BOOK DROP
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: several sheets of paper book

1. Drop a sheet of paper and a book side by side. (The paper should be slightly smaller than the book.) Have the participants explain what they see in terms of the net force acting on each. Draw diagrams showing how the force of air friction gets larger as the speed increases. You might want to discuss the question “Which feels the greater force of air friction”. (The book does, because it is going faster.)

2. Place two sheets of paper together, one on top of the other. Drop them beside a single sheet. Have the participants explain what they see in terms of the net force, especially on the two sheets. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Repeat with a third and a fourth sheet added to the first two. Help the participants compare the force of air friction to the force of gravity on them. Make appropriate force diagrams.

4. Drop a single sheet of paper and the book again, but this time place the paper on the bottom of the book. Have the participants explain the results in terms of the net force. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Drop the paper and the book again, but this time place the paper on top of the book. Have the participants predict what will happen. Have the participants explain the results in terms of the net force. Make appropriate force diagrams for the paper and for the book. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Crush the paper into a tight ball. Drop the paper and the book side by side. Have the participants explain the results in terms of the net force, especially for the paper. Make appropriate force diagrams for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Discuss ways to make the force of air friction small enough to safely ignore in the laboratory. Point out the difference between ‘getting rid of’ air friction and making it negligible. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FORCES & MOTION 7A4D

THE FALLING CUP
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: stool or chair foam cup water wastebasket

Before beginning the demonstration, poke a hole in the bottom and/or in the side of the foam cup. Use a heavyweight foam cup. While covering the holes in the cup, fill it about 3/4 full of water.

Stand on a stool, overlooking the participants, while holding the water-filled cup in one hand and covering the holes with your thumb and forefinger.

While holding the cup, release your fingers, allowing water to flow into a barrel or wastebasket.

Ask the participants to observe and discuss their observations. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Have participants predict what will happen when the cup and the water are dropped. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Ask participants “What was the same about this procedure as the first?” and “What was different?”. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Ask the participants why this happened and have them suggest one or more reasons for what they observed. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
During discussion, point out that all objects fall with the same accelerated motion in the absence of any external influence. (The water in the cup is massive enough to make the effect of air friction on the cup negligible.) ‘Me object in this case is often called a “freely falling body”. Also point out that no water will flow out when the cup is dropped because both the water and the cup are falling with the same motion. You might use this opportunity to discuss weightlessness.

FORCES & MOTION 7B1

FORCE ON A ROPE

Materials: 8 feet of rope

1. Make a fixed loop that will fit loosely around your partner’s waist.

2. Hold the other end of the rope. Stand as far from your partner as the length of the rope or the available space allows.

3. Have your partner face perpendicular to the stretched rope and try to walk in a straight line. Pull on the rope just hard enough to force your partner to walk in a circle around you while you stay in one place.

4. Describe the direction of the force you must apply to make your partner walk in a circle even though your partner is trying to walk in a straight line. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How does your partner describe the direction of the force. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Have your partner walk at a faster speed. Describe how the force changes. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Trade places with your partner. Compare your descriptions of the force. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 7B1TN

FORCE ON A ROPE

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The force needed to make an object move in a Observing circle is directed toward the center of the circle.
Higher speeds require more force.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: None

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Prepare the ropes with a fixed loop at one end large enough to fit loosely around any waist.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Participants should not walk too fast. The participant at the center should remain in position, and should rotate at that position. Be cautious about using the term centripetal force. Avoid discussing the centrifugal force.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. The force is toward the center of the circle.

5. Same as number 4.

6. At higher speeds more force is required, but it is still toward the center of the motion.

7. Answers should agree.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: 1. An object moves in a circle when a net force acts toward the center of the circle.

2. The faster the participant walks, the greater the required force.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: 1. Try much larger or much smaller circles.

FORCES & MOTION 7B2D

A CIRCLE OF PEOPLE
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: none

1. Have all but one participant stand shoulder to shoulder in a rather tight circle. Each participant should face toward the center of the circle.

2. The remaining participant, participant A, is to be inside the circle. Instruct participant A to walk slowly with constant speed in a straight line and tangent to the circle.

3. Each participant in the circle is instructed to gently push on participant A in the direction of the center of the circle. Participant A should change direction as the push indicates.

4. Participant A should continue to try to walk in a straight line and allow them to be influenced by the push.

5. Encourage the participants to discuss what they see and feel. Direct the discussion to help everyone understand that a force toward the center causes circular motion. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. All interested participants should be allowed to be the walker (participant A) so they can feel the force.

FORCES & MOTION 7B3

Materials: Stomper car or other motorized toy car that runs at a constant speed. (These are available at many toy stores and often from students) 50 centimeters of string tape scissors

1. Tape the string to the side of the Stomper car about half-way between the front and rear wheels.

2. Turn on the Stomper car while holding the other end of the string so that the car travels in a circle with a constant speed. You may want to secure the loose end of the string to the floor rather than holding it. Try tying a loop on the end of the string and slipping it over a paper clip taped to the floor.

3. What do you predict will happen to the moving Stomper car if you cut the string? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Place a ‘target’ (coin, pencil, etc.) outside of the circle.

5. Try to hit the target by cutting the string or by releasing the string at just the right moment.

6. Make a diagram to show where the car should be when it is ‘released’ if it is to hit the target.

FORCES & MOTION 7B3TN

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

An object moving in a circle will begin to travel in a Observing straight line in the absence of centripetal force. Predicting

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should see how Stomper cars move in a straight line with a constant speed before they are driven in a circle.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: If you do not own Stomper cars and cannot find them in your local toy store, there is a good chance that many of your participants could provide them for you if you ask the day before.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: With a limited number of Stomper cars, this activity can easily be done as a demonstration which involves participants in making predictions about where the collision will occur. You may wish to make this into a competition to determine the closest to hitting the target when they cut the string.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 3. The car will move in a straight line in the direction it was traveling when the string was cut. 6. The diagram should show the car aimed directly at the target at the moment it is to be released.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: An object moving in a circle will travel in a straight line when the centripetal force affecting it is no longer available.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Place an object, such as a coin, in your open palm. While rotating, hold the coin so it doesn’t fly off. Find the proper place to release the coin so it will hit a target.

FORCES & MOTION 7B4

THE SPINNING STOPPER

Materials: plastic soda straw rubber stopper 50 centimeters of light-weight string paper clip

1. Run the 50-centimeter piece of string through the plastic straw.

2. Tie a rubber stopper to one end of the string and a paper clip to the other end.

3. Hold the paper clip with one hand and the straw with the other, and swing the rubber stopper slowly overhead. Do not let the paper clip touch the, straw. (Check to see that no one is too close to you before you start).

4. As you spin the stopper, what must you do to keep the paper clip in the same place (about 10 centimeters below the straw)? _______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Spin the stopper faster. Do you notice any difference in the way you kept the paper clip in place? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Spin the stopper again and while it is in motion, let go of the string. What happens to the stopper? Try this a few more times if you are not certain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

7. What do you think was keeping the stopper moving in a circle? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

8. What did you observe about the force needed to keep the stopper moving in a circle as you spun it faster and faster? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 7B4TN

THE SPINNING STOPPER

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
The faster an object moves in a circle, the greater the Observing centripetal force that must be supplied to keep the size of the circle constant.

LEVEL: U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should not undertake this activity until they have mastered the previous basic activities.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: You may wish to make a number of sets of the apparatus before class, rather than having the participants construct them by themselves.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: It is very easy for participants to hit each other with the apparatus while spinning. Whether intentional or by mistake, getting hit by a whirling stopper can be rather painful. Participants should work far away from other people and should be warned to watch where they are walking during this activity. YOU MAY WISH TO HAVE PARTICIPANTS WEAR GOGGLES.

Be certain that the paper clip does not hit the bottom of the straw or the effects of the force that you are trying to show to the participants will not be evident.

The participants may notice that the string does not move in a horizontal plane. This is perfectly acceptable and will not affect the final results.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. You must pull down on the string with your hand.

5. You have to pull harder to keep the paper clip in place.

6. The stopper seems to fly out of the tube. Actually, it is traveling in a straight line with respect to the point where it was when you let go.

7. The force with which you were pulling down.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: 1. The force you are supplying is providing a tension force that is pulling the stopper inward toward the center. The stopper “wants” to travel in a straight line (a result of Newton’s first law - it has inertia), but it is unable to do so because of the force toward the center that is keeping it continuously moving in a circle.

2. The centripetal force is not a “kind” of force.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: 1. Rather than varying the speed at which you are spinning the stopper, try to spin it at a constant speed and vary the radius of the circle by repositioning the paper clip. Observe the force with which you must pull on the string.

2. Try keeping the radius the same and vary the number of stoppers you hang on the end of the string. Spin the stopper(s) again and observe the force with which you must pull on the string.
FORCES & MOTION 7B5D

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
CENTRIPETAL FORCE AND CIRCULAR MOTION

Earlier activities in FORCES have shown that (1) an object at rest may be acted upon by two or more forces, like the force of a table and the force of gravity, which all add to zero; (2) inertia is not a force; (3) acceleration is proportional to the net force, not to the applied force.

Have you noticed how many different names we have used for forces? Names like net, gravity, the force of the table, friction, and more. We have gotten in the habit of naming forces based on their cause. Even net force is a term that says that the important force is caused by all of the forces acting together.

We have also described forces in terms of the direction in which they act. We have used directions like up, down, left, opposite, east, etc. Describing the directions forces act has been so obvious we haven’t had to pay much attention to the names we used. Until now.

When objects move in straight lines, the directions of the forces acting are constant. But when objects move in circles, a force acts with a direction that none of the above descriptions fits. This direction is toward the center of the circle. We call this direction CENTRIPETAL.

Many people mistakenly believe that centripetal force is the name of a kind of force. The truth is a force toward the center of the circular path can be caused by a lot of things: gravity causes the centripetal force- on the earth as it orbits the sun, static electricity causes the centripetal force on an electron as it orbits the nucleus of an atom, a string (held together by electric forces between atoms) causes the centripetal force on something tied to it and swung in a circle, etc.

In MOTION it was shown than when an object changes direction, its velocity is changing. Acceleration is defined as something that happens when velocity changes, not just speed. The activities in 7 A show that when an object is accelerating, there is a net force acting.

‘Me activities in 7 B show that when a net force acts toward the center of a circle, the object moves in a circle. Since a net force is acting, the object must be accelerating. This is correct even if the object is not changing speed. The direction of a force that acts toward the center is called ‘centripetal’.

You may know the name of another direction that has to do with motion in a circle. A force away from the center is called ‘centrifugal’. Many people mistakenly think that when an object is moving in a. circle there is a force acting on the object in a direction away from the center of the circle. They don’t know that inertia is not a force! (See the activities in Part V.) Although there is the strong sensation that an outward force must act on an object moving in a circle or turning a comer, the only force that contributes to the circular motion is one that acts centripetally -- toward the center.

FORCES & MOTION 8WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE

This final section includes some ideas about force that may prove helpful to some participants. Part A is comprised of a single Focus an Physics which helps distinguish between the various names we use to identify forces, explaining that there are only two actual kinds of forces we encounter (gravity and electromagnetism); all the rest are manifestations of electromagnetism. The Focus also introduces Newton’s third law and points out the difference between force and pressure.

In part B Newton’s third law is explored with several examples, some of which participants are likely to find counter intuitive. It contains a Focus addressing the third law in detail and an activity distinguishing between force and pressure.

Part C reveals the physics of the forces encountered on the playground. It asks students to identify forces acting on playgrounds and at amusement parks.

======================================================================================

Naive Ideas

1. There are many different kinds of forces. Activity: 8A1F

2. A single force can act. Activities: 8AlF, 8BID, 8B2D, 8B3D, 8B5D, 8B6, 8B7F, 8ClD

3. Pressure is the same as force. Activities: 8AlF, 8B8

4. Rocket propulsion is due to exhaust gases pushing on something behind the rocket. Activities: 8B5D, 8B6

5. Springs and rubber bands have a specific strength (exert a single force). Activity: 8B4

6. Large objects exert a greater force than small objects. Activities: 8BlD, 8B2D, 8B3D, 8B4

7. Friction always hinders motion. Thus, you always want to eliminate friction. Activity: 8B7F

8. The acceleration of an object depends only on how much force you apply to it. Activities: 8BID, 8B2D

=======================================================================================

A. THERE ARE ONLY TWO BASIC TYPES OF FORCE: GRAVITY AND ELECTROMAGNETISM.

1. Focus on Physics: Types of Force

This focus explains that all forces we can experience are manifestations of gravity or electromagnetism. It also introduces Newton’s third law and points out the difference between force and pressure.

B FORCES ALWAYS COME IN PAIRS, ONE FORCE IN THE PAIR IS ALWAYS EQUAL AND OPPOSITE TO THE OTHER.

1. Demonstration: Who Exerts the Greater Force?

Participants of noticeably different mass, initially at rest, push each other away while sitting in chairs. Scales show that they exert equal forces on each other.

2. Demonstration: Are Forces Equal in a Collision?

Similar to the above, but the people are colliding.
FORCES & MOTION 8WL

WORKSHOP LEADER’S PLANNING GUIDE

3. Demonstration: Which Magnet Pushes Harder?

Two magnets which are very different in strength are pushed together. Scales are not necessary; it can be felt that they exert equal forces on each other.

4. Activity: Which Rubber Band Exerts the Greater Force?

Two rubber bands which are very different in strength are attached to an object between them. When pulled apart, scales show they exert equal forces.

5. Demonstration: Sprinklers and Rockets

Air rushing out of a balloon and water escaping through a hole in the bottom of a can cause a motion in the same way as rockets. A discussion leads participants to conclude this is a result of Newton’s third law and not because the escaping air or water are pushing on the air near the opening.

6. Activity: Forces and Rockets

A chemical reaction in a stoppered bottle releases gas which causes the cork to pop. The bottle is free to move, modeling a rocket, while the cork models the rocket exhaust.

7. Focus on Physics: Newton’s Third Law

This focus guides a discussion on the third law and provides some questions for participants to consider as they look for the agent of the reaction force.

8. Activity: Is Pressure the Same as Force?

This activity demonstrates the difference between force and pressure. Participants are asked to calculate pressures based on estimates of area and force.

C REVIEW,

1. Discussion: Playground Physics

This discussion asks participants to identify forces acting on playgrounds and at amusement parks.

FORCES & MOTION 8A1F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS: TYPES OF FORCE
(Discussion)

If the sum of all the forces acting on an object is zero, then the object is not accelerating. This means that the object is at rest or is moving with constant velocity.

A net force is needed to make an object accelerate. When there is a net force acting on an object, the object will accelerate with an acceleration that is proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. In addition, the direction of the acceleration will be in the direction of the net force.

Forces always come in pairs. These pairs of forces are sometimes called action and reaction. The action force and the reaction force ALWAYS act on different objects.

There are only four kinds of forces: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force. Only the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force affect objects around us in ways we are likely to notice.
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

All objects attract all other objects with a force called gravitational force.

The size of the gravitational force is affected by the distance between the objects and the mass of the objects.

Weight is the force of gravity on an object by the earth when the object is at or near the surface of the earth.

The force of gravity between the sun and the planets keep the planets from moving through space in straight lines. The force of gravity between the planets and their moons has the same effect. The shape and relative motions of the galaxies are the results of the gravitational force. The ultimate fate of the universe is determined by the force of gravity.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

Scientists believe that what we usually call electric force and magnetic force are really the same thing.

Electric forces act on objects when the object carries a net electric charge or a non-uniform distribution of charge.

The size of an electric force depends on the amount of charge and the distance between the charged objects.

Magnetic forces are commonly observed between two magnets or between a magnet and some metals.

Magnetic force is also observed around a moving electric charge. In fact, physicists believe that all magnetic forces are produced by moving charges. (Electrons surrounding some atomic nuclei give rise to the magnetism associated with permanent magnets.)

Magnetic forces act on moving electric charges.

The size of magnetic forces on a moving charge depends on the amount of moving electric charge, the speed of the moving electric charge, the direction of the electric charge’s motion relative to the direction of the magnetic field and the intensity (i.e., strength) of the magnetic field.

The size of magnetic forces between magnets or between a magnet and any object depends on how many .magnetic” atoms are present in the objects, on how the atoms of the materials are arranged, the exact type of atoms the material is made of and the distance between the objects.

All other observable forces are manifestations of the electromagnetic force.

FORCES & MOTION 8A1F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS: TYPES OF FORCE - 2

SOME MANIERSTATIONS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
WHICH ARE IMPORTANT IN THIS UNIT

Frictional Force

Frictional forces are often classified as sliding, rolling, static and fluid.

Sliding and rolling frictional forces result when solids in contact pass by each other. Static frictional force results when solids are in contact, at rest and when a force or forces are trying to cause them to move with respect to each other. Fluid frictional force results when a solid is moving through a gas or a liquid.

Most examples of accelerating objects rely on friction. A car, for example, starts moving, speeds up, turns comers, slows down and stops only because of friction.

Our ability to grasp things, to walk and to sit in chairs depends on friction.

Frictional force often causes the wearing away of surfaces. Lubricants are used to reduce frictional force in many machines.

Frictional force causes kinetic energy to be transformed into thermal energy. (The Concorde airliner gets so hot during normal flight that it expands several inches due to the heating.)

Normal Force

“Normal” means “perpendicular to”.

Whenever an object is placed on a surface, a force acts normal to the surfaces in contact. This causes the supporting surface to sag. Since this sagging is slight, it often goes unnoticed. However, it is always there and the resulting force of the surface attempting to return to its original position is perpendicular to the surface. This force is called the normal force.

The lower surface pushes upwards because its molecules are stretched and/or compressed. The electric forces among the molecules give rise to the force.

Tension Force

Tension force is the force exerted by a string, spring, beam or other object which is being stretched or compressed. The electric forces among the molecules give rise to the force.

The tension force is always directed along the length of the string, beam, etc.

Pressure IS NOT A FORCE

Pressure is equal to the force divided by the area over which that force is exerted.

Solids, liquids and gases can apply pressure.

FORCES & MOTION 8B1D

WHO EXERTS THE GREATER FORCE? (Discussion/Demonstration)

Materials: 2 rolling chairs 2 bathroom scales

1. The diagram above shows a child and an adult pushing on each other. (They are holding bathroom scales to measure the forces exerted.) Predict how they will move.

a. Only the child will move. b. Only the adult will move. c. Both will move, but the child will move faster. d. Both will move, but the adult will move faster. e. They will both move equally fast.

Explain your prediction. (Does the answer depend on who does the pushing? What if both push at the same time?)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Which scale will show the biggest number? (The reading on a scale measures the force acting on the person holding that scale.)

a. The adult’s scale will read much more than the child’s. b. The adult’s scale will read a little more than the child’s. c. The scales will read the same. d. The child’s scale will read much more than the adult’s. e. The child’s scale will read a little more than the adult’s.

FORCES & MOTION 8B1D

WHO EXERTS THE GREATER FORCE? 2

Explain your prediction. (Does the answer depend on who does the pushing? What if both push at the same time?)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Suppose the situation was slightly different than in the illustration. For each situation below, predict how the readings on the scales would compare with each other. Explain your predictions.

3. If the adult’s chair was backed up against a wall, how would the readings on the scales compare with each other? Explain. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. If the child’s chair was backed up against a wall, how would the readings on the scales compare with each other? Explain. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. If both chairs were backed up against a wall, how would the readings on the scales compare with each other? Explain. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B1DTN

WHO EXERTS THE GREATER FORCE?
(Discussion/Demonstration)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
I
nteracting objects exert forces on each other that are Predicting equal in size and opposite in direction. Inferring

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Some previous experience with idea of force is helpful.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Make sure the scales read the same for equal forces and that they have about the same response time.

Find a way to demonstrate each question. Perhaps participants of distinctly different masses will be willing to play the two parts. Alternatively, one participant might hold a-box of books to increase the mass of ‘the adult’.

If a computer and two force probes are available, more convincing evidence may be obtained.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Scales that measure tension rather than compression can be substituted. Rope or heavy cord may be needed. The activity changes from pushing on each other to pulling on each other. Large, demonstration-size scales calibrated in Newtons are available.

Have the participants discuss each question with a partner or two, followed by a general discussion. If possible, demonstrate the results. Be sure the scales are held vertically and that fingers are not where they will be pinched.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. c 2. c 3. the same 4. the same 5. the same

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Interacting objects exert forces on each other that are equal in size and opposite in direction, even when one object is more massive than the other and regardless of the resulting motion. Newton’s second and third laws are at work here.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: See next activity.

FORCES & MOTION 8B2D

ARE FORCES EQUAL IN A COLLISION?
(Discussion/Demonstration)

Materials: 2 rolling chairs 2 bathroom scales

Note!!! Make sure that the persons holding the scales do net get their fingers between the scales when they meat???

1. The diagram above shows a moving person about to collide with a stationary person. They weigh the same. (They are holding bathroom scales to measure the forces exerted.)

Which scale will show the biggest number during the collision? (The reading on a scale measures the force acting on the person holding that scale.)

a. The moving scale will read much more than the stationary one. b. The moving scale will read a little more than the stationary one. c. The scales will read the same. d. The stationary scale will read much more than the moving one. e. The stationary scale will read a little more than the moving one.

Explain your prediction. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Suppose the moving person (an adult) weighed a lot more than the stationary person (a child).

Which scale will show the biggest number daring the collision? (The reading on a scale measures the force acting on the person holding that scale.)

a. The moving scale (the adult’s) will read much more than the stationary one (the child’s). b. The moving scale (the adult’s) will read a little more than the stationary one (the child’s). c. The scales will read the same. d. The stationary scale (the child’s) will read much more than the moving one (the adult’s). e. The stationary scale (the child’s) will read a little more than the moving one (the adult’s).

Explain your prediction. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B2D

ARE FORCES EQUAL IN A COLLISION? 2

3. Suppose the moving person (a child) weighed a lot less than the stationary person (an adult).

Which scale will show the biggest number during the collision? (The reading on a scale measures the force acting on the person holding that scale.)

a. The moving scale (the child’s) will read much more than the stationary one (the adult’s). b. The moving scale (the child’s) will read a little more than the stationary one (the adult’s). c, The scales will read the same. d. The stationary scale (the adult’s) will read much more than the moving one (the child’s). e. The stationary scale (the adult’s) will read a little more than the moving one (the child’s). Explain your prediction. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Suppose the heavier person (adult) and the lighter person (child) were moving toward each other.

Which scale will show the biggest number during the collision? (The reading on a scale measures the force acting on the person holding that scale.)

a. The moving scale (the child’s) will read much more than the stationary one (the adult’s). b. The moving scale (the child’s) will read a little more than the stationary one (the adult’s). c. The scales will read the same. d. The stationary scale (the adult’s) will read much more than the moving one (the child’s). e. The stationary scale (the adult’s) will read a little more than the moving one (the child’s).

Explain your prediction. (Does it matter whether they have the same speed?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Summarize what you have learned about the forces acting on two objects which collide. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B2DTN

ARE FORCES EQUAL IN A COLLISION?
(Discussion/Demonstration)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

When two objects act upon each other, each feels the Predicting same amount of force (but in the opposite direction) Inferring regardless of relative motion or mass.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 45 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Some previous experience with idea of force is helpful.

ADVANCE PREPARA71ON: Make sure the scales read the same for equal forces and that they have about the same response time.

Find a way to demonstrate each question. Perhaps participants will be willing to play the two parts. Alternatively, one participant might hold a box of books to increase the mass of ‘the adult’.

If a computer and two force probes are available, more convincing evidence may be obtained.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Scales that measure tension rather than compression can be substituted. Rope or heavy cord may be needed. The activity changes from having the participants initially moving toward each other to having them initially moving away from each other. Large, demonstration-size scales calibrated in Newtons are available. Have the participants discuss each question with a partner or two, followed by a general discussion. If possible, demonstrate the results. Be sure the scales are held vertically and that fingers are not where they will be pinched,
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. c 2. c 3. c 4. c 5. The forces are always equal in magnitude.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Interacting objects exert forces that are equal in size and opposite in direction, even when one object is more massive than the other and regardless of the resulting motion. Newton’s second and third laws are at work here.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Participants will find it interesting, but confusing, to discuss the results of collisions between vehicles of different masses. Although each vehicle feels the same force, a passenger riding in the more massive vehicle will feel a smaller force than if riding in the less massive vehicle. Hence a passenger is safer in a truck than in a car.

FORCES & MOTION 8B3D

WHICH MAGNET PUSHES HARDER?
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: several magnets 2 containers of identical size and shape glue or tissue paper tape

1. Demonstrate that the magnets do not have the same strength (by using them to pick up paper clips or other objects).

2. Place the magnet packages on a level surface so they will repel each other if brought together. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Ask participants to predict how it would feel if repelling poles were brought together. (Would the force exerted by the hand holding the stronger one be greater than the force exerted by the hand holding the weaker one?) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Have a participant slide the magnet packages together, without lifting them, so they nearly touch. Have the participant describe the force each hand is exerting. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Have the participants tell whether or not the magnets seem to be the same strength. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Have other participants repeat the above to confirm the answers given.

7. Discuss that the magnets are pushing on each other and reaffirm Newton’s third law. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B3DTN

WHICH MAGNET PUSHES HARDER?
(Demonstration/Discussion)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

When two objects act upon each other, each feels the Predicting same amount of force (but in the opposite direction) Inferring regardless of whether one is ‘stronger’.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 15 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: none

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Create two identical-looking containers for the magnets so that one package is noticeably stronger than the other. Glue or tape magnets together to adjust the strengths. Pack with paper so the magnets stay in place within the containers.

At least one set of repelling poles should be at the ends of the containers so they can be brought very close together. It helps if the finished containers are the same mass.

If two identical magnets with noticeably different strengths are available, packaging is not necessary. Perhaps one of a pair of magnets can be strengthened or weakened for this purpose.

If a computer and two force probes are available, more convincing evidence may be obtained.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: The stronger the magnets are, the more reliable the sensation of equal forces.
RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 4. The forces are equal. 5. The magnets seem to be the same strength.
POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Interacting objects exert forces that are equal in size and opposite in direction, even when one object is ‘stronger’ than the other. Ibis demonstrates Newton’s third law.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: With the right magnets or with careful packaging, show that when one magnet is levitated above the other the distance between them is the same regardless of whether the stronger or the weaker magnet is being levitated. (Magnets must be the same weight for this to work!)

FORCES & MOTION 8B4

WHICH RUBBER BAND EXERTS THE GREATER FORCE?

Materials: 2 or more different-strength rubber bands 1 paper clip 2 spring scales

1. Study the diagram below, then answer the questions which follow.

2. If the rubber bands are stretched by pulling on the scales, which scale will show the greater force, or will the force be the same for both scales? Explain your reasoning. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Predict which rubber band will exert the greater force on the paper clip which connects them, or will they exert the same force? Explain your reasoning. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Set up the equipment as shown above. Using the spring scales, observe and compare the results with your prediction in question 2 above. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How could you test your prediction in question 3 above? Make a diagram showing the set-up.

6. Connect scales as you show in your diagram in question 5. Describe the results. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Compare your set-up with that of other teams. Did everyone try the same thing? Does everyone agree on the answer? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B4TN

WHICH RUBBER BAND EXERTS THE GREATER FORCE?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
When two objects interact they exert equal Predicting
(but opposite) forces on each other, even if they are not the same ‘strength’.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: none

ADVANCE PREPARATION: If rubber bands of noticeably-different strengths are not available, a weak rubber band can be made by joining ends of two or more stronger ones.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Participants may want additional scales for question 6. Allow teams to work together on question 6 or explain that the scales at the ends can be moved to between the paper clip and the rubber bands.

Have participants make the measurements and/or have them test each other with their eyes closed to feel the forces on the ends. Have the class share results, which would suggest that the forces are equal. Note: Results may differ slightly due to uncertainty or an error in measurement.

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 2. The scales will read the same. 3. The forces are the same.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
SUMMARY DISCUSSION: ‘Me rubber bands are acting on each other through the paper clip. Newton’s third law holds in spite of complications.

The scales are also acting on each other through the rubber bands and the paper clip. The hands are also acting on each other through the scales, rubber bands and the paper clip!

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Show how connecting two scales together allows one to serve as a standard for calibrating the other.

Provide scales with different graduations. Show how hooking them together provides a way to find equivalences (as between pounds and Newtons).

FORCES & MOTION 8B5D

SPRINKLERS AND ROCKETS
(Demonstration/Discussion)

Materials: hammer string small nail hanger empty-can water wire balloon

1. Blow up a balloon and pinch the end to keep the air in. Have participants predict what will happen if it is released. Then let go of it. Discuss the cause of the balloon’s motion. Compare the results to the way a rocket and a jet engine operate.

2. Support the can over a sink or basin. See the above diagram. Have participants predict what will happen if the can is filled with water. Pour water into the can. And observe the results. Discuss the cause of the can’s motion. Compare this result to the behavior of rotating lawn sprinklers.

FORCES & MOTION 8B5DTN

SPRINKLERS AND ROCKETS
(Demonstration/Discussion)

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

Newton’s third law explains rockets, jets Predicting and sprinklers. Inferring

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 20 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: none

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Using a hammer and a small nail, make 4 small-holes near the bottom of an empty can. The holes should be in a straight line about 1/4 inch apart.

Run wire around the top rim of the can, or punch 2 more holes near the top through which to thread the wire. Hang the wire from a piece of string. (The longer the string, the more noticeable the results will be.)

RESPONSES TO
SOME QUESTIONS: 1. When the air escapes from the balloon, the balloon moves in the opposite direction from the escaping air. This is an illustration of Newton’s third law. This law is used to explain the motion of both rockets and jet planes. As hot gases are forced out of the back, the jet or rocket shoots forward at high speed.

2. The water goes out of the holes in one direction and the can swings in the opposite direction.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The pressure in compressed air, in hot gases and in a container of water exerts equal forces in all direction. When the gas or liquid is allowed to move, there is an unbalanced force on the gas or liquid causing it to accelerate. The equal and opposite reaction force causes the balloon, rocket, jet engine, sprinkler, etc. to accelerate in the opposite direction. This is a consequence of Newton’s third law.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Demonstrate a toy rocket that works on compressed air. These are available in most toy stores.

Demonstrate a toy rocket that uses a chemical fuel.

FORCES & MOTION 8B6

FORCES AND ROCKETS

Materials: glass bottle (small catsup bottle vinegar (acetic acid) or any bottle with a long neck) baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with a cork to fit opening small plastic spoon twist tie or small rubber band tissue paper, 10 cm x 10 cm 5 or 6 pencils

1. Pour vinegar into the bottle to a depth of about 3 centimeters.

2. Place two level spoonfuls of baking soda in the center of the tissue paper. Fold up the comers of the tissue paper and tie them together with the twist fie or rubber band.

3. Place the six pencils parallel to each other on a smooth, flat surface. The pencils should be about 3 centimeters apart.

4. Working quickly, drop the tissue paper package into the bottle and put the cork in the bottle. DO NOT FORCE THE CORK INTO THE BOTTLE TOO TIGHTLY. Then place the bottle on its side across the pencils.

CAUTION:
AIM THE CORK AWAY FROM ALL SPECTATORS!
DO NOT STAND IN FRONT OF THE CORK!

Observe the motion of the bottle and cork.

5. What happened inside the bottle? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Describe the motion you observed. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

7. How was the action of the bottle and the escaping gas like that of a rocket? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Describe the action and reaction forces acting on the cork and on the bottle. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B6TN

FORCES AND ROCKETS

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:

Newton’s third law: For every action force Inferring there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 30 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Participants should have some experience discussing forces.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: Be sure that you have tried this activity before you have the participants do it.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: CAUTION: DO NOT LET PARTICIPANTS STAND IN FRONT OF THE CORK! USE SAFETY GOGGLES. THE CORK SHOULD NOT BE INSERTED TOO TIGHTLY!

RESPONSES TO
SONS QUESTIONS: 5. The baking soda reacts with the vinegar releasing carbon dioxide.

6. The cork will fly out and the bottle will roll back on the pencils.

7. The cork is like the pay load of a rocket and the carbon dioxide is like the fuel. The bottle may be considered as the combustion chamber.

8. There are actually two pairs of reaction and reaction forces. The first is the force of the carbon dioxide gas on the cork and the reaction is the force of the cork on the carbon dioxide gas. The second is the force of the carbon dioxide gas on the bottle and the reaction force is the force of the bottle on the carbon dioxide gas.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: The participants should be reminded that rocket action does not require an external material to push against. In essence, a rocket is a device that throws material in one direction (ie., the fuel) so that the other part (i.e., the payload) can be sent in the direction of interest.

Emphasize the answer to question 8 above.

Discuss the recoil of a weapon.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Demonstrate a toy rocket that works on compressed air. These are available in most toy stores.

FORCES & MOTION 8B7F

FOCUS ON PHYSICS
NEWTON’S THIRD LAW
(Discussion)

Although it is commonly called Newton’s third law of MOTION, it is really a law that describes the nature of forces. Physicists believe that all forces come in pairs called action forces and reaction forces. In brief these are often called action and reaction. Thus it can be noted, “Forces, like shoes, come in pairs!”

Newton’s third law is often quoted as, “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” However, this statement is incomplete. Newton stated correctly that the action force and the reaction FORCE always act on different and complementary objects. Stated briefly, when A exerts a force on B, then B always exerts an equal but oppositely-directed force on A.

As an example of Newton’s third law consider that the earth exerts a force on any object. Ibis gravitational force is called the object’s weight. Thus according to Newton’s third law the object must also exert an equal and opposite force on the earth. The earth pulls the object down, and the object pulls the earth up. Think of it as “A pulls down on B and B pulls up on A - with the same amount of force”.

Although the action and reaction forces have the same magnitude, the object and the earth have very different masses. The result is that the acceleration of the object is much larger than the acceleration of the earth. (A result of Newton’s second law.) In fact we can’t even hope to detect the resulting motion of the earth because its mass is about 10,000 billion billion times greater than the mass of a typical human. However, it would be correct to say that the object falls down to the earth and the earth falls up to the object’ Thus the earth and the object meet at a point between them (but not measurably above the initial position of the surface of the earth).

Another example involves walking. We rely on the force of friction between our feet and the earth to allow us to accelerate (start moving, stop moving, speed up, slow down and turn comers). Some people think that when they start to walk they are pushing themselves forward, but it is really the earth that is pushing us forward - the reaction force to the action force which we exert on the earth!

On a slippery surface we can’t push on the earth and it can’t push on us. When there is friction, we push the earth in one direction while the earth pushes us in the opposite direction.

Here are SOME third-law questions to consider discussing:

Do you think if all the people on earth could be organized to start running toward the east at the same time the speed of rotation of the earth would change? Would it speed up or slow down? How much?

What pushes a ship forward? State the forces in the form “A acts on B, B acts on A”.

What pushes a small, propeller-driven airplane forward? State the forces in the form “A acts on B, B acts on A”.

When you throw a ball, is the earth involved? Discuss the forces if the earth IS involved and if it is NOT.

Discuss the action/reaction pairs when someone rows a boat.

Perhaps you know of the rocket-powered chair the astronauts have used for moving around outside the space shuttle. What if it failed when the astronaut was 20 or 30 meters away from the shuttle? Could the astronaut get back to the shuttle? How?
FORCES & MOTION 8B8

IS PRESSURE THE SAME AS FORCE?

Materials: pencil or ball point pen

1. hold a dull pencil or a ball point pen between your palms with the point against one palm and the eraser-end against the other palm. How does the force exerted by the point against your palm compare with the force exerted by the eraser-end on the other palm? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

2. When you push harder with your palms, does one palm hurt more than the other? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Since the force is the same, what factor affects the amount of pain you feet? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Pressure is calculated by dividing the force by the area of contact. Suppose you press-the pencil with 2 Newtons of force. Estimate the areas of contact and calculate the pressures.

Area of point: ___________________________

Pressure of point: __________________________

Area of eraser-end: __________________________

Pressure of eraser-end: __________________________

5. Explain why pain or discomfort is not a reliable measure of force. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Which factor, force or pressure, is more reliable in predicting whether one object will penetrate another? _____________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Explain why people can ski and snow shoe over deep, powdery snow but cannot walk over the same snow. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
FORCES & MOTION 8B8TN

IS PRESSURE THE SAME AS FORCE?

IDEA: PROCESS SKILLS:
Force and pressure are not the same thing. Using numbers Inferring

LEVEL: L/U DURATION: 15 min.

STUDENT BACKGROUND: Must be able to apply Newton’s third law.

ADVANCE PREPARATION: If paper or styrofoam cups are available, the question of penetration (number 6) can be demonstrated or done by participants.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Pencils should not be very sharp.

RESPONSES TO
SONS QUESTIONS: 1. The forces are equal. 2. The point hurts more. 3. The size of the end (the area of contact). 4. The area of a pencil point might be about 1 mm2, making the pressure about 2 N/mm2. The area of the eraser end is about 50 mm2, making the pressure about 0.04 N/mm2. (The pressure at the point is about 50 times greater!) 5. The same force causes more discomfort if the area is smaller. 6. Pressure. 7. The larger area of the skis or snow shoes causes the pressure to be less; with reduced pressure., the amount of penetration is reduced.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN
THE SUMMARY DISCUSSION: Pressure is not the same as force.

Pain and likelihood of penetration depend on pressure, not force.

POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Calculate the total force on a ‘typical’ human due to air pressure. Discuss why we aren’t crushed.

Discuss air pressure in tires. (Do car tires have 30 pounds of air in them when inflated? Is there no air in a tire when a pressure gauge reads zero?)

FORCES & MOTION 8C1D

PLAYGROUND PHYSICS
(Discussion)

Initiate a discussion about the motions of playground equipment and amusement park rides. Have participants suggest several rides that could be used to illustrate ideas related to the FORCE & MOTION workshop. As suggestions are made, list them on the chalkboard. Typical playground equipment includes merry-go-rounds, see. saws, swings, et cetera. The participants may wish to offer an opinion as to which piece of equipment has the fastest speed and which has the greatest acceleration.

While at their desks, have participants complete a chart which lists for each ride, a description of

1. the motion you undergo when you ride on playground equipment or an amusement park ride. 2. where, during the ride, there is any non-accelerated motion. 3. where, during the ride, there is any accelerated motion. 4. what force(s) are used during the start of the ride. 5. what force(s) make the ride stop.

Lead participants to discover that all of these recreational objects involve motion and usually an acceleration. During accelerations we usually feel that there are forces acting on us that are not really there; forces which are due to the inertia of our bodies.

A force is required to start and stop the motion, but it is not usually the same force.

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 Page 1

ACCELEROMETER ACTIVITY

At Rest

1. If you were to mount the accelerometer on a cart, what would be the behavior of the liquid in the accelerometer when the cart is not moving? First predict what its appearance will be, then place the accelerometer on your cart and observe the liquid level.

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Accelerated State: Small Force

2. Give the cart a push to start it moving. The observation will be easier if you give the cart a long, slow push. describe the behavior of the liquid during the time you are pushing on the cart.

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Accelerated State: Large Force

3. Push the cart with a harder force and describe how this affects the liquid accelerometer.

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Accelerated State

4. Tie a string to the cart. Run the string over a pulley and attach the string to a pulling-weight over the side of your table. A slow, steady acceleration should be produced by using the falling weight and pulley. AFTER the pulling-weight is released, describe the behavior of the liquid in the accelerometer.

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 2

Constant speed in a given direction

5. Give the cart a push and let it go at a constant speed. Concentrate on the liquid level after you stop pushing on the cart. while it is coasting across the table. describe the behavior of the liquid in the accelerometer. ( Compare your results with #1.)

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

6. From one end of the table, give the cart a small push and then let it go. Then push against the cart to stop it at the other end of the table. Describe the behavior of the liquid in the accelerometer for the following parts of this motion. A. Pushing to start B. While it is coasting C. Pushing to stop

A. Pushing to start

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

B. While it is coasting

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

C. Pushing to stop

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

_____________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

7. Mount the accelerometer so it is level when the cart is placed on an incline. A.) Hold the cart at the top of the incline and then let it go. B.) Describe the behavior of the accelerometer as it rolls down the incline. What does this indicate?

Holding at the top of the incline:

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

____________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 3

7. (continued)

Going down the incline:

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

8. Thrust the cart up the incline so it will roll close to the top. When it stops, catch it so it doesn’t roll back down. What does the accelerometer liquid look like as the cart is rolling about halfway up the incline? What does this suggest about the cart’s motion.

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

9. Thrust the cart up the incline the same as you did before, but this time, let it stop and roll back down. What does the accelerometer look like as it is:

Going Up:

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
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Stopped at the Top: PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Rolling back down the incline:

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
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Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 4

10. Hold one end of the accelerometer in your hand at arm’s length. Swing it around in a circle at a

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

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__________________________________
__________________________________

11. Hold the accelerometer in your hand at arm’s length again. This time, hold it so it is perpendicular to the direction of motion. (You should be looking at the sides with the graph scale.) What does the accelerometer look like as you swing it around in a circle? What does this suggest?

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

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__________________________________
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12. Place the accelerometer on the turntable with the end of the accelerometer placed at the center. What does the accelerometer look like as the turntable spins?

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

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__________________________________
__________________________________

13. Place the accelerometer on a record player with the center of the accelerometer at the center of the turntable. What does the accelerometer liquid look like as the turntable spins? What does this suggest about this motion?

PREDICTION ACTUAL EXPLANATION

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 5

14. Attach paper clips and string to the ends of the accelerometer and swing it like a pendulum. Be careful to see that the accelerometer stays level while it is swinging. Describe the behavior of the liquid in the accelerometer.
Prediction
Stopped Center Stopped

End < < < End Stopped Center Stopped

End > > > End
Actual:
Stopped Center Stopped

End < < < End Stopped Center Stopped

End > > > End

15. Attach two C-clamps to the ends of the table and hook a spring on each . Hook the other end of each spring to a cart carrying an accelerometer. Set the cart in motion and observe the accelerometer. Prediction: Stopped Center Stopped

End < < < End Stopped Center Stopped

End > > > End

Actual: Stopped Center Stopped

End < < < End Stopped Center Stopped

End > > > End
Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 7 Name________________________________ Date_______________Period_____________

Accelerometer Test

1. Identify two natural states of being a)

b)

2. What would the accelerometer look like for each of the above? a) b) 3. _____________________ Identify another state of being other than a natural state.

4. How would you be able to detect the difference between a natural state and your response for question #3.

5. What would the accelerometer look like if you gave it a “medium” push?

Force >

> > >

6. What would the accelerometer look like as it coasts after being pushed?

> > >

7. What would the accelerometer look like as it is being stopped?

< Force

> > >

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 8

8. Identify what the accelerometer would look like if held at arms length and you spin around?

9. What does the observation of the accelerometer tell you about the force being applied ? (What is the direction of the force?)

10. Identify what will happen to the accelerometer when it moves back and forth on a cart?

Stopped at End >>>>Center>>>> Stopped at End

11. Describe the forces being applied to the accelerometer as it moves to the right (as above).

12. What would an accelerometer look like that is placed in the center of a turn table and is spinning?
Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 9 Name________________________________ Date_______________Period_____________

1. Identify two states identified in Newton’s first law a) A body at rest

b) A body going at a constant speed in a given direction (constant velocity)

2. What would the accelerometer look like for each of the above? a) b) 3. An accelerating body Identify another state other than the above.

4. How would you be able to detect the difference between the accelerometers in #2 and #3? Accelerometers that are in an accelerated state (#3) will show a slope in the liquid level.

5. What would the accelerometer look like if you gave it a “medium” push?

Force >

> > >

6. What would the accelerometer look like as it coasts after being pushed (neglect friction) ?

> > >

7. What would the accelerometer look like as it is being stopped?

< Force

> > >

Forces and Motion Appendix 1 page 10

8. Identify what the accelerometer would look like if held at arms length and you spin around?

9. What does the observation of the accelerometer tell you about the force being applied? (What is the direction of the force?) The direction of the applied force is inward (pulling the accelerometer) causing the accelerometer to slope inward. This means the acceleration is inward.

10. Identify what will happen to the accelerometer when it moves back and forth on a cart connected on the ends by two springs?

Stopped at End >>>>Center>>>> Stopped at End

11. Describe the forces being applied to the accelerometer as it moves to the right (as above). The spring force is the greatest when it is stretched farther. This means that the greatest force on the accelerometer from the spring on the right will be as the cart comes to a stop going to the left and begins to be pulled back to the right. As the cart moves right, towards the middle, the force is reduced. As the cart passes the middle the two springs are equal, therefore balanced forces (no acceleration) and the liquid is level. As the cart continues tot he right (past center) the spring on the left begins to pull back, slowing the cart down.

12. What would an accelerometer look like that is placed in the center of a turn table and is spinning?

Forces and Motion Appendix 2 Hovercraft

Ideas
Bob Marzewski
Low Friction/Large Capacity Platform

The old carbon dioxide air pucks provide a nearly friction free body for use in demonstrating mechanical phenomenon. This piece of demo equipment is capable of carrying a person on a platform which displays a very low coefficient of friction.

The platform is made of a 4 foot circle of plywood (3/4” is best, though mine is 1/2”) that is covered on the bottom side by an over sized piece of fairly heavy plastic. The plastic is then wrapped around the edge of the disk and stapled to the top of the disk using staples closely spaced around the disk. Leave a little slack in the plastic sheet. A few 1-3” holes are cut out of the plastic sheet.

A hole is drilled thought the center of the disk large enough to insert a screw and nut. This screw is used to hold the center of the plastic sheet close to the disk. To keep the screw head from pulling through he plastic, the lid from a coffee can is used as a washer on the bottom of the disk. Off center, a hole is drilled large enough to allow the hose from a vacuum cleaner to fit snugly. This hose is connected to the exhaust end of the cleaner.

Plastic sheet covering bottom of disk is bought around the edge to the top and stapled copiously.
Once built, the disk is placed on a smooth floor with the plastic side down, the vacuum cleaner is set on the disk and the hose is connected. A chair is placed at the center. When the cleaner is switched on, the disk will rise a few cm off the ground as the plastic inflates. A volunteer sits on the chair, adjusting their weight to center themselves.
When given a small sideways push, the disk will move steadily and with almost no perceptible friction.

Forces and Motion Appendix 3 Hoovercraft
The Hoovercraft or FLOATING with NEWTON by Bill Reitz
TEACHER'S NOTES
4th grade through college
Materials:
Human-sized air puck (see building instructions below) Shop-vac or high output vacuum cleaner “muscle-builder” or strong spring measuring tape timer long hallway or gym floor cottage cheese lid or small record dish soap bottle top balloon nail

Concepts: Inertia at a “gut” level (Feeling Newton's First Law) Natural Motion (qualitatively and quantitatively) Constant Speed Acceleration F = ma (Pulling for Newton's Second Law) Centripetal Force (optional)

Teacher notes for Group Activities or
What is natural motion?

Newton's First Law
“An object in motion tends to stay in straight line motion - unless acted upon by an outside force.”

The first investigations focus on the feelings the Rider and Puller have as they start up, move and coast. Later one try to quantify the motion. Finally accelerating the puck is studied qualitatively and quantitatively.

1. Assemble class in a long level hallway or gym floor. Ideally the teacher should pair up class members - one Rider and one Puller. Initially the teacher should pull students or select and train individual “Pullers.” Depending on the age or maturity of students each student should be allowed to pull another at a constant speed. Riders and Pullers should get to change jobs. All students. All students should get to ride the Puck if teacher decides to limit Pullers.

While all students will find it fun to ride the hovercraft, it is the Puller that gets to best sense the physics of the situation.

Investigation 1
Getting a Feel for the First Law

Pull student along at a constant speed then let her/him continue to float down the hall without your Pulling the puck. Have the student focus on what it feels like to move at constant speed and what the sensation of coasting is like. Can they get a gut feeling of an object in motion tends to stay in motion? Do they feel instead that something is pushing them forward after you let go? (This is a common preconception)

If students are Pullers - have them try to sense what they have to do to start the puck. How do they pull - more at first then less? Constant all the time? When the puck is moving do they have to continue pulling? Is there any friction? When the Rider is coasting how much do they pull? What does the Puller have to do to stop the puck? What kind of pulling is most effective? Slow constant pull? Hard fast pull? (use caution!)

Investigation 2
Natural Notion by the Numbers

Divide the group into 3 or 4 pairs of Timers, one Rider and one 'Puller' for the hovercraft, a Starter and two Catchers. Timers should have a stopwatch or watch with a second hand. Have the Timer pairs stand across from each other with each set of pairs spaced along the hall the same distance from the next Timer pair. 5 meters (15 feet) apart is about far enough. The first Timer pair should be the same distance away from a start line. The Puller should get the Rider and puck up to speed and leave go allowing them to coast to the start line and beyond. The Starter shouts “start” as the puck gets to the start line and all Timers start their watches at the same time. As the puck gets to them each Timer pair stops their clock. The Catcher slows and stops the Rider and puck when they have gone past the last Timer pair.

Depending in the sophistication of the students the data can be analyzed as either a table or graph. Does the data show that it took the puck twice as long to go twice the distance? Three times for three times the distance? Is the time between the each pair nearly the same? What is the average speed for the trip? What is the speed between each Timer pair? What does Natural Motion mean in terms of speed or distance traveled in equal times?

Extension 1: Collect all data but don't let students know the time for the last pair of Timers. Have students predict time for that pair and compare to the actual value.
Forces and Motion Appendix 3 Hoovercraft

Extension 2: Have students predict how far apart a set of Timers must stand for the puck to take 2 seconds to go from one to the next. Difficulty: Puller must be able to reproduce same speed each time.

Investigation 3
Physics for Accelerated Students or
May the Force Be with You

Newton's Second Law
“The change in the natural motion of an object is directly related to the net force applied to the object.

(Acceleration is proportional to force)

The class should again be formed into Pullers and Riders. This time the Puller uses a spring to pull the puck. A suitable spring can be found in some of the old fashioned chest muscle builders. They usually consist of 3 or 4 springs side by side attached to a handle at each end. Remove all but one spring from the apparatus. The Puller holds one handle, the Rider the other. A Starter holds the Rider from moving until the Puller stretches the spring to some chosen length. The Starter then lets go and the Puller must continue to move, KEEPING the spring STRETCHED the SAME AMOUNT ALL the time. Some practice is necessary as the Puller has a tendency to pull hard at first then lessen up. The spring must be stretched the same at all times. This is an experiment for the Puller's edification. If the Puller keeps the stretch the same the puck will accelerate and the Puller must move faster and faster. The Puller will get a very real and tiring feeling of what acceleration is.

Focus the students' attention on how the puck is moving and how the Puller must move. Remind them that the Puller is applying a constant force. (She is pulling the same amount all the time) The Rider and especially the Puller will get a “gut” feeling for what acceleration is. Students should get a qualitative sense of how a constant force results in increasing speed. We call that acceleration.

An alternative to using a spring is to use a heavy rubber bungee cord.

Placing the bungee cord inside a golf tube will help the Puller keep the cord stretched a fixed amount. One may need to cut the golf tube to an appropriate length.

Investigation 4
Second Law by the Numbers

Combine steps #3 and #4 by dividing up the class into Timers, Starter, Catcher, Puller and Rider. This time the puck does not coast past the timers. Instead the Puller uses the spring to accelerate the puck past the Timer pairs. Evaluate the data similarly to the way in #3.

This time does the time double for twice the distance? Is the time between each timer pair the same or is it less each time? Is the speed constant or does it increase between each Timer pair? What does the graph show?

Stress the change in speed is due to the constant force.

Extension 1: Similar to Extension I for #3. Predict the time for the last Timer pair.

Extension 2: Same as Extension 2 for #3. What distance will the puck cover during the final 2 seconds?

Investigation 5
Changing Directions or Forced to Cut Corners

Changing the direction of motion while still traveling at the same speed is also acceleration

This activity is best done by dividing into Riders and Pullers and using a large open space or corner intersection of two hallways. Be sure you can see around the corner and that the hallways are blocked from other traffic.

Pose the problem of how to get a coasting puck around a corner. Invite student solutions and try them out. When they come up with a viable solution, focus their attention on need for a force to change the direction of the coasting motion.

Extension 1: What do you have to do to get the puck to go in a complete circle? Is there a force needed? Which way is the force directed? Is the force the same all they way around the circle '? Does it take more or less force to go in a larger diameter circle? smaller circle? Use the stretch of the spring to 'measure' the force. (Greater stretch = greater force) Be sure to have enough space to complete the circle.

Extension 2: Ask the students to describe the path of the puck for the following situation: The Rider and puck are moving forward. The Puller, moving along at the side, gives a constant pull toward one side (e.g. to the left from the original direction of motion). What will the path the Rider and puck follow while the Puller is pulling '? What will be the path when he/she stops pulling? Have the students actually sketch the path for both parts.

Extension 3: Same as Ext #2 only have puller pull to the side for only I second (to simulate a spurt of force or impetus)

Forces and Motion Appendix 3 Hoovercraft

Necessary Student Science Skills Using Stop watch correctly Calculating differences in times and speeds Computing speed = distance/ time Plotting and interpreting distance-time graphs (optional) Plotting and interpreting velocity-time graphs (optional) Determining direction and amount of force (qualitatively) Sketching and predicting trajectories (motion paths)

Student preconceptions
(The naive or preconceptions are in italics)

1. The Aristotelian view of motion: an object must be pushed in order to move it and conversely if an object is moving it must have a force on it causing it to move.

2. If the moving force is removed, the object will immediately slow and soon stop.

3. If you want to start something moving you just push hard at first and then push less. That is, you cannot move an object by pulling with a small yet cons constant force. This “misconception” is often not verbalized but can be seen in action in activity 4.

4. If you want something to go around a corner you need only push it in that direction. To make the puck go directly left while already moving forward one needs only to pull left. Inertia is suspended, the present motion will “stop”, and the object will go in the direction of the push and no longer move forward. This can be seen in activity 5 “rounding” a corner” The Puller will be able to pull the student around a corner but doesn't realize the direction of the push actually applied. Or she/he will pull left and wonder why the puck moves both forward and to the left.

5. When going in a circle a force pushes to the outside. The Rider has a hard time distinguishing between the force on him and the puck by the Puller and the fact that his body opposes the resulting change in natural motion. Many students can get a better understanding of the effect if it is related to the feelings they have when they are accelerated in a straight line by the Puller. (They feel as if they were 'thrown back' initially.)

Teacher notes for Individual Activities

Many of the group activities can be recreated by the students individually if they make their own mini-hovercraft.

The mini-hovercraft is constructed from a cottage cheese container lid (or a small phonograph record or a 15 cm (6in) square of Plexiglas or thin pressboard) A 1/16 in hole is made in the center. Hot glue the push top from dish detergent bottle over the hole in the center. Stretch the balloon over the push top. Blow into the hole in the bottom of the apparatus to inflate the balloon and push down the push top to keep the air from coming out until ready to do the activity. You may wish to experiment with the size of the hole to find what works best on the smooth surf ace you run it on. A large-sized balloon can sometimes slow down the puck or make it not work.

Activity 1
First law - by the numbers
This is like Investigation 2 in miniature

Have students construct the mini hoovercraft. Then they should blow up the balloon and stopper it. Place objects along a smooth surface at regular spacing about 20cm (6in) apart. At least 4 sets of markings should be used. Pencils standing upright in clay make good distance markers. One student starts the puck moving and a Timer at each distance marker times how long it takes the hovercraft to go from the starting marker to their marker. Analyze the data as in Investigation #2 above. Similar extensions can be made.

Activity 2
Having Second Thoughts About the Second Law A mini-Investigation #3 or #4

Students can perform an activity similar to Investigations #3 and #4 by using a long rubber band instead of the spring. It is difficult to get good quantified results do to the low mass of the mini-hovercraft.

An alternative to the use of a rubber band Puller is to run the mini-hovercraft down a straight inclined plane. The numerical results are more consistent. The Extensions may be also tried.

Activity 3
Turning a Corner or Little Deviants

By using a long rubber band, investigation 5 can be tried with the mini-craft. Extensions 2 and 3 can perhaps be done more easily with the mini-craft.

All the Activities with the Mini-hovercraft can be repeated at home for parents if the students make their own mini-craft.
Forces and Motion Appendix 4 Human Airpuck 1
Forces and Motion Appendix 4 Human Airpuck 2
Forces and Motion Appendix 4 Human Airpuck 3

-----------------------
Turntable

Spinning

The shape should be parabolic

[pic]

The accelerometer liquid will be sloped in the direction of the net force which produces the acceleration. The amount of force will determine the slope.

The accelerometer liquid should be level

The accelerometer liquid will be sloped in the direction of the net force which produces the medium acceleration.

Both accelerometers should be level

[pic]

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...World War II: Its Causes, Effects, and the Aftermath An American Story History 202 Matt Shaffer July 22, 2010 Known as one of the bloodiest wars in world history, World War II brought about many new changes of how wars are fought and had a great impact on humanity. More than 50 countries were involved in the war, and the entire world felt its effects. World War II killed more people, was more expensive, and created more drastic changes in almost every country than any other war in history. Tactical warfare was greatly influenced, as well as the major player for the center of world power. Following World War I, the United States conquered the entire world market of food and industry. Germany, Japan, and Italy became anxious to expand and increase their power, and they felt as though they were at a disadvantage in trying to compete with other countries for world markets. These three nations felt that other nations unjustly controlled the majority of the world’s wealth. As a result, they began to find lands to take over that they believed to be their cut of the world’s resources. In helping on doing so, military leaders in Japan took over the government, and Adolf Hitler became the chancellor of Germany. By 1939, there was an all out war in Europe (“Stanovov,” 2000). In America, people were divided on their opinions of the United States involvement in the war. Most wanted the Allied nations to prevail; however, they also wanted the U.S. to stay out of the war.......

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#### The Airplane and Its History

...The Airplane and its History Robert Dobson Thomas Edison State University THE AIRPLANE AND ITS HISTORY 2 The Airplane and its History I am currently finishing a Bachelor of Science in Applied Science and Technology degree in Aviation Flight Technology at Thomas Edison State University. I have also been a pilot for twenty years, professionally for the past sixteen years. For these reasons, I have chosen the airplane and its history as the technology that will serve as the subject of this assignment. First, I will explain what an airplane is. Next, I will explain how an airplane works. Finally, I will give a brief history of the airplane. So what is an airplane? I'm joking! Everyone in the world knows what an airplane is unless they've lived in a stone age society their whole life. Even so, I'll begin by defining exactly what an airplane is and how they work. An airplane is a powered, fixed-wing vessel that travels through the air (Airplane, n.d.). The airplane has wings that provide the force of lift in order for the airplane to overcome the force of gravity and climb off the ground and stay airborne. In order for the wings to do their job of providing lift, the airplane must be propelled forward so that the wings can get sufficient airflow to generate the necessary force and overcome the force of drag. The propulsion methods usually employed are through use of engine driven......

Words: 1726 - Pages: 7